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Life The Science of Biology Ninth Edition Sadava Hillis Heller Berenbaum Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1429246453

ISBN-10: 1429246456

 

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Life The Science of Biology Ninth Edition Sadava Hillis Heller Berenbaum Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1429246453

ISBN-10: 1429246456

 

 

 

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to accompany

Life: The Science of Biology, Ninth Edition

Sadava • Hillis • Heller • Berenbaum

 

Chapter 38: Reproduction in Flowering Plants

 

 

TEST FILE QUESTIONS

(By Paul Kuzeja)

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. A benefit of sexual reproduction in plants is
  2. the greater number of progeny that results.
  3. ease of pollination.
  4. the creation of new combinations of genes and diverse phenotypes.
  5. that the haploid plant becomes diploid.
  6. farther dispersal of progeny.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 795

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Strawberries reproduce asexually through
  2. cross-hybridization.
  3. forced seed germination.
  4. apomixis.
  5. a runner system.
  6. vernalization.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 795

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The megagametophyte of flowering plants consists of the
  2. pollen grain.
  3. pollen tube.
  4. embryo sac with eight haploid nuclei.
  5. microspores.
  6. megasporangium and cells within it.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796–797

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In a flower, the microsporangia are found on the
  2. stamen.
  3. style.
  4. stigma.
  5. ovule.
  6. ovary.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796–797

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The embryo sac is also called the
  2. megaspore.
  3. megasporangium.
  4. megasporocyte.
  5. megasporophyll.
  6. megagametophyte.

Answer: e

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796–797

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Meiosis occurs within the
  2. petal.
  3. ovule.
  4. stigma.
  5. sepal.
  6. pollen grain.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796–797

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In order for a megasporocyte to turn into an egg cell, which of the following processes are required?
  2. Meiosis followed by mitosis
  3. Mitosis followed by meiosis
  4. Several meiotic divisions only
  5. Several mitotic divisions only
  6. Several nuclear fusion events

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is the correct order of events for female gametophytes?
  2. Megagametophyte, megasporocyte, megaspore
  3. Megagametophyte, megaspore, megasporocyte
  4. Megasporocyte, megaspore, megagametophyte
  5. Megaspore, megasporocyte, megagametophyte
  6. Megaspore, megagametophyte, megasporocyte

Answer: c

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 797

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The gametophyte of a flowering plant is
  2. a flower.
  3. an egg.
  4. a pollen grain.
  5. an anther.
  6. the entire plant.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 797

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In the mature embryo sac, the cells closest to where the pollen tube enters the ovule (the micropyle) are the
  2. polar nuclei.
  3. synergids.
  4. polar nuclei and synergids.
  5. egg and polar nuclei.
  6. egg and synergids.

Answer: e

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 797

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In flowering plants, pollen is transferred to the
  2. stigma.
  3. style.
  4. ovary.
  5. ovule.
  6. micropyle.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 797–798

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In flowering plants, fertilization occurs
  2. where pollen lands on the stigma.
  3. where the pollen tube germinates.
  4. inside the pollen tube.
  5. at the base of the embryo sac.
  6. inside the seed.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 797–799

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. After pollination, which of the following events is crucial for fertilization?
  2. Sperm must swim to the egg and the polar nuclei.
  3. Petals must close around the reproductive parts.
  4. Meiosis must occur within the pollen grain.
  5. A pollen tube must grow from the stigma to the ovule.
  6. An insect must deliver pollen to the stigma.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 797–799

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. As a pollen tube grows into the embryo sac, two _______ are delivered to one of the synergids.
  2. sperm cells
  3. generative nuclei
  4. tube nuclei
  5. pollen nuclei
  6. microspores

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 797–800

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A flower that is wind-pollinated would be least likely to
  2. have numerous anthers.
  3. have sticky or feathery stigmas.
  4. produce large numbers of pollen grains.
  5. have a colorful corolla.
  6. have unscented flowers.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Pollination is the
  2. fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei.
  3. transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma.
  4. development of the two-celled pollen grain.
  5. growth of the pollen tube after pollen germination.
  6. division of the generative nucleus to produce two sperm nuclei.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Plants with wind-pollinated flowers tend to have
  2. colorful petals.
  3. smooth stigmas.
  4. large quantities of pollen.
  5. large quantities of nectar.
  6. pollination before the bud opens.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The advantage of self-fertilization in plants is
  2. increased genetic recombination.
  3. that meiosis can occur.
  4. greater efficiency of pollination.
  5. that no flowering is needed.
  6. that only asexual reproduction is necessary.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The advantage of cross-fertilization in plants is
  2. increased genetic recombination.
  3. that meiosis can occur.
  4. greater efficiency of pollination.
  5. that no flowering is needed.
  6. that it requires less energy to accomplish than self-fertilization.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The two cells in a mature pollen grain are formed by
  2. one meiotic division and one mitotic division.
  3. two meiotic divisions and one mitotic division.
  4. one meiotic division and two mitotic divisions.
  5. two meiotic divisions and two mitotic divisions.
  6. one meiotic division in which one of the four cells degenerates.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798–799

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The egg can be fertilized by
  2. one tube nucleus.
  3. one sperm cell.
  4. two sperm nuclei.
  5. one generative nucleus.
  6. two synergid nuclei.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 799–800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of all angiosperms?
  2. Double cotyledons
  3. Fleshy cotyledons
  4. Seeds with nutrients
  5. Double fertilization
  6. Pollen production

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 799–800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A seed consists of a _______ embryo, a _______ endosperm, and _______ seed coats.
  2. diploid; triploid; diploid
  3. haploid; triploid; diploid
  4. diploid; triploid; haploid
  5. diploid; diploid; diploid
  6. haploid; diploid; haploid

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 799–800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. What is the fate of the seven cells of the embryo sac?
  2. All but one disintegrates upon fertilization.
  3. Two become fertilized; the others disintegrate.
  4. Two become fertilized; the others fuse to form endosperm.
  5. All are involved in nuclear fusion events.
  6. They all become part of the seed tissue.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Double fertilization results in the formation of
  2. two diploid embryos.
  3. one diploid embryo and a diploid endosperm.
  4. two diploid embryos and a haploid endosperm.
  5. one diploid embryo and a triploid endosperm.
  6. two diploid embryos and a diploid seed coat.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The endosperm is formed by a fusion between the _______ and _______.
  2. egg nucleus; the sperm nucleus
  3. egg nucleus; two sperm nuclei
  4. synergid nuclei; the sperm nucleus
  5. polar nuclei; the generative nucleus
  6. polar nuclei; the sperm nucleus

Answer: e

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. After fertilization of the egg, the integument of the megasporangium develops into the
  2. cotyledons.
  3. embryo.
  4. endosperm.
  5. fruit.
  6. seed coat.

Answer: e

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Early in development, _______ initiates cell specialization in the embryo.
  2. mitotic division of the zygote
  3. uneven distribution of cytoplasm
  4. absorption of food from the endosperm
  5. seed germination
  6. maturation of the fruit

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The integuments of the ovule develop into the _______, and the carpels ultimately become the wall of the _______.
  2. cotyledons; endosperm
  3. seed coats; fruit
  4. cotyledons; seed coats
  5. endosperm; seed coats
  6. cotyledons; fruit

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is the “suspensor”?
  2. The pollen tube
  3. The organ supporting the ovule
  4. The base of the flower
  5. The narrow part of the embryo
  6. The stalk of the stamen

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800–801

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following does not serve to break dormancy and initiate seed germination?
  2. Scarification by abrasion
  3. Scarification by fire
  4. Exposure to water
  5. Abscisic acid
  6. Growth promoters

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is found in the highest concentration in dormant (inactive) buds and seeds?
  2. Abscisic acid
  3. Auxin
  4. Cytokinin
  5. Ethylene
  6. Gibberellin

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In some eudicots, no distinct endosperm can be seen because the
  2. embryo has digested the endosperm.
  3. cotyledons have absorbed the endosperm.
  4. seeds never produced an endosperm.
  5. endosperm has become the seed coat.
  6. fruit has incorporated the endosperm.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The loss of water from a developing seed causes it to
  2. produce a root.
  3. die.
  4. be released from the fruit.
  5. become dormant.
  6. be protected from animal predators.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The fruit generally develops from which part of the flower?
  2. Petals
  3. Sepals
  4. Ovary
  5. Stamens
  6. Pedicel

Answer: c

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In the seed, nutrients for the seedling are generally stored as
  2. monomers in solution.
  3. monomers in fat storage.
  4. a very concentrated, glass-like fluid.
  5. cellular enzymes.
  6. cellular organelles.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The nutritious flesh of many fruits has the function of
  2. nourishing the embryo.
  3. attracting seed eaters.
  4. attracting pollinators.
  5. attracting seed dispersers.
  6. ensuring that the seeds fall close to the parent plant.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Birds are good seed dispersal agents because
  2. seed survival in bird guts is low.
  3. the undigested seeds are deposited in a heap at the nesting sites.
  4. the undigested seeds are deposited at various feeding sites.
  5. the undigested seeds are deposited near the same plant that produced them.
  6. the digested seeds are dispersed at feeding and nesting sites.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 802

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of wind-dispersed seeds?
  2. Abundant pollen
  3. Hooked extensions
  4. Fleshy fruit
  5. Air chambers
  6. A “parachute”

Answer: e

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 802

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Coconut fruits are dispersed by
  2. monkeys.
  3. wind.
  4. fruit bats.
  5. water.
  6. birds.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 802

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A plant’s transition to a flowering state is often marked by a(n)
  2. increased rate of photosynthesis.
  3. decrease in vegetative growth.
  4. increase in root development.
  5. decreased rate of respiration.
  6. increase in lateral bud growth.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 802

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is not a category of flowering plants?
  2. Annuals
  3. Biennials
  4. Perennials
  5. Indeterminants
  6. Both a and c

Answer: d

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 802

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. When a vegetative apical meristem ceases production of leaves and axillary buds and instead produces structures such as bracts, it has become a(n)
  2. axillary meristem.
  3. inflorescence.
  4. inflorescence meristem.
  5. leaf.
  6. branch.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 803

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Before becoming a flower, the meristem must _______ in order to begin switching to floral development.
  2. experience determinate growth
  3. be influenced by meristem identity genes
  4. experience indeterminate growth
  5. be influenced by other meristems
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 803

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. After an apical meristem has been redirected toward developing into a floral meristem, _______ are responsible for further refinement of the floral development pathway.
  2. unknown hormones
  3. light signals
  4. floral identity genes
  5. other, more mature floral meristems
  6. All of the above

Answer: c

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 803

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Short-day plants usually flower
  2. in the spring.
  3. in midsummer.
  4. when day length is below a critical maximum.
  5. when day length is above a critical maximum.
  6. throughout the summer.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 804

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Short-day plants bloom
  2. in the spring.
  3. in the fall.
  4. in the summer.
  5. only after a cold winter.
  6. only after the second year of life.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 804

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. For plants that flower in response to photoperiodic stimuli, the most critical determinant in the light–dark cycle is the
  2. temperature.
  3. length of the dark period for short-day plants and length of the light period for long-day plants.
  4. length of the light period for short-day plants and length of the dark period for long-day plants.
  5. length of the uninterrupted dark cycle.
  6. length of the uninterrupted light cycle.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 804–805

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Long-day plants will not flower if exposed to a long
  2. night.
  3. day interrupted by a dark period.
  4. day interrupted by a prolonged period of red light.
  5. night interrupted by a period of far-red light.
  6. day interrupted by a brief period of red light.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 804–805

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In a short-day (long-night) plant with a critical day length of 15 hours, flowering would be induced by _______ hours of light alternating with _______.
  2. 12; 12 hours of darkness
  3. 16; 8 hours of darkness
  4. 14; 8 hours of darkness
  5. 8; 8 hours of darkness
  6. 15; 9 hours of darkness, interrupted by one short burst of white light

Answer: a

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 804–806

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The ability of plants to measure night length was determined by experiments in which
  2. plants were grown in 12 hours of darkness alternating with 12 hours of light.
  3. plants were grown in continuous light.
  4. dark periods were interrupted with brief pulses of light.
  5. flowering was measured in plants of different ages that had been placed on the same light–dark schedule.
  6. plants were grown in a 24-hour cycle in which the length of the light period was increased gradually.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 805

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Technically, short-day plants flower when the _______ period _______ a critical period.
  2. light; exceeds
  3. light; is less than
  4. light; equals
  5. dark; exceeds
  6. dark; is less than

Answer: d

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 805

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The hormone responsible for flowering in some plants is synthesized in the
  2. floral meristem.
  3. vegetative apical meristem.
  4. stems.
  5. leaves.
  6. roots.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 805–807

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Flowering is known to be triggered by _______, although this substance has not yet been completely analyzed.
  2. florigen
  3. NO
  4. ethylene
  5. abscisin
  6. phytochrome

Answer: a

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 806–807

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Experiments have shown that when a short-day plant (SDP) and a long-day plant (LDP) are grafted together and the SDP is exposed to a photoperiod that causes it to flower, the LDP flowers as well. This observation supports the theory that a specific flower-initiating hormone is produced in plants. A properly controlled experiment would repeat the grafting procedure but
  2. graft together the two plants and not induce the SDP.
  3. omit the LDP.
  4. omit the SDP.
  5. shorten the SDP photoperiod.
  6. include an LDP photoperiod.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 807

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Plants that require vernalization must _______ before flowering can occur.
  2. be exposed to cold
  3. have a source of soil calcium
  4. experience minimal day length
  5. have sufficient moisture for a minimum period
  6. experience one full year of growth

Answer: a

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 808

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Winter wheat can be planted in the spring for fall harvest if it is
  2. sprayed with gibberellins.
  3. soaked in water.
  4. planted under a full moon.
  5. stored in the dark for 50 days.
  6. vernalized.

Answer: e

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 808

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A plant that does not require external stimuli to flower may employ which of the following mechanisms instead?
  2. An internal clock
  3. An unknown internal signal
  4. A genetic program insensitive to the environment
  5. A signal pathway dependent upon bud position
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 808

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Asexual reproduction is the best strategy for plants
  2. that are well adapted to a stable environment.
  3. as winter approaches.
  4. when new genes must be introduced.
  5. that have underground stems.
  6. that have low seed production during a particular season.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Self-pollination results in progeny that
  2. are identical to the parent.
  3. are somewhat different from the parent because mutations are common.
  4. can express only alleles that were present in the parent.
  5. may be heterozygous in a locus where the parent is homozygous.
  6. may be as varied as progeny resulting from cross-pollination.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A clone of white potatoes may be derived from underground
  2. stolons.
  3. tubers.
  4. rhizomes.
  5. bulbs.
  6. root suckers.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Bamboo reproduces by means of
  2. rhizomes.
  3. tubers.
  4. corms.
  5. stolons.
  6. wind-dispersed seed germination.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Quaking aspen trees usually reproduce asexually in Colorado but sexually in New England. From this information, what can one hypothesize about the stability of the two environments in which the aspens grow?
  2. No hypothesis can be developed from this information.
  3. The Colorado aspens grow in a more stable environment.
  4. The New England aspens grow in a more stable environment.
  5. Both environments are stable.
  6. Neither environment is stable.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Vegetative parts that are modified for asexual repro-duction are short, vertical stems called _______ and _______.
  2. rhizomes; tubers
  3. tubers; corms
  4. bulbs; corms
  5. bulbs; rhizomes
  6. corms; rhizomes

Answer: c

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809–810

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. An apomictic seed contains an embryo that is
  2. produced when two sperm fertilize one egg.
  3. developed from one egg alone.
  4. the result of parental self-fertilization.
  5. genetically identical to its parent.
  6. homozygous for most genetic traits.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 810

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following conditions is necessary for successful grafting?
  2. Each section must be able to form roots.
  3. The grafted section must be able to form seeds.
  4. Fusion of the two vascular tissues must occur.
  5. Fusion of the two cambia tissues must occur.
  6. Each section must be derived from the same species.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 811

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The process of grafting involves
  2. allowing a piece of one plant (the scion) to grow onto the root of another (the stock).
  3. cross-fertilization between two plants.
  4. preparing several cuttings from a plant, each of which will grow into an individual plant.
  5. the production of xylem and phloem from the same cambium layer.
  6. the interbreeding of two species of plants.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 811

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The production of French wine grapes (Vitis vinifera) that are resistant to plant lice was accomplished by
  2. self-fertilization of resistant plants.
  3. grafting the scion onto resistant plants’ root stock.
  4. recombinant DNA techniques using the resistance gene.
  5. planting seeds in California, where there are no plant lice.
  6. inserting cuttings, or slips, of the plants into California soil, where there are no plant lice.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 811

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

Fill in the Blank

 

  1. The male gametophyte in seed plants is the _______; the mature female gametophyte is an embryo sac with _______ haploid nuclei.

Answer: pollen grain; eight

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796–798

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The transfer of pollen grains to the stigma is called _______.

Answer: pollination

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Angiosperms are unique in that the number of chromosome sets in the endosperm is _______.

Answer: triploid

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 799

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Angiosperms are characterized by double fertilization, in which one sperm nucleus fertilizes the _______ to begin formation of the embryo, and the other fertilization results in production of _______ tissue.

Answer: ovum; endosperm

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 799

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The major role of the fruit of a flowering plant is the facilitation of _______.

Answer: seed dispersal

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Instead of germinating immediately after release, many seeds undergo an inactive period of _______.

Answer: dormancy

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The production of flowers from floral meristems is an example of _______ growth.

Answer: determinate

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 803

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Experiments on the effect of light cues on flowering have shown that the significant cue that is sensed or measured by plants is _______.

Answer: night length

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 804–805

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The physiological mechanism by which plants measure photoperiod involves a pigment called _______. This pigment alternates between two forms, one that absorbs _______ light and another that absorbs _______ light.

Answer: phytochrome; red; far-red

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 806

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In general, the production of progeny with genotypes identical to the parent is called _______ reproduction, whereas self-fertilization is a form of _______ reproduction.

Answer: asexual; sexual

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The asexual production of seeds is called _______.

Answer: apomixis

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 810

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. One agricultural industry in which grafting is an important technique is _______ production.

Answer: fruit

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 811

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

Diagram

 

1.–3. Refer to the diagram below.

 

 

  1. Identify the structures labeled A, B, C, and D.

Answer: A: Stigma; B: Style; C: Ovary; D: Ovule

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798–799

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The structures labeled E are pollen grains. What is another name for a pollen grain?

Answer: Microgametophyte

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798–799

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Based on the indicated developmental progress of the pollen grains shown in the diagram, what can be inferred about this plant’s ability to self-pollinate?

Answer: The plant is self-incompatible and therefore cannot self-pollinate.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798–799

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

4.–7. Refer to the diagram below.

 

 

  1. Name the three cells of the embryo sac that do not participate in double fertilization and identify their label(s).

Answer: Antipodal cells (A)

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 799–800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Name the cell from the microgametophyte that will form the sperm and identify its label.

Answer: Generative cell (E)

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Name the two nuclei of the megagametophyte that will help form the endosperm and identify their label.

Answer: Polar nuclei (F)

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Name the cell that will help form the zygote and identify its label.

Answer: Egg (C)

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

 

STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS

(By Ed Dzialowski)

 

Knowledge and Synthesis

 

  1. You manage a greenhouse that produces roses for Valentine’s Day. Roses normally bloom in June. Which of the following will most likely be the best lighting schedule for your roses?
  2. 16 hours of light, followed by 8 hours of interrupted dark
  3. 16 hours of light, followed by 8 hours of uninterrupted dark
  4. 10 hours of light, followed by 14 hours of uninterrupted dark
  5. 10 hours of light, followed by 14 hours of interrupted dark
  6. None of the above

Answers: b

Feedback: Flowering is regulated by darkness. Interruptions in darkness can prevent flowering.

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 805

 

  1. After setting the correct photoperiod, the managers of a greenhouse still do not have blooming roses. Which of the following possibilities would most likely have contributed to the problem?
  2. The heating system allowed for fluctuations in temperature between 20°C and 25°C.
  3. The furnace mechanic accidentally turned off the lights for an hour two days in a row.
  4. The cleaning crew turned the lights on for an hour three nights in a row.
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above

Answers: c

Feedback: The interruptions in the dark cycle by the cleaning crew could have affected the signals that tell the plant to begin flowering.

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 805

 

  1. You have moved into a new house. During the first summer you notice many of the plants do not bloom. During the second summer your yard is a sea of blooms. It is now spring of the third year, and there are no plants. This can best be explained by which of the following?
  2. The plants are annuals.
  3. The plants are biennials.
  4. The plants are perennials.
  5. The plants are being affected by drought.
  6. The nights are too long for the plants.

Answers: b

Feedback: The plants are most likely biennials that spend one season growing vegetatively and one season producing flowers before dying.

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 802

 

  1. You notice that a new houseplant sends out long stems with what look like “little plants” attached. You allow one of these to rest in a cup of water and note that roots form. This is an example of
  2. asexual reproduction.
  3. apomixis.
  4. heterospory.
  5. parthenogenesis.
  6. vivipary.

Answers: a

Feedback: The runner (stolon) is propagating this plant asexually.

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809–810

 

  1. Self-pollination in plants that produce both pollen and eggs is prevented by
  2. self-incompatibility genes.
  3. physical barriers.
  4. production of pollen and eggs at different times.
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above

Answers: d

Feedback: Some plants have self-incompatibility genes that prevent the growth of the pollen tube through the style. Others have mechanical barriers to their own pollen.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798

 

  1. Most wine grape vines are grafted onto rootstock of another species. How does this practice increase grape yields?
  2. A hardy rootstock can replace a weak rootstock.
  3. A high-producing vine stock can replace a low-producing vine stock.
  4. It allows vintners to select for pest resistance without losing grape quality.
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above

Answers: d

Feedback: Grafting allows selection of hardy rootstock, produces well-producing vine stock, and contributes to disease resistance.

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 811

 

  1. The induction of flowering by means of exposure to low temperature is called
  2. vernalization.
  3. frigidation.
  4. apomixis.
  5. viviparity.
  6. None of the above

Answers: a

Feedback: Vernalization, which is noted in winter wheat and is used agriculturally to grow high-yielding wheat.

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 808

 

  1. The LEAFY and APETALA1 genes are examples of _______ genes.
  2. floral organ identity
  3. meristem identity
  4. viviparity
  5. photoperiod
  6. inflorescence

Answers: b

Feedback: These two genes are meristem identity genes that code for proteins involved in the initiation of flower formation.

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 803

 

  1. The production of seeds without fertilization is called
  2. apomixis.
  3. parthenogenesis.
  4. conception.
  5. circadian rhythm.
  6. vernalization.

Answers: a

Feedback: Dandelions and other plants produce seeds by apomixis, without meiosis and fertilization. These seeds are genetically identical to the parent plant.

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 810

 

  1. In the transition from vegetative growth to floral growth the _______ must be transformed into the _______. This involves a shift from _______ growth to _______ growth.
  2. apical meristem; floral meristem; indeterminate; determinate
  3. lateral meristem; floral meristem; indeterminate; determinate
  4. apical meristem; floral meristem; determinate; indeterminate
  5. apical cambium; floral cambium; determinate; indeterminate
  6. floral meristem; apical cambium; determinate; indeterminate

Answers: a

Feedback: Apical meristems and floral meristems differ in that growth from the apical meristem is indeterminate and growth from the floral meristem is determinate, leading to four whorls of floral structures.

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 803

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the fate of the generative cell of the pollen grain?
  2. It coordinates growth of the pollen tube.
  3. It divides by meiosis to produce two sperm nuclei.
  4. It divides by mitosis to produce two sperm nuclei.
  5. It forms the pollen tube.
  6. None of the above

Answers: b

Feedback: The two sperm nuclei involved in double fertilization are derived from the generative cell of the pollen grain.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796–797

 

  1. Which of the following is not part of a megagametophyte?
  2. Pollen grain
  3. Synergids
  4. Antipodal cells
  5. Polar nuclei
  6. All of the above are not part of the megagametophyte.

Answers: a

Feedback: The megagametophyte is the female gametophyte. It is initially called the embryo sac and contains three antipodal cells, two synergid cells, and two polar nuclei at the seven-cell stage.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796–797

 

  1. During double fertilization two sperm cells fuse (one each) with
  2. an egg cell.
  3. the two polar nuclei.
  4. a pollen grain.
  5. Both a and b
  6. Both a and c

Answers: d

Feedback: Double fertilization involves the fertilization of the egg cell and the two polar nuclei by two sperm cells.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

 

  1. The shoot apex and the root apex appear during the _______ stage of embryo development.
  2. heart
  3. egg
  4. inflorescence meristem
  5. torpedo
  6. zygote

Answers: d

Feedback: The torpedo-stage embryo has the shoot apex and the root apex on either end of the hypocotyl.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

 

  1. Which of the following is not a part of an angiosperm seed?
  2. Seed coat
  3. Cotyledon
  4. Shoot apex
  5. Style
  6. Endosperm

Answers: d

Feedback: The seed coat, cotyledon, shoot apex, and endosperm are all parts of the seed. The style is a part of the ovary and is involved in the formation of a pollen tube.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

 

Application

 

  1. Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction in plants. In which category does self-fertilization belong?

Answer: Asexual reproduction does not involve meiosis, fertilization, or genetic recombination. The offspring from asexual reproduction are genetically identical to the parent plant. Sexual reproduction requires a meiotic event and fertilization. Self-fertilization is sexual reproduction, even though genetic recombination is limited. This is because a meiotic event occurs, and fertilization is necessary for reproduction to take place.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 795–802, 809

 

  1. Describe egg formation in angiosperms, beginning with the sporophyte.

Answer: See Figure 38.2 in the .

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 797

 

  1. Much effort is spent detasseling corn (removing male flowers). Why doesn’t it work simply to spray the corn plants with a meiosis inhibitor to halt pollen production? (Hint: Male and female flowers occur on the same corn plant.)

Answer: Meiosis occurs in the megasporocyte as well as the microsporocyte. Inhibition of pollen formation via a meiosis inhibitor will also inhibit egg formation.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796–798

 

  1. Flowering is stimulated when light sets off a gene cascade. Explain how this may be hormonally controlled.

Answer: Light induction begins with the leaves. A single isolated leaf may stimulate floral production throughout the plant. In experiments in which leaves from one plant were grafted onto other plants, an “induced” leaf caused a plant to flower even though the plant had not been exposed to the required amount of darkness. Therefore, the leaf must send a signal (the protein florigen) that begins the gene cascade leading to flower formation.

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 805–807

 

  1. Describe double fertilization. What is the ploidy level of the products of double fertilization?

Answer: Double fertilization occurs when the two sperm nuclei produced from the generative cell of the pollen grain unite with the egg nucleus and two polar nuclei, respectively. The resulting zygote is diploid and the endosperm is triploid.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 799–800

 

  1. When is asexual reproduction beneficial to plants? Under what conditions is sexual reproduction beneficial?

Answer: Asexual reproduction is beneficial in stable environments in which many genetically identical plants are sustainable. This process can help colonize a habitat or help a population of plants to spread. The disadvantage is lack of genetic diversity, which can be detrimental if the environment changes rapidly and adaptability of the population is required.

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 810

 

  1. Define a fruit. Which of the following are fruits: tomato, pear, potato, banana, cucumber, snow pea, peanut, sunflower seed?

Answer: A fruit is the seed and the ovary wall, and it may include other structures of a flowering plant. With the exception of the potato, all of the listed structures are fruits.

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801–802

 

  1. Identify the following structures as occurring in the sporophyte or gametophyte generation.
  2. Embryo sac: _______
  3. Antipodal cells: _______
  4. Polar nuclei: _______
  5. Integument: _______
  6. Receptacle: _______
  7. Ovary: _______
  8. Anther: _______
  9. Pollen grain: _______

Answer:

  1. Embryo sac: gametophyte
  2. Antipodal cells: gametophyte
  3. Polar nuclei: gametophyte
  4. Integument: sporophyte
  5. Receptacle: sporophyte
  6. Ovary: sporophyte
  7. Anther: sporophyte
  8. Pollen grain: gametophyte

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 795–797

 

 

SELF-QUIZ

 

  1. Sexual reproduction in angiosperms
  2. is by way of apomixis.
  3. requires the presence of petals.
  4. can be accomplished by grafting.
  5. gives rise to genetically diverse offspring.
  6. cannot result from self-pollination.

Answer: d

 

  1. The typical angiosperm female gametophyte
  2. is called a microspore.
  3. has eight nuclei.
  4. has eight cells.
  5. is called a pollen grain.
  6. is carried to the male gametophyte by wind or animals.

Answer: b

 

  1. Pollination in angiosperms
  2. always requires wind.
  3. never occurs within a single flower.
  4. always requires help by animal pollinators.
  5. is also called fertilization.
  6. makes most angiosperms independent of external water for reproduction.

Answer: e

 

  1. Which statement about double fertilization is not true?
  2. It is found in most angiosperms.
  3. It takes place in the microsporangium.
  4. One of its products is a triploid nucleus.
  5. One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus.
  6. One sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei.

Answer: b

 

  1. The suspensor
  2. gives rise to the embryo.
  3. is heart-shaped in eudicots.
  4. separates the two cotyledons of eudicots.
  5. ceases to elongate early in embryonic development.
  6. is larger than the embryo.

Answer: d

 

  1. Which statement about photoperiodism is not true?
  2. It is related to the biological clock.
  3. A phytochrome plays a role in the timing process.
  4. It is based on measurement of the length of the night.
  5. Some plants do not flower in response to photoperiod.
  6. It is limited to plants.

Answer: e

 

  1. Florigen is
  2. produced in the leaves and transported to the apical bud.
  3. produced in the roots and transported to the shoots.
  4. produced in the coleoptile tip and transported to the base.
  5. the same as gibberellin.
  6. activated by prolonged (more than a month) high temperature.

Answer: a

 

  1. Which statement about vernalization is not true?
  2. It decreases the abundance of an inhibitor of flowering.
  3. Vernalization involves exposure to cold temperatures.
  4. It only occurs in crop plants such as cereals.
  5. In the vernalized state, the synthesis of FLC protein is inhibited.
  6. If winter wheat is not exposed to cold, it will not flower.

Answer: c

 

  1. Which of the following does not participate in asexual reproduction?
  2. Stolon
  3. Rhizome
  4. Zygote
  5. Tuber
  6. Corm

Answer: c

 

  1. Apomixis involves
  2. sexual reproduction.
  3. complete meiosis.
  4. fertilization.
  5. a diploid embryo.
  6. no production of a seed.

Answer: d

 

 

BIOPORTAL DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ (Personalized Study Plan Quiz)

(By Richard McCarty)

 

  1. A complete flower
  2. is made up of structures that are modified leaves.
  3. consists of carpels, sepals, and petals.
  4. consists of pistils, sepals, and petals.
  5. consists of carpels, petals, and pistils.
  6. consists of pistils, stigmas, and petals.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In angiosperms, the megagametophyte is the _______ gametophyte and is called the _______, which develops in the _______.
  2. female; ovule; megasporangium
  3. female; embryo sac; megasporangium
  4. female; ovary; megasporangium
  5. male; microsporocyte; embryo sac
  6. female; megasporocyte; embryo sac

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 796–797

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

  1. The megasporocyte divides
  2. mitotically to produce four diploid cells, one of which becomes the diploid megagametophyte.
  3. meiotically to produce four diploid cells, one of which becomes the diploid megagametophyte.
  4. meiotically to produce four diploid cells, one of which becomes the haploid megagametophyte.
  5. meiotically to produce four haploid cells, one of which becomes the haploid megagametophyte.
  6. meiotically to produce the male gametophyte.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 797

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The male gametophyte of angiosperms
  2. usually requires water for fertilization.
  3. is the pollen grain.
  4. attaches to the ovule prior to fertilization.
  5. can germinate on its own to form new plants.
  6. is the macrogametophyte.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually? 798

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Pollination
  2. is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma.
  3. always results in seed formation.
  4. is the transfer of pollen from the stigma to the anther.
  5. is synonymous with fertilization.
  6. always requires water.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

  1. The inability of plants to reproduce sexually using male and female parts of flowers from the same plant
  2. results from a barrier to pollination.
  3. results in less genetic diversity in a species.
  4. occurs in all plants.
  5. is called self-incompatibility.
  6. occurs because the pollen is not firmly bound to the stigma.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 798–799

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In the fertilization of almost all angiosperms, the two _______ sperm nuclei first enter the cytoplasm of a _______ synergid cell. One sperm nucleus fuses with the nucleus of the egg to produce a _______ zygote, and the other sperm nucleus fuses two polar nuclei to produce a _______ endosperm.
  2. haploid; diploid; diploid; triploid
  3. haploid; haploid; diploid; triploid
  4. diploid; haploid; triploid; triploid
  5. diploid; haploid; triploid; tetraploid
  6. haploid; triploid; diploid; triploid

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 799–800

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Seeds of angiosperms
  2. gain water in the late stages of their development.
  3. are the structures in which embryos develop.
  4. are enclosed in fruits derived from the integuments.
  5. contain diploid endosperm.
  6. are derived from the ovary.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 800

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Fruits
  2. can aid in the dispersal of seeds.
  3. are formed from the ovule.
  4. are formed from the endosperm.
  5. are derived from the ovary wall.
  6. Both a and d

Answer: e

Reference: 38.1 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Sexually?

Page: 801

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

  1. The transition a plant makes from the vegetative state to the flowering state
  2. occurs at the same time of year in all angiosperms.
  3. always results in the cessation of vegetative growth.
  4. involves major developmental and gene expression changes.
  5. is insensitive to environmental cues.
  6. results in floral meristems that show indeterminate growth.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 802–803

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following treatments would cause cocklebur, a short day plant, to flower?
  2. 16 hours of light; 7 hours of darkness
  3. 12 hours of light; 8 hours of darkness
  4. 12 hours of light; 10 hours of darkness
  5. 12 hours of light; 8 hours of darkness, but the plants are exposed to red light for 10 minutes in the middle of the dark period
  6. 12 hours of light; a 30 minute dark period in the middle of the light period; 8 hours of darkness.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 805

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The receptor of the photoperiod that induces flowering
  2. is intertwined with the biological clock.
  3. is in the stems.
  4. is in the roots.
  5. does not transmit the results of the stimulus to the rest of the plant.
  6. All of the above

Answer: a

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 806–808

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

  1. Grafting experiments
  2. established that there is a transmissible factor that can promote flowering, even from plant to plant.
  3. established that at least one element of the factor is a protein.
  4. led to the proposal of a flowering hormone.
  5. established that the factor induced by the inductive photoperiod is stable.
  6. a, c, and d

Answer: e

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 807

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Florigen is
  2. an RNA copy of the FT gene.
  3. transported in the xylem.
  4. a small protein synthesized in stems.
  5. a small protein made in leaves.
  6. coded for by the Constans gene.

Answer: d

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 807

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Vernalization
  2. is of little importance to agriculture.
  3. refers to the requirement of the seeds of some plants to be exposed to winter’s cold temperatures before they germinate.
  4. refers to the requirement of some biennial plants to be exposed to winter’s cold temperatures before they flower the next spring.
  5. refers to the induction of cold hardiness of buds.
  6. Both b and c

Answer: c

Reference: 38.2 What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?

Page: 808

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A flowering plant may reproduce asexually. When it does so,
  2. the progeny are genetically identical to the parent.
  3. the progeny may be better adapted to the environment than the parent.
  4. the progeny will show more genetic diversity than the parent.
  5. the sexual organs of flowers are usually involved.
  6. the progeny cannot reproduce sexually.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809–810

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which one of the following plant structures does not participate in asexual reproduction of plants?
  2. Flowers
  3. Stolons
  4. Rhizomes
  5. Suckers
  6. Tubers

Answer: a

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 809–810

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Apomixis
  2. is a form of sexual reproduction.
  3. involves flowers, but not fertilization.
  4. produces progeny that are genetically distinct from the parent.
  5. does not result in fertile seeds.
  6. requires the male gametophyte.

Answer: b

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 810

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Vegetative reproduction
  2. may be advantageous to a plant growing in an environment to which it is well adapted.
  3. may be advantageous to plants exposed to new environmental challenges.
  4. discourages the rapid spread of plants such as bamboo.
  5. promotes genetic diversity plants in the culture of some agriculturally important plants.
  6. is not used in agriculture.

Answer: a

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 810–811

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Most banana plants in commercial production are raised from plants grown in tissue culture. Which of the following is not always an advantage of using tissue culture methods to cultivate bananas?
  2. Some banana varieties are seedless.
  3. Plants generated by tissue culture are more likely to be free of viruses.
  4. The plants produced by tissue culture are clones.
  5. The plants in culture can be readily manipulated by recombinant DNA techniques.
  6. The plants in culture can rapidly give rise to many new plants.

Answer: c

Reference: 38.3 How Do Angiosperms Reproduce Asexually?

Page: 810–811

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

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