Sale!

Life Span Human Development 7th Edition Sigelman Rider Test Bank

$80.00 $12.99

Life Span Human Development 7th Edition Sigelman Rider Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111342739

ISBN-10: 1111342733

Description

Life Span Human Development 7th Edition Sigelman Rider Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111342739

ISBN-10: 1111342733

 

 

Be the best nurse you can be:

Nursing test banks are legit and very helpful. This test bank on this page can be downloaded immediately after you checkout today.

Here is the definition of nursing

Its true that you will receive the entire legit test bank for this book and it can happen today regardless if its day or night. We have made the process automatic for you so that you don’t have to wait.

We encourage you to purchase from only a trustworthy provider:

Our site is one of the most confidential websites on the internet. We maintain no logs and guarantee it. Our website is also encrypted with an SSL on the entire website which will show on your browser with a lock symbol. This means not a single person can view any information.

Have any comments or suggestions?

When you get your file today you will be able to open it on your device and start studying for your class right now.

Remember, this is a digital download that is automatically given to you after you checkout today.

Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

CHAPTER 8

MEMORY AND INFORMATION PROCESSING

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Research participant “AJ” (real name Jill Price) has the unusual ability to
a. recall the name of every person she has ever met, regardless of how long they interacted.
b. “see” a running image of past events as if they were currently happening.
c. calculate “pi” to 1,000,000 digits.
d. learn any language within one week’s time.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   243                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. Who would be most likely to describe the process of reading and understanding this test question by focusing exclusively on the concepts of an “external stimulus” and an “overt response,” with no discussion of the mind?
a. Larry, who is a behaviorist
b. Curly, who is a psychoanalyst
c. Moe, who is a cognitive-oriented theorist
d. Shemp, who is a Piagetian

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   244                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. The information-processing approach to learning
a. focuses exclusively on the impact of genetics on intelligence.
b. relies heavily on modeling and imitation.
c. likens the human mind to a computer.
d. is concerned primarily with affective responses to the environment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   244                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. In the information-processing approach, hardware is to software as
a. the nervous system is to the skills used to retrieve information.
b. memory is to the brain.
c. feelings are to thoughts.
d. perception is to sensation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   244                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. An information-processing theorist would most likely refer to _____ as being part of the mind’s “software.”
a. the brain c. neural connections
b. sensory receptors d. mental problem-solving strategies

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   244                OBJ:   8.2

KEY:  WWW

 

 

 

 

  1. The information-processing approach stresses all of the following basic mental processes EXCEPT
a. decision-making. c. perception.
b. reinforcers. d. attention.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   244                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Which pair is best known for developing an information-processing-based model of memory?
a. Young and Helmholtz c. Fechner and Weber
b. Watson and Skinner d. Atkinson and Shriffin

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   244-245         OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. In the information-processing model, the purpose of the sensory register is to
a. briefly hold a piece of information for possible processing.
b. control the activities of long-term memory.
c. retrieve data from short-term memory.
d. develop strategies for storing encoded data.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Shirley is introduced to her friend’s mother. While Shirley heard the woman’s name, she had no idea what the woman’s name was immediately after it was spoken. It is most accurate to say that the woman’s name
a. never made it past Shirley’s sensory register.
b. is trapped in Shirley’s short-term memory.
c. is lost in Shirley’s long-term memory.
d. could be cued for recall later on if Shirley would relax a bit.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Information typically stays in _____ for the briefest amount of time.
a. working memory c. long-term memory
b. short-term memory d. sensory register

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Which is the best description of a typical short-term memory?
a. Fairly brief duration (seconds) and small capacity (seven or so items)
b. Fairly long duration (minutes) and small capacity (seven or so items)
c. Fairly brief duration (seconds) and large capacity (seventy or so items)
d. Fairly long duration (minutes) and large capacity (seventy or so items)

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Ethel looks up the phone number of a gas station and remembers it just long enough to walk over to the telephone and dial. When she is dialing, the information is contained in her
a. sensory register. c. long-term memory.
b. short-term memory. d. metamemory.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. The main distinction between short-term memory and working memory is that working memory is
a. larger. c. actively processed.
b. unconscious. d. sensory based.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. When someone asks you, “What’s on your mind?” the response you give would best exemplify the information currently in your
a. sensory register. c. collective unconsciousness.
b. long-term memory. d. working memory.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Timmy is visiting the dog pound and looking for a new pet. He looks from cage to cage until he suddenly sees a collie sitting in the far corner. He thinks to himself, “That dog looks great. I think I’ll bring her home and name her Lassie.” At this moment, the best example of what’s in Tommy’s working memory would be the
a. the excitement Timmy will feel when he takes Lassie for a walk.
b. words that Timmy is saying to himself.
c. image of collies that Timmy has stored in his brain but is not currently accessing.
d. fact that Timmy will buy the dog before the end of the day.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Information is stored in _____ memory for a relatively permanent period of time.
a. short-term c. long-term
b. sensory d. working

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. As you are reading this exam question, what would best represent information in your long-term memory?
a. The light waves as they excite the cells in your visual system
b. The words from the question as you read them
c. The words from the possible answers as you repeat them in your head
d. The information you access about the concept of long-term memory that you encoded during the previous night’s study session

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Which statement concerning memory is true?
a. The sensory register is located in long-term memory.
b. Short-term memory has a much larger storage capacity than long-term memory.
c. Working-term memory provides a temporary space for processing information.
d. Long-term memory appears not to exist until around age two years.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

 

 

 

  1. Cognitive theorists suggest that the most likely order of the process of memory when information is being processed for the first time would be
a. encoding, consolidation, storage, retrieval.
b. retrieval, encoding, consolidation, storage.
c. consolidation, storage, encoding,  retrieval.
d. storage, retrieval, encoding, consolidation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Encoding is best described as the process of
a. cued recall. c. uncued recall.
b. putting information into the system. d. taking information out of the system.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. If information fails to be encoded it is _____ to remember.
a. easy c. very difficult
b. a little difficult d. impossible

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. The process during which information is organized into a form suitable for long-term storage is called
a. retrieval. c. recognition.
b. utilization. d. consolidation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Pujols is watching his favorite baseball player in a home run derby and is trying to remember all of the movements that this player makes before he hits a long ball so that he can also become a big league player himself. Which of the following would best represent the consolidation stage of this process?
a. The attention that he is paying to each movement
b. His organizing the player’s swing into a series of memories for sequential motions that can be stored in long-term memory
c. Holding of the information in long-term store
d. His retrieval of past episodes of home runs hit by this player

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Which process would best be described as “holding information”?
a. Perception c. Storage
b. Retrieval d. Encoding

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. At one time in his life, Edward could name every province in Canada. Somehow this information has disappeared from where it was being held. Information-processing theorists would most likely argue that this is a failure of the _____ system.
a. elaboration c. metamemory
b. storage d. encoding

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. When information is taken out of long-term memory, it is being
a. scripted. c. retrieved.
b. encoded. d. stored.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Which statement would best represent a failure of retrieval?
a. I never actually learned that information.
b. I don’t know the answer because I never read the book containing the answer.
c. I know the answer, but I just cannot find it in my mind.
d. I would know the answer, but the teacher talked so fast about the information that I could not keep up.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. On a recognition task, a person
a. is presented with a list of alternatives that includes the correct answer.
b. is not presented with the correct answer but is given a hint.
c. is neither presented with the correct answer nor given a hint.
d. must generate the answer completely on his or her own.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245-246         OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Professor Sotomayor gives the students in her law class a multiple-choice test on Supreme Court Justices. This method of assessment requires students to use _____ memory.
a. recall c. repressed
b. cued-recall d. recognition

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. In a police lineup, a witness is shown a group of potential perpetrators that includes the actual perpetrator. He or she is then asked to point to the individual who committed the crime. The basic premise of this method involves assessing _____ memory.
a. recall c. implicit
b. cued-recall d. recognition

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. On a true recall memory task,
a. no memory cues/aids are presented.
b. a few hints are presented.
c. a correct answer is presented along with a few distracters.
d. a correct answer is presented by itself.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Regis asks a game show contestant, “In inches, how far is the Earth from the sun?” If no other information is given to the contestant, this task is best classified as an assessment of _____ memory.
a. recognition c. recall
b. metamemory d. cued-recall

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Which is the best example of a test of recall memory?
a. An essay test with no hints c. A multiple-choice test with no hints
b. An essay test with some hints d. A multiple-choice test with hints

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. On a(n) ____ memory task, a person trying to remember some information is given a hint but not the entire answer.
a. episodic c. recall
b. implicit d. cued-recall

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. On a political science test, Barack is asked to write down the name of the main democratic presidential candidate in the United States in 2008. He has no idea of the answerRemember, he asked his teacher for a hint. The teacher says, “I can tell you this, when he won my friend said, “oh mama.” With the hint, Barack is now being presented with a _____ memory task.
a. cued-recall c. recall
b. recognition d. implicit

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Most people find that test questions requiring _____ memory are easier to answer than those requiring _____ memory.
a. recall; recognition c. recognition; recall
b. cued-recall; recognition d. recall; cued-recall

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. At which age do people do better on recall tasks than on recognition tasks?
a. Adolescence c. Old age
b. Middle age d. No age group does better on recall tasks

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. A memory that occurs without any conscious effort is best referred to as
a. explicit. c. scripted.
b. implicit. d. autobiographical.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. While sitting in his psychology class and daydreaming as his instructor drones on about memory, Mac suddenly recalls a great hamburger he ate at a fast-food restaurant a month ago. Mac’s unintentional recall for this event provides a great example of _____ memory.
a. explicit c. scripted
b. fuzzy-trace d. implicit

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. An explicit memory
a. always has a sexual overtone.
b. is deliberately recalled.
c. occurs only after a hint has been given.
d. involves recalling behaviors but not ideas.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Implicit memory is to explicit memory as
a. unintentional is to deliberate. c. cued it to uncued.
b. retrieval is to storage. d. effort is to automatic.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Colette is participating in a research study. In the first phase of the study, she is shown a list of 20 French words. She is then asked to count backwards from 50 to 1 by threes. Colette is then asked to write down all of the French words she can remember. She has taken part in a study of _____ memory.
a. explicit c. cued-recall
b. implicit d. recognition

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Semantic memories are for
a. specific events. c. early childhood experiences.
b. general facts. d. how to perform an action.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Which is the best example of a semantic memory?
a. Knowing that the first record you ever liked was by the Beatles.
b. Remembering the time you saw the Beatles perform on the Ed Sullivan show
c. Recalling how to play the song “A Hard Day’s Night” on the guitar
d. Knowing that the Beatles were a band

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

 

  1. _____ memories always involve personal experiences.
a. Procedural c. Implicit
b. Episodic d. Cued-recall

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Which is the best example of an episodic memory?
a. Remembering how to light a candle
b. Recalling the words to the song “Happy Birthday”
c. Recalling your 21st birthday party
d. Naming four kinds of ice cream

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. A researcher develops a test in which participants are first given a list of types of fruit that includes the words “grapes, bananas, apples, oranges, and cherries” and asked to identify which is the longest. A while later, they are given the word stem “ban_____” and are asked to complete the word as quickly as possible. When a participant fills out the word by writing “banana,” he or she is exhibiting what is called a(n) _____ memory.
a. implicit c. semantic
b. procedural d. recognition

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. The fact that some forms of amnesia destroy explicit memory but not implicit memory indicates that
a. these forms of memory operate independently.
b. implicit memory is learned and explicit is innate.
c. explicit memory develops earlier than implicit memory.
d. long-term memory lacks organization.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Research has indicated that procedural memory is mediated by the striatum. This means that
a. only information that is attended to is recalled.
b. language plays a significant role in the development of memory.
c. memory requires cognitive effort.
d. the brain is involved in processing memory.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Carlos has experienced significant damage to his hippocampus (an area located in the medial temporal lobe). How would this most likely impact his memory?
a. He would not be able to recall events from his childhood.
b. He would have trouble creating new episodic memories.
c. He would not be able to recall who he is.
d. He could recall past events but not past factual information.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

 

 

 

  1. Which statement concerning memory is true?
a. Explicit memory increases in capacity from infancy through adulthood then declines, while implicit memory capacity peaks in childhood then declines.
b. Explicit memory increases in capacity from infancy through adulthood then declines, while implicit memory capacity is constant across the lifespan.
c. Implicit memory increases in capacity from infancy through adulthood then declines, while explicit memory capacity peaks in childhood then declines.
d. Implicit memory increases in capacity from infancy through adulthood then declines, while explicit memory capacity is constant across the lifespan.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   247                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Problem solving is best defined as the use of _____ to achieve a goal.
a. unconscious motivators c. information-processing systems
b. a non-cognitive response d. operant conditioning

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   247                OBJ:   8.3

 

  1. Information-processing theorists use the term _____ to describe the part of the unique element of the cognitive system that plans and monitors problem-solving.
a. fuzzy-traces c. executive control processes
b. sensory registers d. implicit memory

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   247                OBJ:   8.3

 

  1. The main purpose of the executive control processor is to
a. store information in long-term memory.
b. collect sensory input from the environment.
c. suppress memories that are too painful.
d. plan and monitor problem-solving.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   247                OBJ:   8.3

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Allison is attempting to recall the code number that she uses to unlock her high school locker. As she tries different combinations, a part of her consciously keeps track of the combinations of numbers she has already tried. Information-processing theorists would refer to this aspect of Allison’s cognitive system as her
a. fuzzy-trace. c. executive control process.
b. sensory register. d. implicit memory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   247                OBJ:   8.3

 

  1. Cognitive psychologists believe that humans are capable of engaging in “parallel processing.” This means that humans can
a. carry out several mental activities at the same time.
b. think about complex issues, like religion.
c. pay selective attention to an event.
d. encode information into long-term memory.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   247                OBJ:   8.3

 

 

  1. Carlos’s teacher tells the class that they should be sure to listen to an important announcement that is coming in on the school’s intercom. Carlos, however, misses the message as he is focused on a fly that is crawling across his desk. Carlos’s failure is best blamed on faulty
a. deferred imitation. c. attention skills.
b. implicit memory. d. sensory memory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   247                OBJ:   8.3

 

  1. In assessing his newborn son’s cognitive ability, Cosmo waves his hand at the baby and watches to see if his son reacts by also waving his hand. Cosmo is using a(n) _____ technique to assess his son’s abilities.
a. implicit memory c. cued-recall
b. imitation d. operant conditioning

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. Piaget argued that six-month-olds were incapable of imitating a mother who is intentionally opening her mouth very wide because infants
a. do not have vision that allows them to accurately see their mother’s face.
b. cannot mentally represent the act of a wide, open mouth at that age.
c. are not physically capable of opening their mouth very wide until they reach 12 months of age.
d. refuse to imitate any actions they see.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. Research on early infant ability to imitate (e.g., Meltzoff, 2004) has tended to assess the action of
a. eye blinking. c. sticking out the tongue.
b. rolling over. d. smiling.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. Deferred imitation always
a. involves a reflex action.
b. occurs after a delay between seeing an action and the response.
c. reflects the method of loci.
d. indicates that an implicit memory has been activated.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. Six-month-old Trent saw his dad blink three times when he held a baby bottle. An hour after this occurred, Trent sees a baby bottle and blinks three times. This action would best be described as _____ imitation.
a. deferred c. serial
b. implicit d. decentered

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Habituation is best described as learning
a. a reflex. c. not to respond.
b. a new response. d. in reaction to reinforcement.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. If you turn on a floor fan, an infant will immediately orient its head toward the sound. After awhile, the infant appears to lose interest and turns its head back to its original position. This phenomenon is known as
a. habituation. c. generalization.
b. discrimination. d. sound acuity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. Six-month-old Frances has been listening to her mother, Connie, singing for the past 20 minutes. How would Frances demonstrate habituation?
a. While she would be excited when her mom first started singing, she would eventually become disinterested.
b. She would attempt to imitate the noise her mother is making.
c. She would become progressively more excited by her mom’s singing.
d. She would begin to exhibit the rooting reflex.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. Carolyn Rovee-Collier’s (1997) research on infant memory involved recording kicking behavior when a ribbon was tied to the infant’s foot, demonstrating that young children have _____ memory.
a. repressed
b. implicit
c. recall
d. elaborative

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   249                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. The research study of infant memory involving a ribbon tied to an infant’s foot relied heavily on _____ conditioning techniques.
a. social-learning-theory
b. classical
c. humanistic
d. operant

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   249                OBJ:   8.4

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Which best describes the memory abilities of an infant human?
a. Cue-dependent and context-independent
b. Cue-dependent and context-specific
c. Cue-independent and context-independent
d. Cue-independent and context-specific

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   249                OBJ:   8.4

 

 

  1. While attempting to find his lost toy bear, 10-month-old Teddy pulls away a couch’s cushion and finds the bear he watched his mother hide there 10 minutes earlier. This best demonstrates the use of _____ memory.
a. recognition c. implicit
b. recall d. sensory register

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   249                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. By age _____, most infants first begin to verbalize events that happened months earlier.
a. 6 months c. 18 months
b. 12 months d. 2 years

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   250                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. Flavell and Wellman (1977) suggested four major reasons to explain the improved memory and learning abilities in the aging child. Which was NOT on their list of reasons?
a. Increased knowledge about how memory works
b. An increase in general knowledge about the world
c. A working-term memory that increases from 1 slot at birth to about 10 slots by age five years
d. Better “software” for effective information retrieval

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   250                OBJ:   8.5

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Flavell and Wellman (1977) suggested four major reasons to explain the improved memory and learning abilities in the aging child. Which was on their list of reasons?
a. Larger long-term memory capacity c. Larger sensory memory capacity
b. Increased cognitive impairment d. Increased knowledge about the world

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   250                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Older children can learn faster and remember more than younger children because older children typically show a significant increase in
a. the size of their sensory register.
b. childhood amnesia.
c. the capacity of long-term memory.
d. working-memory space available for constructive use.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   250-251         OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Short-term memory capacity _____ between ages 6 and 13.
a. increases significantly c. decreases slightly
b. remains steady d. decreases significantly

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   251                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. What seems to underlie the significant increase in processing speed seen during childhood?
a. Enhanced use of preservation c. A greater reliance on implicit memory
b. Vastly improved sensory systems d. Brain maturation

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   251                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Case suggests that a preschooler’s tendency to center (as described by Piaget) is likely related to limited _____ memory size.
a. sensory c. long-term
b. working d. implicit

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   251                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. If short-term memory capacity is “domain-specific,” then
a. all children should have the same short-term memory capacity size.
b. the more you know about something, the larger short-term memory capacity size will be for related items.
c. it is solely determined by biological factors, not experience.
d. it cannot be impacted by the size of working memory.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   251                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Nelson is going to the grocery story with his four-year-old son, Muntz. Nelson wants Muntz to help him recall the items that they need to buy. Research on memory development indicates that Nelson should expect his son to be able to store about _____ item(s) in short-term memory.
a. one c. five
b. three d. seven

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   251                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. The tendency to keep making the same mistake over and over is referred to as making a(n) _____ error.
a. preservation c. utilization
b. mediation d. organization

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Which statement best exemplifies a “preservation error”?
a. I have never tried this beforeRemember, what the heck.
b. Trial and error is the way to go.
c. It worked in the past and even if it does not work in the present, I will still keep             doing it.
d. The best way to remember something is to connect the new idea with some past memory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Which best describes the memory strategy of rehearsal?
a. Take original information, expand on it, and make connections to existing memories.
b. Repeat to self over and over.
c. Organize into meaningful categories, then memorize.
d. See it and be it.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Sam and Sue are shopping for groceries. Sam looks at the list and tells Sue, “I’ll get the cat foodRemember,ap, toilet paper, and flour, and I’ll meet you by the lettuce.” Sam takes off, muttering to himself over and over: “Cat foodRemember,ap, toilet paper, flour.” This best illustrates the use of which memory strategy?
a. Chunking c. Organization
b. Elaboration d. Rehearsal

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Which memory strategy is being used when a long number is memorized by breaking it into manageable subunits each containing three digits?
a. Chunking c. Implicit memory
b. Method of loci d. Rehearsal

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Saffron is presented with the following list of items to memorize: bagel, carrot, ham, corn, hot dog, donut, bread, chicken, peas. Her immediate reaction is to think of the items in the following way: (bagel, donut, bread), (carrot, corn, peas), (ham, hotdog, chicken). This reaction would indicate that Saffron is using the strategy of
a. rehearsal. c. organization.
b. elaboration. d. method of loci.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Which best describes the memory strategy of organization?
a. Take original information, expand on it, and make connections to existing memories.
b. Repeat to self over and over.
c. Classify into meaningful categories, then memorize.
d. See it and be it.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The best example of elaboration is
a. repeating “red, chair, dog” several times.
b. consolidating “red” and “green” into a color group and “chair” and “table” into a furniture group.
c. noting that the red chair and the green piano remind you of last year’s Christmas party.
d. seeing the color red but perceiving the color green.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Wayne has trouble remembering the last four digits of his new phone number (4422) until he makes the connection that the last two digits are exactly half of the first two digits. Once he makes this connection, he has no trouble remembering the number! This best demonstrates the memory concept of
a. chunking. c. organization.
b. elaboration. d. rehearsal.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

  1. A child with _____ deficiencies cannot use strategies, even when taught to use them.
a. mediation c. mediation and utilization
b. utilization d. utilization and production

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Nadal teaches his son a great way to serve a tennis ball so the opponent cannot return the serve. However, his son Rafael appears to not benefit whatsoever from the advice and does not even appear to understand what is going on. Rafael is best classified as exhibiting a(n)
a. mediation deficiency. c. production deficiency.
b. utilization deficiency. d. A-B error.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. As Josephine has a production deficiency, she
a. cannot solve any problems.
b. doesn’t produce useful strategies on her own.
c. spontaneously produces useless strategies.
d. spontaneously produces effective strategies.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. A production deficiency is best described as
a. not producing a strategy but benefiting from guessing.
b. not producing a strategy but benefiting from strategies you are taught.
c. producing a strategy but not benefiting from its use.
d. producing a strategy and benefiting from its use.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. A utilization deficiency is best described as
a. not producing a strategy but benefiting from guessing.
b. not producing a strategy but benefiting from strategies you are taught.
c. producing a strategy but not benefiting from its use.
d. producing a strategy and benefiting from its use.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. While trying to solve a math problem, Vector is able to come up with a strategy that might work. Unfortunately, Vector’s math performance does not improve by using the strategy. This situation best exemplifies
a. autobiographical memory. c. the method of loci.
b. cued recall. d. utilization deficiency.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Len has a mediation deficiency. Ben has a production deficiency. Ken has a utilization deficiency. How many of these children would be able to both produce and benefit from their own memory strategies?
a. Zero c. Two
b. One d. Three

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Dundee has just returned to the United States from a trip to Australia. His friend asks him, “What was the best food you ate on your trip?” Dundee responds, “I kind of remember eating some great meals but cannot seem to recall any restaurants. Perhaps if I think back about where I stayed each night I’ll be able to remember a great meal.” Dundee appears to be attempting to use _____ to improve recall.
a. a retrieval strategy c. metamemory
b. sensory register d. implicit memory

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   253                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Younger children tend to rely more on _____ than older children.
a. internal cues for encoding and retrieval
b. external cues for encoding and retrieval
c. external cues for encoding and internal cues for retrieval
d. internal cues for encoding and external cues for retrieval

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   253                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Which is NOT an example of metamemory?
a. Knowing the difference between metaphysics and meta-analysis
b. Knowing which memory strategies are most effective for you
c. Knowing which memorization tasks are most difficult for you
d. Being able to plan and control your memory processes as you learn

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   253                OBJ:   8.5

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Jack knows that he can more easily memorize and recall a list of 10 familiar words than he can 10 unfamiliar words. This knowledge provides an excellent example of
a. short-term memory. c. recall memory.
b. chunking. d. metamemory.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   253                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Metamemory awareness is most likely to be displayed in young children
a. who have often been in situations in which they had to remember something and they are facing a task that they find relevant.
b. who have never been in situations in which they had to remember something and they are facing a task that they find relevant.
c. who have often been in situations in which they had to remember something and they are facing a task that they find irrelevant.
d. who have never been in situations in which they had to remember something and they are facing a task that they find irrelevant.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   254                OBJ:   8.5

  1. A person’s knowledge base is defined as
a. unconscious awareness of an event.
b. the difference between what he or she knows and what he or she can acquire with guided participation.
c. how much the person knows about a topic.
d. the rate at which he or she can solve a task.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   254                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. In comparing memory capabilities in children who were experts at chess with the memories of adults who weren’t, Chi (1978) tested both groups on memory of location of chess pieces and on ability to remember sequences of digits. She found that the
a. children did better on both tests.
b. adults did better on both tests.
c. children did better on memory of chess, but not sequences of digits.
d. children did better on memory of digits, but not on memory of chess.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   254                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. The Chi (1978) study on memory for chess pieces indicated that when recalling information in their area of expertise, expert children perform
a. better than novice adults. c. worse than novice adults.
b. the same as novice adults. d. the same as children who are novices.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   254                OBJ:   8.5

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Which is true regarding the development of learning and memory in children?
a. Older children have a greater information-processing capacity and know more about their memorization strategies than younger children do.
b. Older children have a greater information-processing capacity, but younger children know more about their memorization strategies than older children do.
c. Older children know more about their memorization strategies, but younger children have a greater information-processing capacity.
d. Older children have a lesser information-processing capacity and know less about their memorization strategies than younger children do.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   254-255         OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Which statement is true regarding the development of learning and memory in children?
a. Younger children tend to have a greater information-processing capacity and a larger knowledge base than older children do.
b. Younger children tend to have a greater information-processing capacity, but older children have a larger knowledge base.
c. Younger children tend to have a larger knowledge base, but older children have a greater information-processing capacity.
d. Older children tend to have a greater information-processing capacity and a greater knowledge base.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   254-255         OBJ:   8.5

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The best model for explaining recall memory in children includes the factors of
a. basic capacities and strategies only.
b. basic capacities and metamemory only.
c. metamemory and strategies only.
d. basic capacities, metamemory, and strategies.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   255                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. An autobiographical memory is a memory for
a. historical events that occurred before your conception.
b. other people’s lives.
c. past personal experiences.
d. future possible events in one’s life.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   255                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Which is the best example of an autobiographical memory?
a. Recalling that the War of 1812 was fought in 1812
b. Recalling the heated argument between you and you mom that broke out at your wedding
c. Thinking about the hot ham sandwich that you are going to have for lunch
d. Understanding that numbers are easier to recall when they are chunked into groups

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   255                OBJ:   8.6

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. While daydreaming in her physics class, Dorothy recalls the day the tornado hit her farmhouse last summer. Dorothy’s recollection is best classified as a(n) _____ memory.
a. sensory c. autobiographical
b. explicit d. meta-

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   255                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Childhood or infantile amnesia is defined as the inability to access _____ memories.
a. all traumatic c. autobiographical
b. insignificant d. meta-

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   255                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Ten-year-old Conrad has difficulty remembering anything that happened between his birth and his second birthday. Conrad is most likely
a. normal.
b. having likely suffered some traumatic event early on that has caused him to block off memory of his early years.
c. mentally impaired.
d. having an unusually small amount of space in his working memory.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   255                OBJ:   8.6

 

 

 

 

  1. If Travis is a typical college student, he would have the HARDEST time accurately recalling the
a. death of his father when he was a year old.
b. time his family moved when he was two years old.
c. birth of his brother when he was three years old.
d. time he was in the hospital when he was four years old.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   255                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. The text noted that one information-processing-based explanation for infantile amnesia focuses on the lack of space in infant and toddler’s _____ memory.
a. implicit c. working
b. sensory d. long-term

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   255-256         OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Why can’t a lack of language be used to fully account for infantile amnesia?
a. Because the “amnesia” includes the inability to recall non-verbal information like faces
b. Because language skills do not impact memory abilities, even in adults
c. Because mute children (those who never speak) do not display infantile amnesia
d. Because mothers who talk to infants are recalled longer than those who don’t

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   256                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. How can a mother’s interactions with a toddler result in that child growing into an adolescent with stronger autobiographical memories?
a. She can avoid contaminating the child’s memory by having conversations about events in the toddler’s life
b. She can enhance the child’s memory by having conversations about events in the toddler’s life
c. She can focus exclusively on praising the child for major events during toddlerhood
d. She can’t

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   256                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. The key to the “fuzzy trace” theory of infantile amnesia is the belief that _____ is/are stored separately in memory.
a. visual and auditory information c. verbatim and general accounts of events
b. emotional and behavioral memories d. tactile and spatial events

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   256                OBJ:   8.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Bon is trying to explain why his four-year-old son, Jovi, cannot recall what happened at an exciting rock concert they attended two years ago. In doing so, Bon says, “Jovi kind of recalls being at some event with a lot of people and singing, but he has no recollection for any details of the concert.” Bon’s description best matches the _____ theory of childhood amnesia.
a. fuzzy-trace c. surfactant
b. working memory capacity d. constraint-seeking

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   256                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Four-year-old Barnum goes to the circus and sees animals that he has never seen before. When asked about the event a year later, Barnum is most likely to recall
a. a verbatim account of the event.
b. the gist of the event.
c. only the linguistically coded parts of the event.
d. nothing about having gone to a circus.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   256                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. The key to a memory script is that it
a. is almost always stored as a “fuzzy trace.”
b. cannot be mentally rehearsed.
c. represents a typical sequence of events.
d. is found in sensory register but not long-term storage.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   256                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Ten-year-old Elisa has several accurate, well-developed scripts, including one for grocery shopping. Which is the most likely example of her shopping script?
a. Enter store, see piece of candy, beg for candy, parent buys candy
b. Realizing that people work to earn money so that they can buy things in a store
c. Envisioning the size of the candy bar that she ate yesterday
d. Remembering that she needs to buy a carton of chocolate milk by mentally picturing a brown cow drinking out of a glass

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   256                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Eight-year-old Hawthorne has several accurate, well-developed scripts, including one for a visit to the doctor’s office. Which is the most likely example of her doctor’s office script?
a. Enter clinic, tell mom she feels better, sit in waiting room, see doctor, get shot (inoculation) in arm, cry
b. Realizing that doctors earn money so that they can buy things
c. Envisioning herself performing brain surgery on a patient
d. Remembering that her favorite television show, ER, is also about doctors

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   256                OBJ:   8.7

KEY:  WWW

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which statement on children’s eyewitness testimony is true?
a. Older children tend to be more suggestible than young children.
b. Preschoolers tend to initially offer more information on open-ended questions than older children.
c. Frequently repeating the same close-ended question tends to increase the accuracy of memory in both young and old children.
d. Preschool children tend to recall less information about an event than do older children.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   257                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. What is the best advice concerning the accuracy of preschoolers’ eyewitness testimony?
a. Leading questions improve accuracy of responding.
b. If it is a memory for a traumatic event, it is definitely a real memory.
c. It is very difficult to create a situation where preschool children do not accurately recall basic events like field trips.
d. Under conditions of questioning with lots of open-ended questions, memory accuracy will likely decline.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   257                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. According to Piaget, when a concrete-operational thinker is presented with the “balance beam” problem he or she
a. can appreciate the significant impact of both weight and distance from center, but cannot understand their inverse relationship.
b. can appreciate the significant impact of weight but not distance from center.
c. can appreciate the significant impact of distance from center but not weight.
d. can appreciate the significant impact of both weight and distance from center, and can understand their inverse relationship.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   257-258         OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Robert Siegler investigated the type of information that a child takes in during a problem-solving task and also what strategies he or she formulates when attempting to solve the problem. Siegler called his model the _____ approach.
a. rule assessment c. autobiographical
b. fuzzy-trace d. method of loci

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   257-258         OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. On the “balance beam problem,” which child would be most likely to always guess that the side with the more weights will drop?
a. Warren, who is 5 years old c. Waldo, who is 50 years old
b. Walter, who is 15 years old d. Wayne, who is 85 years old

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   258                OBJ:   8.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Sigler concluded that when solving problems, most children
a. guess.
b. progress through a series of more sophisticated stages of thought.
c. use multiple rules and problem-solving strategies.
d. defer to peers.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   258                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. According to Siegler’s “overlapping waves theory,” cognitive development is best conceptualized as
a. random in nature.
b. a set of stages.
c. controlled by unconscious factors.
d. a process of variability, choice, and changes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   258                OBJ:   8.8

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Because she believes in overlapping waves theory, Serena would most likely argue that her six-year-old daughter, Venus,
a. is in the formal stage of thinking.
b. has multiple problem strategies available to her.
c. cannot recall any event prior to her third birthday.
d. has no recognition memory.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   258                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. How is Piaget’s explanation of cognitive development different from that of Siegler’s explanation?
a. Siegler sees cognitive development more in terms of operant consequences (i.e., reinforcement and punishment).
b. Siegler sees cognitive development more in terms of genetic and biological factors.
c. Piaget sees cognitive development more in terms of qualitative steps in which new ideas replace old.
d. Piaget sees cognitive development more in terms of language and less in terms of spatial skills.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   258-259         OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. If a teacher were to apply Siegler’s findings on the use of problem-solving strategies in the classroom, the teacher would
a. want to find out about the number of books in the child’s home.
b. try to notice just what aspect of a problem is causing the child some difficulty.
c. discourage the use of metacognitive strategies.
d. stop using recognition tests in favor of recall exams.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   259                OBJ:   8.8

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Indy is a typical 6-year-old and his brother Jones is a typical 16-year-old. How do their information processing skills most likely differ on a memory task?
a. Indy will be able to learn more than Jones if both are given extra time to study for the task.
b. Indy will be more likely to utilize deliberate strategies while Jones will rely on unconscious strategies.
c. Jones will recall both more relevant information and task-irrelevant information.
d. Jones will recall more relevant information and is less likely to recall task-irrelevant information.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   259                OBJ:   8.9

 

  1. As a typical teen, between seventh grade and his senior year of high school, Stefano will most likely show increases in
a. basic information-processing capacities but not knowledge base or metamemory.
b. metamemory basic but not knowledge base or information-processing capacities.
c. information-processing capacities and metamemory but not knowledge base.
d. basic information-processing capacities, knowledge base, and metamemory.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   259-260         OBJ:   8.9

 

  1. As a typical college student, research indicates that Hanna would be most likely to shift her focus to _____ if she suddenly found herself pressed for time when studying for an exam.
a. the most difficult material c. another subject
b. the easiest material d. friends

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   260                OBJ:   8.9

 

  1. _____ teens are most likely to utilize metacognitive strategies.
a. Low SES male c. High SES male
b. Low SES female d. High SES female

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   260                OBJ:   8.9

 

  1. It was estimated that it takes about _____ of training and expertise to become a true expert in a field.
a. 10 years c. 30 years
b. 20 years d. a lifetime

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   261-262         OBJ:   8.10

 

  1. Acquiring domain-specific expertise tends to lead to
a. great improvement in cognitive skills in unrelated areas.
b. improved cognitive skills in areas related to the domain.
c. increased fuzzy traces.
d. utilization deficiency.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   262                OBJ:   8.10

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Rajan has practiced until he is able to remember the population of every country in the world. This ability will most likely
a. greatly increase Rajan’s ability to learn and remember foreign words.
b. have little impact on cognitive abilities unrelated with knowledge for populations.
c. disrupt his autobiographical memories.
d. enhance the size of his sensory register.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   262                OBJ:   8.10

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Research on autobiographical memory in adulthood has shown that the more _____ an event, the better it will later be recalled.
a. distant c. negative
b. emotional d. unique

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   263                OBJ:   8.11

 

  1. _____ events tend to have the greatest likelihood of being recalled after the event.
a. Only positive emotional c. Both positive and negative emotional
b. Only negative emotional d. Non-emotional

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   263                OBJ:   8.11

 

  1. As a typical 80-year-old Irvine would have the greatest number of autobiographical memories from his
a. early childhood. c. 30s and 40s.
b. teens and 20s. d. 50s and 60s.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   263                OBJ:   8.11

 

  1. Research on aging and memory has shown that
a. declines in memory first become noticeable around age 50.
b. older people experience difficulty on all memory tasks.
c. reliance on data from cross-sectional studies may mean that what appear to be age differences in memory are due to other factors.
d. the severity of memory loss is unrelated to age.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   263                OBJ:   8.11

 

  1. Which statement concerning individuals with mild cognitive impairment is FALSE?
a. They will be forgetful
b. They will have difficulty learning
c. They will show all the symptoms of dementia
d. They will display deficits in other cognitive areas

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   264                OBJ:   8.11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. With which of the following tasks would older adults have the LEAST problem?
a. A memory task where the material is unfamiliar
b. A task where they are asked to recall rather than recognize names
c. A memory task where they can use well-practiced memory strategies
d. A timed memory task

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   265                OBJ:   8.11

 

  1. Which statement is true regarding “recall” memory and “recognition” memory in elderly adults?
a. They are likely to be more deficient in recall than in recognition memory.
b. They are likely to be more deficient in recognition than in recall memory.
c. They are likely to be equally deficient in both types of memory.
d. Neither type of memory diminishes with age (except in extreme cases).

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   265                OBJ:   8.11

 

  1. Which combinations of memory tasks would prove most difficult to the average older individual?
a. Exercised and implicit c. Exercised and explicit
b. Unexercised and implicit d. Unexercised and explicit

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   265                OBJ:   8.11

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. A study on the long-term retention of foreign language (Spanish) learned in high school in individuals who are elderly found that
a. most elderly did not even recall having taking a foreign language in high school.
b. a few individuals recalled having had a class in a foreign language in high school but could recall no content from the course.
c. many individuals recalled having had a class in a foreign language in high school and a small percent had retained some vocabulary.
d. not only did the individuals recall the foreign language courses, but as much as half of the vocabulary was retained nearly 50 years later.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   266                OBJ:   8.12

 

  1. Research comparing elderly hearing Americans, deaf Americans, and hearing Chinese demonstrated the effect that _____ can have on memory performance.
a. genetics c. negative stereotypes
b. diet d. disabilities

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   266                OBJ:   8.12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which statement concerning memory strategies and basic processing capacities with age is true?
a. Verbal knowledge begins to show a steep decline beginning around age 50.
b. Holding negative stereotypes concerning memory ability actually leads to improved memory abilities in older adulthood.
c. Memory problems in adulthood are more likely the result of original encoding and not retrieval.
d. Limitations in working memory in older adulthood may be due to the slowing of the nervous system.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   267                OBJ:   8.12

 

  1. Limitations in working memory in older adulthood appear to be most directly related to reduced functioning of the _____ system.
a. visual c. auditory
b. nervous d. pulmonary

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   267                OBJ:   8.12

 

  1. Which best fits with a cohort difference explanation concerning the apparent loss of memory abilities in old age?
a. The visual systems tend to slow with age.
b. Implicit tasks tend to be easier than explicit tasks.
c. Elderly people tend to have had less formal education than young people.
d. Older individuals are more likely to use external memory aids.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   268                OBJ:   8.12

 

  1. The most accurate summation of declines in information-processing skills in older adults is that they are
a. both inevitable and universal. c. inevitable but not universal.
b. neither inevitable nor universal. d. universal but not inevitable.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   268                OBJ:   8.12

 

  1. On which type of problem-solving task would the performance of a middle-aged adult be superior to that of a young adult?
a. On unfamiliar, meaningless laboratory tasks
b. On unfamiliar, but meaningful tasks
c. On familiar and meaningful tasks
d. Middle-aged problem-solvers never out-perform younger adults

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   268-269         OBJ:   8.13

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Milton is playing a game of “20 Questions” in which he has to try and guess what his friend Bradley is thinking about. Which of Milton’s inquiries would best exemplify a constraint-seeking question?
a. “Is it an animal?” c. “Is it a frog?”
b. “Is it green?” d. “Is it a green frog?”

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   268-270         OBJ:   8.13

 

  1. On an everyday problem such as what to do if you cannot pay your electric bill, _____ tend to out-perform other groups.
a. teenagers c. middle-aged adults
b. young adults d. elderly adults

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   270                OBJ:   8.13

 

  1. Seventy-year-old Ace decides that he cannot remain effective at all types of gambling so he decides to focus only on blackjack, with the hopes that this narrow focus will allow him to perform better in this one area. According to the SOC approach, the decision to abandon other forms of gambling represents
a. selection. c. compensation.
b. optimization. d. plasticity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   270                OBJ:   8.13

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Information-processing theorists use an analogy of a computer when discussing the human mind.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   244                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Short-term memory can hold an unlimited amount of information.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Working memory is an active form of short-term memory.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The final stage in the three basic steps of the memory process involves storage.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. On a cued-recall task, a person is given a hint to help facilitate retrieval.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Explicit memories occur unintentionally.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Executive control processes are responsible for monitoring our information-processing behavior.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   247                OBJ:   8.3

 

  1. Deferred imitation involves the imitation of a novel act after some delay.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

  1. Infants demonstrate memory when they habituate to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   248-249         OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. Early memories tend to be very cue-dependent and context-specific.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   249-250         OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. A child’s increased knowledge about the world can lead to improvements in memory.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   250                OBJ:   8.5

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. A child making perseveration errors will continue to use the same strategy even though it is not successful.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Elaboration involves the creation of meaningful links between items that you are attempting to remember.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. If a child has a mediation deficiency, he or she cannot spontaneously use a strategy but can benefit from it.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Knowing that “1 + 1 = 2” is a good example of an autobiographical memory.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   255                OBJ:   8.6

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Eyewitness testimony accuracy in young children is increased when the same question is asked repeatedly.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   257                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. The overlapping waves theory argues for conceptualizing of cognitive development in terms of an invariant sequence of stages.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   258                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. By adolescence, individuals begin to recall more irrelevant information and less relevant task information.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   259-260         OBJ:   8.9

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Older adults tend to perform best on explicit memory tasks that focus on unpracticed skills.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   265                OBJ:   8.11

  1. On average, older adults are faster on timed tasks than young adults.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   267                OBJ:   8.12

KEY:  WWW

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin, the part of your memory system that holds information for a fraction of a second is called the _____ register.

 

ANS:  sensory

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. The process of getting information into the memory system is called _____.

 

ANS:  encoding

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The transformation of a sensory-perceptual experience into a long-lasting memory takes place during the _____ step.

 

ANS:  consolidation

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   245                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. An essay question that contains a hint would best be classified as a _____ recall memory task.

 

ANS:  cued

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. An _____ memory occurs unintentionally and without awareness.

 

ANS:  implicit

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. An _____ memory occurs as the result of a deliberate, intentional effort.

 

ANS:  explicit

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Memories for general facts are referred to as _____ memory.

 

ANS:  semantic

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   246                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. The portion of your information-processing system that plans and monitors what you do is referred to as the _____ control processor.

 

ANS:  executive

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   247                OBJ:   8.3

 

  1. When an infant repeats a novel act that it has seen earlier in the day, it is displaying _____ imitation.

 

ANS:  deferred

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   248                OBJ:   8.4

 

  1. The memory strategy of _____ involves repeating items that you are trying to learn and remember.

 

ANS:  rehearsal

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. The strategy of making a meaningful link between items in order to help remember them is called _____.

 

ANS:  elaboration

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. A child who can benefit from a strategy, but who is unable to produce one on his or her own, is best classified as having a _____ deficiency.

 

ANS:  production

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Children who cannot benefit from a strategy, even when taught it, are best classified as having a _____ deficiency.

 

ANS:  mediation

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   252                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Memories for our own specific life experiences are called _____ memories.

 

ANS:  autobiographical

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   255                OBJ:   8.6

 

 

 

 

  1. The fact that people are unable to recall events that took place during the first two years after birth is called infantile _____.

 

ANS:  amnesia

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   255                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. According to _____ theory, children store verbatim and general accounts of events separately.

 

ANS:  fuzzy-trace

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   256                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. A _____ or general event representation is a mental representation of the typical sequence of actions related to an event.

 

ANS:  script

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   256                OBJ:   8.7                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Siegler proposed a _____ assessment approach to explain children’s behavior on Piaget’s balance beam problem.

 

ANS:  rule

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   257                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. According to Siegler, rather than picturing development as a series of “stair step” stages, we should picture it as _____ waves.

 

ANS:  overlapping

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   258                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. When playing “20 Questions,” asking, “Is it bigger than a bread box?” represents a _____-seeking question.

 

ANS:  constraint

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   270                OBJ:   8.13

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the process of human memory by differentiating between sensory register, working memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                     REF:   244-245         OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Describe ways of assessing memory development from birth through age one year.

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                     REF:   248-250         OBJ:   8.4

  1. Describe the potential accuracy of young children’s eyewitness testimony. What role does childhood amnesia play in this process?

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                     REF:   257                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. What problem-solving advancements did Robert Siegler suggest occur between infancy and adolescence?

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                     REF:   257-259         OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Justine is a typically developing human. What information-processing advances would you expect her to experience between the start of her middle school years and the end of her senior year of high school?

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                     REF:   259-260         OBJ:   8.9

 

  1. What factors contribute to expertise in adulthood?

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                     REF:   261-262         OBJ:   8.10

 

  1. What factors contribute to declines in cognitive abilities in old age?

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                     REF:   265-268         OBJ:   8.12

 

  1. Why are the memory abilities of a 10- to 12-year-old better than the abilities of a 4- to 5-year-old?

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                     REF:   250-256         OBJ:   8.5-8.6 KEY:   WWW

 

  1. In what ways are the autobiographical memory young children and older adults similar? How do they differ?

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                       REF:   255-256 & 262-263               OBJ:    8.6 & 8.11

KEY:  WWW

 

  1. What types of memory tasks cause older adults the most problems? On which types of tasks do older individuals have the least difficulty?

 

ANS:  Answer not provided                     REF:   263-265         OBJ:   8.11     KEY:   WWW

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Life Span Human Development 7th Edition Sigelman Rider Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *