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Life Span Development 4th Canadian Edition Santrock MacKenzie-Rivers Test Bank

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Life Span Development 4th Canadian Edition Santrock MacKenzie-Rivers Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0070005249
  • ISBN-13:978-0070005242

 

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Life Span Development 4th Canadian Edition Santrock MacKenzie-Rivers Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0070005249
  • ISBN-13:978-0070005242

 

 

 

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Chapter 13

Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following BEST explains why middle adulthood comes later and lasts longer now than in the early 1900s?
  2. People today have fewer children than people in the early 1900s.
    B. People today have a higher income than people in the early 1900s.
    C. People today have less anxiety in their lives than people in the early 1900s.
    D. People today have healthier lifestyles than people in the early 1900s.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. Questions such as, “To which age group do you belong?” and “How old do you feel?” reflect the concept of:
  2. mental age.
    B. age identity.
    C. chronological age.
    D. age stereotype.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. One study found that _____ of the individuals 65 to 69 years of age considered themselves middle-aged.
  2. almost all
    B. almost half
    C. one-third
    D. one-fourth

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. Which of the following is a consistent finding regarding age identity?
  2. As adults become older their age identity is younger than their chronological age.
    B. Most adults feel that their age identity is five years more than their chronological age.
    C. The age identity of adults is directly proportional to their chronological age.
    D. Most adults feel that their age identity is much older than their chronological age.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. What is the consistent finding regarding age identity of 60- to 75-year-olds?
  2. Half of them viewed themselves as being older than their chronological age.
    B. Almost all of them felt that they were younger than their chronological age.
    C. More than half of them considered that their mental age was higher than their chronological age.
    D. Half of them viewed themselves as being middle-aged.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. What was the average life expectancy in 1900?
  2. 37 years
    B. 42 years
    C. 47 years
    D. 52 years

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. What percentage of the U.S. population is older than 65 years?
  2. 2 percent
    B. 12 percent
    C. 22 percent
    D. 23 percent

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. Today the average life expectancy in the United States is:
  2. 72 years.
    B. 74 years.
    C. 78 years.
    D. 80 years.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. In Patricia Cohen’s analysis, which of the following has fueled the emergence of thinking about middle age?
  2. More people entering adolescence earlier than in the past
    B. Increased pressure to remain in the workforce and delay retirement
    C. Advances in health and more people living to older ages
    D. The decrease of life expectancy

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. According to a recent British survey, people over 50 believe middle age begins at age
  2. 35.
    B. 43.
    C. 53.
    D. 65.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. _____ is the developmental period that begins at approximately 40 to 45 years of age and extends to about 60 to 65 years of age.
  2. Late adulthood
    B. Middle adulthood
    C. Early adulthood
    D. Emerging adulthood

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Defining Middle Adulthood

 

  1. Many experts on middle adulthood describe the age period of 55 to 65 as:
  2. late adulthood.
    B. early midlife.
    C. late midlife.
    D. early adulthood.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Defining Middle Adulthood

 

  1. Which of the following statements about late midlife is FALSE?
  2. People in late midlife are either preparing for retirement or actually retiring.
    B. People in late midlife are more likely to experience the death of a parent than people in early midlife.
    C. People in late midlife are less likely to experience their last child leaving home than people in early midlife.
    D. People in late midlife are more likely to experience becoming a grandparent than those in early midlife.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Defining Middle Adulthood

 

  1. Compared to middle age, which of the following BEST describes late middle age for many?
  2. Health problems start to decline.
    B. Losses may begin to outnumber gains.
    C. Life changes decrease: the path is relatively fixed.
    D. Losses and gains even out.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Defining Middle Adulthood

 

  1. Which of the following is a sign of aging for the average adult in middle adulthood?
  2. Increase in height
    B. Decrease in weight
    C. Brittle fingernails
    D. Loss of memory

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Visible Physical Changes

 

  1. The average adult in middle adulthood _____ height and _____ weight.
  2. loses; loses
    B. loses; gains
    C. gains; gains
    D. gains; loses

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Height and Weight

 

  1. In terms of visible signs of aging, sagging facial skin and wrinkles were linked to:
  2. smoking.
    B. alcohol.
    C. exercise.
    D. nutrition.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Visible Physical Changes

 

  1. From a recent U.S. survey, approximately what percentage of adults 40 to 59 years of age were obese?
  2. 15 percent
    B. 40 percent
    C. 65 percent
    D. 90 percent

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Height and Weight

 

  1. A recent study linked “sarcopenic obesity” with:
  2. hypertension.
    B. lung disease.
    C. cancer.
    D. osteoporosis.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Strength, Joints, and Bones

 

  1. Which of the following is the reason for the decrease in height with the advancement in age?
  2. Brittleness of bones of the limbs
    B. Increase in weight
    C. A stooping posture
    D. Bone loss in the vertebrae

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Height and Weight

 

  1. On average, body fat accounts for about _____ of body weight in middle age.
  2. 5 percent
    B. 10 percent
    C. 20 percent
    D. 15 percent

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Height and Weight

 

  1. The term _____ is given to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.
  2. sarcoma
    B. osteopenia
    C. osteoporosis
    D. sarcopenia

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Strength, Joints, and Bones

 

  1. Age-related loss of muscle strength is especially marked in:
  2. the upper arms.
    B. the back and legs.
    C. the jaw and face.
    D. the chest and abdomen.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Strength, Joints, and Bones

 

  1. A man in his mid-forties is MOST likely to notice:
  2. increased strength in his upper arms.
    B. sensitivity to high-pitched sounds.
    C. joint stiffness.
    D. decreased bladder control.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Strength, Joints, and Bones

 

  1. Which of the following statements about bone density is TRUE?
  2. Maximum bone density occurs in late adolescence.
    B. Maximum bone density occurs by the mid- to late thirties.
    C. Peak functioning of the body’s joints occurs in the fifties.
    D. The rate of bone density loss begins fast and then decelerates.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Strength, Joints, and Bones

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the changes in bone mass and density is TRUE?
  2. The loss of bone is faster for men than it is for women.
    B. By the end of early adulthood, bones break more easily and heal more slowly.
    C. Peak functioning of the body’s joints occurs in the sixties.
    D. Women lose bone mass twice as fast as men do.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Strength, Joints, and Bones

 

  1. Which of the following statements about bone and joint functioning is TRUE?
  2. Peak functioning of the body’s joints usually occurs in the thirties.
    B. By the end of midlife, bones break more easily and heal more slowly.
    C. Maximum bone density occurs by the mid- to late twenties.
    D. The rate of bone density loss decelerates in the fifties.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Strength, Joints, and Bones

 

  1. The ability to focus and maintain an image on the retina is referred to as _____ of the eye.
  2. muscle integrity
    B. focal power
    C. visual acuity
    D. accommodation

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Vision and Hearing

 

  1. Accommodation of the eye experiences its sharpest decline between:
  2. 20 to 29 years of age.
    B. 60 to 79 years of age.
    C. 40 and 59 years of age.
    D. 30 to 35 years of age.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Vision and Hearing

 

  1. Which of the following is MOST typical of the vision-related issues faced by middle-aged persons?
  2. Difficulty viewing moving objects
    B. Difficulty viewing objects in the background
    C. Difficulty viewing close objects
    D. Difficulty viewing complicated patterns

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Vision and Hearing

 

  1. During middle age, the ability to hear _____ sounds declines first.
  2. low-pitched
    B. high-volume
    C. high-pitched
    D. high-amplitude

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Vision and Hearing

 

  1. Sensitivity to _____ sounds usually declines first among _____.
  2. high-pitched; women
    B. high-pitched; men
    C. low-pitched; women
    D. low-pitched; men

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Vision and Hearing

 

  1. Cholesterol comes in two forms: _____ and HDL.
  2. LDL
    B. BDL
    C. GAL
    D. QUL

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Cardiovascular System

 

  1. LDL is often referred to as _____ cholesterol.
  2. “simple”
    B. “good”
    C. “bad”
    D. “white”

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Cardiovascular System

 

  1. HDL is often referred to as _____ cholesterol.
  2. “good”
    B. “simple”
    C. “bad”
    D. “compound”

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Cardiovascular System

 

  1. Which of the following statements about cardiovascular disease is TRUE?
  2. When HDL is high and LDL is low, the risk of cardiovascular disease is lessened.
    B. When HDL is high and LDL is low, the risk of cardiovascular disease is increased.
    C. When HDL is low and LDL is high, the risk of cardiovascular disease is lessened.
    D. When both HDL and LDL are low, the risk of cardiovascular disease is lessened.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Cardiovascular System

 

  1. Cholesterol can be lowered in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
  2. Regular exercise
    B. Changes in diet to include foods low in saturated fat
    C. Changes in diet to include foods that are low in cholesterol
    D. Liposuction

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Cardiovascular System

 

  1. Which of the following have NOT been identified as ways to reduce levels of bad cholesterol in middle-aged Americans?
  2. Exercise
    B. Cholesterol-lowering drugs
    C. Diets high in protein
    D. Weight control

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Cardiovascular System

 

  1. Exercise in middle-age was linked to a reduction in the occurrence of lung cancer by approximately:
  2. 25 percent.
    B. 45 percent.
    C. 68 percent.
    D. 93 percent.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Lungs

 

  1. Sleep deprivation in middle-age has been linked to all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. Improved cognitive functioning
    B. Increased risk of stroke
    C. Less effective immune system functioning
    D. Problems with long-term memory consolidation

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Sleep

 

  1. Stan, a middle-aged man, rarely gets more than five hours of sleep a night. Stan is at risk for:
  2. a weakening of his immune system.
    B. short-term memory consolidation problems.
    C. obesity.
    D. intellectual disability.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Sleep

 

  1. Individuals who had a high level of allostatic load (wearing down of the body’s systems in response to high stress levels) exhibited difficulties in:
  2. breathing.
    B. episodic memory.
    C. running.
    D. consolidation of long-term memories.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Health and Disease

 

  1. A recent study revealed a link between ______ and self-care disabilities and mobility limitations.
  2. stress
    B. language
    C. relationships
    D. sleep deprivation

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Health and Disease

 

  1. A recent study revealed a link between ______ and accelerated pancreatic cancer growth.
  2. stress
    B. language
    C. relationships
    D. sleep deprivation

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Health and Disease

 

  1. All of the following have been identified as sources of chronic stress EXCEPT:
  2. Marital satisfaction
    B. Living next to a damaged nuclear reactor
    C. Failures in close relationships
    D. Caregiving for a family member with a progressive illness

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Health and Disease

 

  1. Which of the following statements about lung capacity in middle-age is TRUE?
  2. There is significant change in lung capacity through most of middle adulthood.
    B. In late middle-age, the proteins in lung tissue become more elastic.
    C. Stiffening of the chest wall decreases the lungs’ capacity to shuttle oxygen.
    D. The lung capacity of smokers increases drastically in middle age.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Lungs

 

  1. What is the MOST common change in sleep patterns of adults during middle age?
  2. Sleep-disordered breathing becomes less prevalent.
    B. Wakeful periods become less frequent during the night.
    C. The total number of hours slept dramatically increases.
    D. There is a decrease in the deepest type of sleep.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Sleep

 

  1. Sleep problems in middle-aged adults have been associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. Usage of prescription drugs
    B. Obesity
    C. Single parenting
    D. Cardiovascular disease

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Sleep

 

  1. Which of the following is typical of the health condition during early and late middle-age?
  2. Frequency of accidents increases
    B. Susceptibility to colds and allergies decreases
    C. Wakeful periods during sleep decreases
    D. Incidence of chronic disorders decreases

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Health and Disease

 

  1. _____ was the main cause of death in the United States until the middle of the twentieth century.
  2. Infectious disease
    B. Accident
    C. Chronic disease
    D. Homicide

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Mortality Rates

 

  1. Nowadays, the main causes of death in middle adulthood in the United States are:
  2. infectious diseases.
    B. accidents.
    C. chronic diseases.
    D. homicide.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Mortality Rates

 

  1. _____ is a term that is used to describe the midlife transition in which fertility declines.
  2. Puberty
    B. Menarche
    C. Spermarche
    D. Climacteric

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

 

  1. Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with menopause?
  2. Nausea
    B. Fatigue
    C. Hot flashes
    D. High blood sugar

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

 

  1. In menopause, production of _____ by the ovaries declines dramatically.
  2. testosterone
    B. estrogen
    C. adrenaline
    D. insulin

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

 

  1. Lillian is 50 years old. Her doctor has noticed a sharp decrease in her estrogen levels, and Lillian is complaining about nausea and fatigue. According to the symptoms given in the text, what could be her initial diagnosis?
  2. Her thyroid is malfunctioning.
    B. She is going through menopause.
    C. She may have a problem with her bone marrow.
    D. She needs to control her diet and blood sugar levels.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

 

  1. A study of HRT’s effects was halted as evidence emerged that participants who were receiving HRT faced an increased risk of:
  2. lung disease.
    B. cancer.
    C. stroke.
    D. arthritis.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

 

  1. Which of the following types of hormones is MOST commonly administered during hormone replacement therapy?
  2. Estrogen
    B. Testosterone
    C. Follicle stimulating hormone
    D. Luteinizing hormone

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

 

  1. _____ training for six months reduced menopausal symptoms in a group of sedentary women.
  2. Aerobic
    B. Psychological
    C. Cultural
    D. Cognitive

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

 

  1. Harriet, a middle-aged woman, just started taking yoga classes. She is likely to see a decrease in her:
  2. menopausal symptoms.
    B. longevity.
    C. lung capacity.
    D. marital satisfaction.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

 

  1. The gradual decline in men’s testosterone levels in middle age can reduce their:
  2. lung capacity.
    B. sexual drive.
    C. infertility.
    D. thyroid levels.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Hormonal Changes in Men

 

  1. Which of the following is at fault in many erectile problems in middle-aged men?
  2. Diabetes
    B. Low blood pressure
    C. Low level of NK cells
    D. Too much physical activity

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Hormonal Changes in Men

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that could be related to erectile problems in middle-aged men?
  2. Smoking
    B. Diabetes
    C. Excessive sexual activity
    D. Elevated cholesterol levels

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Hormonal Changes in Men

 

  1. Treatment for men with erectile dysfunction has focused on Viagra and similar drugs, such as:
  2. Rogaine and Prozac.
    B. Levitra and Cialis.
    C. Oxycodone and Prozac.
    D. Naproxen and OxyContin.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Hormonal Changes in Men

 

  1. According to studies, which of the following is one of the most common sexual problems of older men?
  2. Early ejaculation
    B. Partner non-cooperation
    C. Lack of foreplay
    D. Lubrication difficulties

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

 

  1. According to studies, which of the following is one of the most common sexual problems of older women?
  2. Lack of foreplay
    B. Lack of sexual interest
    C. Partner non-cooperation
    D. Reduced muscular movements

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

 

  1. Crystallized intelligence is:
  2. an individual’s ability to reason abstractly.
    B. an individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills.
    C. an individual’s ability to think hypothetically.
    D. an individual’s ability to use deductive reasoning.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

 

  1. John Horn maintains that in middle adulthood, _____ intelligence continues to increase.
  2. fluid
    B. semantic
    C. crystallized
    D. multiple

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

 

  1. Fluid intelligence is the ability to:
  2. reason abstractly.
    B. recall information.
    C. accumulate information.
    D. accumulate verbal skills.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

 

  1. According to John Horn, _____ steadily declines from middle adulthood onward.
  2. fluid intelligence
    B. crystallized intelligence
    C. verbal memory
    D. kinesthetic intelligence

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

 

  1. In a study of adults 55 years and older, sexual activity was linked to:
  2. increases in sexually transmitted infections.
    B. improvements in physical and mental health.
    C. decreases in cardiovascular functioning.
    D. decreases in executive functioning.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

 

  1. Identify a possible reason for the changes in fluid and crystallized intelligence of different age groups in John Horn’s cross-sectional study.
  2. Secular trends
    B. Cohort effects
    C. Declining IQ with age
    D. Biases in IQ testing

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about the Seattle Longitudinal Study?
  2. It involves extensive evaluation of sexual abilities during adulthood.
    B. It was initiated by John Horn.
    C. Participants have been assessed in two-year intervals since 1985.
    D. New waves of participants are added periodically.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. The Seattle Longitudinal Study concluded that middle age is a time of:
  2. peak performance for verbal ability.
    B. great decline for inductive reasoning.
    C. moderate decline for spatial abilities.
    D. increased mathematical abilities.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. ____ refers to ability to understand ideas expressed in words.
  2. Verbal comprehension
    B. Verbal memory
    C. Implicit memory
    D. Spatial orientation

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. A participant in a study was asked to memorize a list of words and then try to recall as many as possible. This exercise was designed to test her:
  2. muscle memory.
    B. implicit memory.
    C. verbal memory.
    D. verbal comprehension.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. _____ refers to the ability to encode and recall meaningful language units, such as a list of words.
  2. Spatial orientation
    B. Inductive reasoning
    C. Implicit memory
    D. Verbal memory

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. Toby has the ability to visualize three-dimensional objects and rotate them. Toby’s ability is known as:
  2. spatial orientation.
    B. inductive reasoning.
    C. verbal ability.
    D. perceptual speed.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. _____ refers to the ability to recognize and understand patterns and relationships in a problem and use this understanding to solve other instances of the problem.
  2. Spatial orientation
    B. Inductive reasoning
    C. Verbal comprehension
    D. Perceptual speed

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. _____ refers to the ability to quickly and accurately make simple discriminations in visual stimuli.
  2. Spatial orientation
    B. Inductive reasoning
    C. Perceptual speed
    D. Verbal comprehension

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. According to the Seattle Longitudinal Study, which of the following abilities showed signs of early decline?
  2. Spatial orientation
    B. Perceptual speed
    C. Inductive reasoning
    D. Verbal memory

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. According to the Seattle Longitudinal Study of individuals aged 25 to 95, which of the following abilities showed the LEAST decline?
  2. Verbal comprehension
    B. Spatial orientation
    C. Inductive reasoning
    D. Numerical abilities

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. Which of the following is the finding of the longitudinal and cross-sectional assessment of intellectual abilities conducted by Schaie?
  2. Decline in intellectual abilities was more likely in the cross-sectional assessments than in the longitudinal assessments.
    B. When assessed longitudinally, inductive reasoning showed a consistent decline in the middle adulthood years.
    C. When assessed cross-sectionally, inductive reasoning increased until toward the end of middle adulthood.
    D. People reach a peak in their cognitive functioning for many intellectual skills in early adulthood.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. What is the notable finding of Schaie’s assessment of intellectual abilities of parents and their children?
  2. The second generation scored higher on numerical abilities.
    B. The second generation showed higher levels of cognitive functioning in inductive reasoning.
    C. The offspring generation showed cognitive decline from 60 to 67 years of age.
    D. The parent generation showed modest increase in cognitive functioning from 60 to 67 years of age.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about research by Schaie and Salthouse?
  2. Both agree that adulthood is the time when the level of functioning in a number of cognitive domains is maintained or even increases.
    B. Salthouse recently has argued that his longitudinal research on aging and cognitive functioning should not be dismissed.
    C. Salthouse agrees with Schaie that cognitive functioning involving accumulated knowledge, such as vocabulary and general information, does not show early age-related decline but rather continues to increase at least until 60 years of age.
    D. Schaie has argued that reasoning, memory, spatial visualization, and processing speed begin declining in early adulthood and show further decline in the fifties.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

 

  1. Which of the following is a common way to assess speed of information processing?
  2. Reaction-time task
    B. Phonic simulation
    C. Visual perception test
    D. Neuropsychological test

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Speed of Information Processing

 

  1. An adult in middle age will do most POORLY on which of the following tasks?
  2. Understanding verbal directions
    B. Completing a crossword puzzle
    C. Hitting the brakes of a car when the light suddenly turns red
    D. Lifting a box that weighs 20 pounds

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Speed of Information Processing

 

  1. In Schaie’s Seattle Longitudinal Study, verbal memory peaked in the:
  2. twenties.
    B. thirties.
    C. sixties.
    D. fifties.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Memory

 

  1. According to cognitive aging expert Denise Park, the slowdown in learning new information has been linked to changes in:
  2. dopamine levels.
    B. working memory.
    C. cognitive atrophy.
    D. neurotransmitter dysfunctions.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Memory

 

  1. The slowdown in learning new information has been linked to changes in _____ where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisionsRemember,lving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language.
  2. working memory
    B. brain circuitry
    C. episodic memory
    D. neural network

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Memory

 

  1. Which of the following strategies would be MOST helpful in improving memory in middle age?
  2. Avoid using vivid imagery to keep from becoming distracted.
    B. Use a recall rather than recognition strategy whenever possible.
    C. Use an organization strategy to categorize information to be remembered.
    D. Avoid using the information to be remembered so that it does not become confused with other information.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Memory

 

  1. Which of the following statements about novices and experts is TRUE?
  2. Novices are more creative in solving problems in their domain than experts.
    B. Novices are more flexible in solving problems than experts.
    C. Experts avoid the use of strategies and shortcuts when solving problems.
    D. Experts process information more automatically than novices.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Expertise

 

  1. In middle age, the role of work _____ in people’s lives.
  2. is downplayed
    B. is very central
    C. lessens
    D. is of moderate importance

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.4: Discuss trends in work, retirement, and education in middle adulthood.
Topic: Work

 

  1. A recent study found that managing different job demands was associated with:
  2. poor health.
    B. increased immune system functioning.
    C. decrease in stress.
    D. Alzheimer disease.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.4: Discuss trends in work, retirement, and education in middle adulthood.
Topic: Work

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT mentioned in your text as an explanation for why the ability to work effectively peaks during middle adulthood?
  2. Increased motivation
    B. Better strategic thinking
    C. Higher salaries
    D. Employer loyalty

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.4: Discuss trends in work, retirement, and education in middle adulthood.
Topic: Work

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the outcomes of the restructuring, downsizing, and outsourcing resulting from globalization?
  2. Offering incentives to middle-aged employees to retire early
    B. Encouraging middle-aged professionals to take up entrepreneurship
    C. Offering incentives to young professionals to outperform middle-aged employees
    D. Hiring more middle-aged professionals to supervisory/managerial positions

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.4: Discuss trends in work, retirement, and education in middle adulthood.
Topic: Career Challenges and Changes

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the reasons why many middle-aged workers are delaying retirement plans?
  2. The increase of retirement age to 75 years
    B. The increasing opportunity for middle-aged professionals
    C. The increased productive health owing to medical advances
    D. The decline in defined-benefit pensions

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.4: Discuss trends in work, retirement, and education in middle adulthood.
Topic: Career Challenges and Changes

 

  1. What percentage of Americans considers themselves to be religious?
  2. Between 35 and 40 percent
    B. Not more than 55 percent
    C. More than 70 percent
    D. Almost 60 percent

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.5: Explain the roles of religion, spirituality, and meaning in life during middle adulthood.
Topic: Religion and Spirituality

 

  1. In a longitudinal study of individuals from their early thirties through their late sixties/early seventies:
  2. a significant increase in spirituality occurred between late middle and late adulthood.
    B. spirituality peaked in late middle adulthood.
    C. there was no significant change in spirituality from late middle to late adulthood.
    D. a dramatic decrease in spirituality occurred between late middle and late adulthood.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.5: Explain the roles of religion, spirituality, and meaning in life during middle adulthood.
Topic: Religion and Spirituality

 

  1. The pleasant times after work when individuals are free to pursue activities of their own interest is called:
  2. leisure.
    B. recess.
    C. free time.
    D. down time.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.4: Discuss trends in work, retirement, and education in middle adulthood.
Topic: Leisure

 

  1. A lack of leisure time activity in middle adulthood is linked to:
  2. a decreased chance of developing Alzheimer disease in late adulthood.
    B. an increased chance of cognitive impairment in late adulthood.
    C. greater life expectancy in late adulthood.
    D. enhanced self-concept in late adulthood.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.4: Discuss trends in work, retirement, and education in middle adulthood.
Topic: Leisure

 

  1. According to a study by Park, _____ religious individuals were less likely to be psychologically distressed.
  2. highly
    B. moderately
    C. somewhat
    D. non-

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.5: Explain the roles of religion, spirituality, and meaning in life during middle adulthood.
Topic: Religion and Spirituality

 

  1. Which of the following statements about spirituality is TRUE?
  2. Only a small minority of U.S. adults consider themselves to be religious.
    B. Most U.S. middle-aged adults do not consider spirituality a major part of their lives.
    C. There is no evidence of changes in spirituality and religiousness in people as they age.
    D. Women have consistently shown a stronger interest in religion and spirituality than men have.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.5: Explain the roles of religion, spirituality, and meaning in life during middle adulthood.
Topic: Religion and Spirituality

 

  1. Religiousness has been associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. A lower rate of depression
    B. A lower rate of hypertension
    C. A lower risk of cancer
    D. Longevity

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.5: Explain the roles of religion, spirituality, and meaning in life during middle adulthood.
Topic: Religion and Spirituality

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about Austrian psychiatrist Viktor Frankl?
  2. He argued that examining the finiteness of our existence and the certainty of death adds meaning to life.
    B. He said that the two most distinct human qualities are religiousness and philanthropy.
    C. Spirituality, in his view, has a religious underpinning.
    D. According to him, freedom refers to a human being’s uniqueness of spirit, philosophy, and mind.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.5: Explain the roles of religion, spirituality, and meaning in life during middle adulthood.
Topic: Meaning in Life

 

  1. According to Viktor Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and:
  2. authority.
    B. spirituality.
    C. fraternity.
    D. industry.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.5: Explain the roles of religion, spirituality, and meaning in life during middle adulthood.
Topic: Meaning in Life

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

Identification Questions

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

 

  1. This theorist referred to midlife as “the afternoon of life.”

Carl Jung

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.1: Explain how midlife is changing and define middle adulthood.
Topic: Changing Midlife

  1. 107. The term given to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.

Sarcopenia

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Strength, Joints, and Bones

  1. 108. The number one cause of death for individuals age 45 to 64.

Cancer

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Health and Disease

 

  1. The midlife transition, for both men and women, in which fertility declines.

Climacteric

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

  1. 110. A kind of (adult) intelligence that consists of one’s accumulated knowledge base and verbal skills.

Crystallized intelligence

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

  1. 111. A kind of (adult) intelligence that consists of one’s ability to reason abstractly.

Fluid intelligence

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

 

  1. The mental ability to quickly and accurately make simple discriminations in visual stimuli.

Perceptual speed

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

  1. 113. This theorist initiated the Seattle Longitudinal Study that involves extensive evaluations of intellectual abilities in the adult years.
  2. Warner Schaie

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Seattle Longitudinal Study

  1. 114. The mental “workbench” in the mind where individuals manipulate information and solve problems.

Working memory

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Memory

 

  1. The pleasant times after work when individuals are free to pursue activities and interests of their own choosing.

Leisure

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.4: Discuss trends in work, retirement, and education in middle adulthood.
Topic: Leisure

  1. 116. This Austrian psychiatrist, a concentration camp survivor, wrote the book Man’s Search for Meaning, where he proposed that the human qualities of spirituality, freedom, and responsibility were the key to finding one’s true meaning in life (and death).

Viktor Frankl

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.5: Explain the roles of religion, spirituality, and meaning in life during middle adulthood.
Topic: Meaning in Life

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Identify three of the physical changes that take place during middle adulthood; provide an example of these changes.

Physical changes that take place during middle adulthood are:

(a) Accommodation of the eye declines; (b) viewing close objects becomes difficult; (c) the eyes’ blood supply diminishes; (d) the size of the visual field diminishes; (e) the retina becomes less sensitive to low levels of illumination; (f) hearing declines, with sensitivity to high pitches declining first; (g) individuals become shorter; (h) the skin wrinkles and sags; (i) teeth become yellow; (j) individuals lose strength; (k) there is progressive bone loss; and (l) individuals gain weight.

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Strength, Joints, and Bones

  1. 118. Describe the differences between LDL and HDL and some of the changes one can make in lifestyle to affect cholesterol levels.

Cholesterol comes in two forms: LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and HDL (high-density lipoprotein). LDL levels should be low; when the level of LDH is high, it sticks to the blood vessels, which can lead to hardening of the arteries and cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol levels are influenced by heredity but LDL can be reduced and HDL increased by eating food that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and by regular exercise.

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Cardiovascular System

 

  1. What are the leading causes of death in middle adulthood? What can one do to avoid these issues?

In middle age, many deaths are caused by a single, readily identifiable condition, whereas in old age, death is more likely to result from the combined effects of several chronic conditions. For many years heart disease was the leading cause of death in middle adulthood, followed by cancer; however, in 2005 more individuals 45 to 64 years of age in the United States died of cancer, followed by cardiovascular disease. The gap between cancer and the second highest cause of death widens as individuals age from 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 years of age. Men have higher mortality rates than women for all of the leading causes of death.

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Mortality Rates

  1. 120. Briefly discuss the conditions that may occur with menopause. What are things one can do to alleviate these symptoms?

In menopause, production of estrogen by the ovaries declines dramatically, and this decline produces uncomfortable symptoms in some menopausal women: hot flashes, nausea, fatigue, and rapid heartbeat. Cross-cultural studies reveal wide variations in the menopause experience. It is difficult to determine the extent to which these cross-cultural variations are due to genetic, dietary, reproductive, or cultural factors. Though menopause overall is not a negative experience for most women nowadays, the loss of fertility is an important marker for women as it means that they have to make final decisions about having children.

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

 

  1. What is hormone replacement therapy (HRT)? Identify some of the risks associated with it.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) augments the declining levels of reproductive hormone production by the ovaries. HRT can consist of various forms of estrogen, and usually a progestin. HRT has been linked to an increased risk of stroke and dementia. On the positive side, HRT lowered the risk of hip fractures and did not increase the risk of heart attack or breast cancer. Recent research studies in a number of countries have found that coinciding with the decreased use of HRT in recent years has been a related decline in the incidence of breast cancer.

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.2: Discuss physical changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Menopause

  1. 122. Distinguish between crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence with examples. Explain how they change in middle adulthood.

John Horn argues that some abilities begin to decline in middle age while others increase. Horn maintains that crystallized intelligence, an individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills, continues to increase in middle adulthood, whereas fluid intelligence, one’s ability to reason abstractly, begins to decline in middle adulthood.

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analyze
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

 

  1. List four strategies that distinguish an expert from a novice.

Strategies that distinguish an expert from a novice are the following:

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 13.3: Identify cognitive changes in middle adulthood.
Topic: Expertise

  1. 124. Discuss the career challenges faced by middle-aged workers in the twenty-first century. How can these challenges be addressed and reduced?

Middle-aged workers today face globalization, rapid developments in information technologies, downsizing of organizations, outsourcing of jobs, early retirement, and concerns about pensions and health care. All of these concerns have led to a decreasing sense of personal control for middle-aged workers and delayed plans for retirement.

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 13.4: Discuss trends in work, retirement, and education in middle adulthood.
Topic: Work

 

 

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