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Nursing Research 7th Edition LoBiondo-Wood Haber Test Bank

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Nursing Research 7th Edition LoBiondo-Wood Haber Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323057431

ISBN-10: 9780323057431

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Nursing Research 7th Edition LoBiondo-Wood Haber Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323057431

ISBN-10: 9780323057431

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

LoBiondo-Wood: Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 07: Introduction to Quantitative Research

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which factor is the measure used by a nurse researcher to keep the conditions of a quantitative study uniform?
a. Accuracy
b. Methods
c. Control
d. Validity

 

ANS: C

Correct C: Control is the term used for measures used by the researcher to keep the conditions of a study uniform.

 

Incorrect A: Accuracy refers to all aspects of a study systematically and logically following from the research question.

Incorrect B: Methods refers to sections of the research study including sampling, data collection, and data analysis.

Incorrect D: Validity refers to the truthfulness or soundness of a study.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Knowledge        REF:  Page 159

 

  1. The nurse researcher is designing a quantitative research study. What is the overall purpose of research design?
a. To determine sample size
b. To identify the problem statement
c. To aid in the solution of a research question
d. To assist the researcher in identifying gaps in knowledge

 

ANS: C

Correct C: The purpose of the research design is to provide the plan for answering the research question(s).

 

Incorrect A: Sample size is determined by the chosen design or power analysis.

Incorrect B: The problem statement describes the general focus of the research study.

Incorrect D: Gaps in knowledge should be identified and synthesized in the literature review.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 159

 

  1. How can the literature review assist a nurse researcher in selecting the appropriate design for a quantitative study?
a. By enlarging the scope of the hypothesis
b. By ensuring that the researcher remains faithful to the study purpose
c. By allowing the researcher to compare current findings with previous findings
d. By providing the opportunity to determine the objectivity of the problem area

 

ANS: D

Correct D: Objectivity in the conceptualization of the research question is derived from a thorough review of the literature.

 

Incorrect A: The literature review gives the researcher clues about the direction and nature of hypotheses but not necessarily the scope.

Incorrect B: The literature review does not ensure fidelity to study purpose; the research design serves this role.

Incorrect C: The literature review does give information on past findings, but the research design is obtained by comparison to the design of previous studies.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 160

 

  1. The nurse researcher determines that all aspects of a study systematically and logically follow from the research problem. Which condition has been met?
a. Internal validity
b. External validity
c. Accuracy
d. Legitimacy

 

ANS: C

Correct C: Accuracy means that all aspects of a study systematically and logically flow from the research question.

 

Incorrect A: Internal validity refers to whether the independent variable made the change in the dependent variable.

Incorrect B: External validity refers to the generalizability of the investigation’s findings to additional populations and other environmental conditions.

Incorrect D: Legitimacy refers to the plausibility or validity of an item, variable, or study.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 160

 

  1. A nurse researcher is designing a quantitative research study involving a specific group of patients admitted to local hospitals and is assessing the feasibility of the study. Which factor negatively affects the feasibility of this study?
a. The local region has a high percentage of families that could participate in the study.
b. Potential study subjects represent less than 1% of hospital admissions during the year previous to the study.
c. Study participants who were children under the age of 5 years could not give direct informed consent to participate in the study.
d. A comprehensive review of the literature shows no studies were conducted that examined this question during the past 15 years.

 

ANS: B

Correct B: Feasibility refers to the pragmatic considerations of a study; this few admissions would make subjects difficult to obtain.

 

Incorrect A: This could actually positively affect feasibility of the study.

Incorrect C: Informed consent for children would not affect availability of subjects.

Incorrect D: Lack of previous studies would suggest a need for the study, but that factor does not influence feasibility.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Application        REF:  Page 161

 

  1. Which factor would be considered a mediating variable among potential subjects in a study to determine whether use of high doses of vitamin C are helpful in reducing susceptibility to influenza?
a. Gender and religion of the potential subjects
b. The subjects’ knowledge of influenza vaccines
c. The subjects’ use of influenza vaccines
d. The educational level and marital status of the potential subjects

 

ANS: C

Correct C: An extraneous or mediating variable is one that interferes with the operations being studied—the study outcome(s), for example, use of influenza vaccines.

 

Incorrect A: Gender and religion of participants would not act as mediating variables in this instance.

Incorrect B: A subject’s knowledge of influenza vaccines would not interfere with the testing of vitamin C’s impact on flu susceptibility.

Incorrect D: Educational level and marital status of subjects would not act as mediating variables in this scenario.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Application        REF:  Page 163

 

  1. What action would be the best control for a mediating variable when designing a study to determine whether a videotape format or a pamphlet is more effective in teaching young women how to perform breast self-examination (BSE)?
a. Randomly assign subjects to the two groups.
b. Exclude subjects who already perform BSE on a regular basis.
c. Limit the study subjects to women who are heterosexual.
d. Determine what breast cancer means to the individual participants.

 

ANS: B

Correct B: Subjects who already were performing BSE would not be appropriate to include in a study on teaching how to perform BSE.

 

Incorrect A: Random assignment of subjects to the two treatment groups would strengthen the study but not decrease known mediating variables.

Incorrect C: Sexual orientation does not affect a woman’s need to perform BSE.

Incorrect D: The meaning of breast cancer to participants would not act to control the extraneous or mediating variables in this situation.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Application        REF:  Page 163

 

  1. How would a nurse researcher ensure that the sample used in a research study is homogeneous?
a. Restrict eligibility criteria to limit extraneous variables relevant to the study.
b. Randomly assign subjects to either the experimental or the control group.
c. Assign one research assistant to collect all data.
d. Collect all data at the same time of day.

 

ANS: A

Correct A: Homogeneity of a sample is ensured by restricting eligibility criteria.

 

Incorrect B: Random assignment to experimental or control groups does not ensure homogeneity.

Incorrect C: Data collection by one researcher will not control extraneous variables in a sample.

Incorrect D: Timing of data collection will not ensure a homogenous sample.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Application        REF:  Page 163

 

  1. How could a nurse researcher’s use of a homogeneous population of subjects in a research study weaken that study?
a. Decreased reliability of the findings
b. Decreased generalizability of the findings
c. Increased number of subjects needed to reach statistical significance
d. Increased risk that the findings were the result of chance alone

 

ANS: B

Correct B: Homogeneity of a sample can decrease generalizability of the findings.

 

Incorrect A: Homogeneity of a sample would not necessarily affect reliability.

Incorrect C: Homogeneity of a sample does not mandate a larger sample size.

Incorrect D: Homogeneity does not increase risk of chance findings.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Application        REF:  Page 163

 

  1. Why would a nurse researcher want to limit or eliminate extraneous variables in a study?
a. More research questions would be required to define the extraneous variable.
b. Extraneous variables compete with the dependent variable as an explanation of the study’s outcome.
c. Extraneous variables compete with the independent variable as an explanation of the study’s outcome.
d. Manipulation of the extraneous variables increases the risk for researcher bias in the study’s outcome.

 

ANS: C

Correct C: Extraneous or mediating variables interfere with analyzing the effect of the independent variable(s) on the dependent variable.

 

Incorrect A: Research questions are not necessarily linked to or controlling of extraneous variables.

Incorrect B: The dependent variable is influenced by the independent variable.

Incorrect D: Manipulation of extraneous variables does not necessarily increase (or decrease) the risk for researcher bias.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 162, 163

 

  1. When should a nurse researcher include an extraneous variable as part of a study’s design?
a. When it is nonmodifiable, such as age or gender
b. When it is an important consideration for the outcome
c. When the researcher is limited by time and monetary influences
d. When it would not make a difference in the overall study outcome

 

ANS: B

Correct B: If a researcher believes that an extraneous variable is important to the outcome, it should be included in the design.

 

Incorrect A: Nonmodifiable variables can be controlled for statistically and do not have to be written into a design.

Incorrect C: Time and financial demands should not solely influence whether extraneous variables are part of a study’s design.

Incorrect D: If the extraneous variables would not make a difference in the study outcome, then inclusion in the design would be superfluous.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 163

 

  1. Which action represents the nurse researcher’s attempt at constancy in data collection to control extraneous variables in a study examining the effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone-density loss in postmenopausal women?
a. Drawing the blood at the same time of day for all subjects
b. Having the same phlebotomist drawing the blood from all subjects
c. Using the same room for drawing blood from all subjects
d. Ensuring that all subjects were postmenopausal women taking hormone replacement therapy

 

ANS: A

Correct A: Constancy in data collection, for example, identical timing of data collection, helps maintain control in the research design.

 

Incorrect B: In this scenario, the same person drawing blood samples would not maintain constancy on effects of hormone therapy.

Incorrect C: The same environment for blood draws would not maintain constancy on effects of hormone therapy.

Incorrect D: If subjects were already receiving hormone therapy, it would be difficult to distinguish the effects of the new treatment.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 163

 

  1. A nurse researcher assigns half of a study sample to an experimental group and the other half of the study group to a control group. What does this represent regarding controlling for mediating variables?
a. Data-collection constancy
b. Manipulation of the mediating variable
c. Elimination of the mediating variable(s)
d. Manipulation of the independent variable

 

ANS: D

Correct D: Administration of a program, treatment, or intervention to a treatment group, and not a control group, represents manipulation of the independent variable.

 

Incorrect A: Separating subjects into two groups (treatment versus control) does not represent data-collection constancy.

Incorrect B: A mediating or extraneous variable is usually controlled rather than manipulated.

Incorrect C: Separation of study subjects into treatment and control groups does not itself eliminate mediating variables.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 164

 

  1. Why would a nurse researcher choose to assign randomly the subjects in a study?
a. To ensure that all groups within a study are representative of the larger population
b. To increase the chances that the study groups will be different from each other with regard to extraneous variables
c. To ensure that current events do not influence the outcomes of the study
d. To eliminate the need for establishing specific study criteria and subject eligibility

 

ANS: A

Correct A: Randomization is designed to ensure that study subjects represent the larger population.

 

Incorrect B: Study groups that are different with regard to extraneous variables would not be increased by randomization.

Incorrect C: Randomization cannot control current historical events.

Incorrect D: Randomization does not eliminate the need for study criteria and subject eligibility factors.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 165

 

  1. What condition would a nurse researcher be attempting to achieve by obtaining the required number of subjects in such a manner that each subject in a population has an equal chance of being selected?
a. Selection bias
b. Convenience
c. Randomization
d. Internal reliability

 

ANS: C

Correct C: Randomization is the process of obtaining subjects so that each has an equal chance of being selected.

 

Incorrect A: Selection bias occurs when precautions are not used to gain a representative sample.

Incorrect B: Convenience refers to a type of sample where subjects who are available are used; subjects do not necessarily represent the population.

Incorrect D: Internal reliability describes a characteristic of measurement whereby processes are standardized or items in a survey relate to one construct.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Knowledge        REF:  Page 165

 

  1. When would the issue of control be less important in a quantitative study?
a. When a statistically significant analysis is used
b. When an exploratory research design is used
c. When an experimental research design is used
d. When a correlational research design is used

 

ANS: B

Correct B: Control is less important in exploratory studies because the researcher is investigating an area in which little literature exists.

 

Incorrect A: The analysis of the data provided will produce statistically significant or insignificant results; this is not synonymous with a research design.

Incorrect C: Control is critical to optimal experimental design.

Incorrect D: Control is more important to correlational design than exploratory design because relationships between factors are being studied.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 165

 

  1. Which situation represents a threat to internal validity in an experimental study measuring the effect of a videotape of home-going instructions for patients being discharged after coronary artery bypass graft surgery?
a. Both men and women were included as subjects in the study.
b. Two new surgeons began performing the coronary artery bypass graft surgeries.
c. Patients in the experimental group discussed aspects of the tapes with patients in the control group.
d. Data collection took 1 year.

 

ANS: C

Correct C: Sharing aspects of the tapes with control group members interferes with interpretation of the true effect of the independent variable.

 

Incorrect A: Including both genders would be a design strength, not a threat to internal validity.

Incorrect B: Personnel factors like surgeons’ newness should not directly affect the treatment and threaten internal validity.

Incorrect D: Duration of data collection does not threaten internal validity, provided that control processes were standardized.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 166

 

  1. The nurse researcher designed a study examining anxiety among elementary school children. If a widely publicized murder of a child occurred in the city during the time frame of the study, what type of threat to internal validity would the murder represent?
a. Maturation
b. Instrumentation
c. Selection bias
d. Historical

 

ANS: D

Correct D: The murder would represent a historical event threatening internal validity.

 

Incorrect A: Maturation represents developmental, biological, or psychological processes within individuals occurring as a function of time.

Incorrect B: Instrumentation refers to changes in the measurement of variables or observational techniques that may change obtained measurement.

Incorrect C: Selection bias occurs when precautions are not used to gain a representative sample.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 167

 

  1. Why would the nurse researcher’s administration of a pretest in a research study be of concern?
a. It is a threat to internal validity that may affect the posttest results.
b. It is a threat to external validity that may affect the posttest results.
c. It is a form of selection bias that contributes to the problem of maturation.
d. It is a form of maturation that contributes to the problem of selection bias.

 

ANS: A

Correct A: Taking the same test repeatedly can influence subjects’ subsequent responses and threaten internal validity.

 

Incorrect B: Testing is a threat to internal validity, not external validity.

Incorrect C: Pretesting should not create selection bias.

Incorrect D: Maturation describes a developmental, biological, or psychological process in research subjects and is not affected by pretesting.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 169

 

  1. Why should a nurse researcher consider mortality a threat to the internal validity of a study?
a. There is a concern that the intervention may have harmful effects.
b. Those who participated in the study may have died as a result of being in the study.
c. Those who dropped out of the study may be different from those who remained in the study.
d. When a study has a large number of participants who drop out of the study, the design is inappropriate for the study questions.

 

ANS: C

Correct C: Subjects who drop out or who are lost from a study may differ from remaining subjects and threaten internal validity.

 

Incorrect A: Mortality does not refer to harmful aspects of an intervention but to attrition of subjects.

Incorrect B: Mortality does not refer to treatment-related negative consequences.

Incorrect D: Loss of a large number of subjects does not necessarily make a design inappropriate for study questions.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 169

 

  1. How could a nurse researcher control for selection bias in a study?
a. By allowing subjects to self-select into an experimental or a control group
b. By hand picking the subjects for the study and determining the group assignment
c. By using defined selection criteria for approaching potential subjects
d. The task of selecting subjects should not be performed by the researcher conducting the study.

 

ANS: C

Correct C: Defined selection criteria that are consistently applied help gain a representative sample and decrease risk of selection bias.

 

Incorrect A: Self-selection could worsen selection bias rather than control it.

Incorrect B: Researcher bias in selecting subjects could worsen selection bias.

Incorrect D: The researcher can select subjects, providing subjects meet specified selection criteria.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 169

 

  1. How can a nurse researcher know that a research study has external validity?
a. External validity refers to the relationship existing between the independent variable and study outcomes.
b. External validity refers to the influence of a specific event on the dependent variable.
c. External validity refers to the degree to which extraneous or mediating variables interfered with the study outcomes.
d. External validity refers to the degree to which findings are generalizable to populations beyond those studied.

 

ANS: D

Correct D: External validity deals with possible problems of generalizability of the investigation’s findings to other populations or environments.

 

Incorrect A: Internal validity refers to the relationship between the independent variable and the study outcomes.

Incorrect B: Influence of a specific event on the study (historical threat) usually is associated with the independent variable (internal validity).

Incorrect C: Extraneous or mediating variables usually are associated with the effects of the independent variables.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 170

 

  1. Which situation reflects a reactive effect?
a. Control subjects in an intervention study to reduce anxiety also experienced a reduction in anxiety.
b. The subjects in an intervention group continue the intervention after the study has ended.
c. Subjects become concerned after learning that they have received a placebo intervention.
d. Study subjects want to know the outcomes of the study.

 

ANS: A

Correct A: Reactivity occurs when control subjects respond to the investigator not because of the treatment but because of being studied.

 

Incorrect B: Continuing a treatment after a study is over does not necessarily relate to reactive effects.

Incorrect C: After treatment is finished and the study is over, reactions to the use of a placebo should not cause reactivity.

Incorrect D: Wanting to know study outcomes after the study is finished does not generate a reactivity effect.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 172

 

  1. In a study investigating the effect of type of operating room mattress and surgical position on tissue interface pressures, the researchers used healthy young adult subjects. Which component of research design is most affected by this choice?
a. Internal validity
b. Mortality
c. Instrumentation
d. External validity

 

ANS: D

Correct D: Subject selection affects external validity because most surgical patients are not healthy young adults.

 

Incorrect A: Internal validity would not be affected because selection bias was not an issue.

Incorrect B: Attrition of subjects would not be influenced by healthy young adult status.

Incorrect C: Instrumentation would likely be unaffected by using healthy adults.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 170

 

  1. How can a nurse researcher take action in a quantitative research study to eliminate bias on the dependent variable?
a. By establishing strict eligibility criteria for the study participants
b. By ensuring that all data are collected by a single researcher
c. By formulating at least two hypotheses for each research question
d. By testing a theoretical framework

 

ANS: A

Correct A: Strict eligibility criteria help reduce extraneous or mediating variables that compete with study variables for impact on the dependent variable.

 

Incorrect B: Collection of data by a single researcher would not control bias if poor sampling techniques are used.

Incorrect C: Formulating two hypotheses would not eliminate bias potential and could possibly confuse the study.

Incorrect D: Testing of a theoretical framework does not control bias effects on the dependent variable by itself.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 163

 

  1. What type of quantitative study would lead a nurse researcher to be less concerned about the issue of control?
a. Paper and pencil
b. Exploratory
c. Experimental
d. Correlational

 

ANS: B

Correct B: Control is less important in exploratory studies because the researcher is investigating an area in which little literature exists.

 

Incorrect A: Paper and pencil refers to a measurement method, not a research design.

Incorrect C: Control is critical to optimal experimental design.

Incorrect D: Control is more important to correlational design than exploratory design because relationships between factors are being studied.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 165

 

  1. What about external validity would concern a nurse researcher regarding a research study?
a. The relationship between the independent variable and the study outcomes
b. Whether a specific event influenced the dependent variable
c. The degree to which extraneous or mediating variables interfered with the study outcomes
d. The degree to which the findings are generalizable to populations beyond those studied

 

ANS: D

Correct D: External validity deals with possible problems of generalizability of the

investigation’s findings to other populations or environments.

 

Incorrect A: Internal validity refers to the relationship between the independent variable and the study outcomes.

Incorrect B: Influence of a specific event on the study (historical threat) usually is associated with the independent variable (internal validity).

Incorrect C: Extraneous or mediating variables usually are associated with the effects of the independent variables.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Comprehension  REF:  Page 170

  1. A nurse researcher wants to study the effect of a nutritional educational intervention on weight loss in obese adolescents. The researcher designs a study including a homogeneous sample, randomization, and consistent data-collection procedures. Which variable should these approaches protect from interference?
a. Nutritional educational intervention
b. Age range
c. Obesity
d. Weight loss

 

ANS: D

Correct D: Weight loss is the dependent variable, the variable most affected by control methods.

 

Incorrect A: Nutritional educational intervention is the independent variable.

Incorrect B: Age range is a subject characteristic and not the major focus of control methods.

Incorrect C: Obesity is a subject characteristic and not major focus of control methods.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 163

 

  1. A journal reviewer is critiquing a new quantitative research study that has been submitted for publication. In critiquing the study sections, in what order will components be scrutinized?
  2. a) Design description
  3. b) Research question
  4. c) Sample
  5. d) Data analysis
  6. e) Data collection
a. a, b, c, d, e
b. e, d, c, b, a
c. b, a, c, e, d
d. d, b, a, c, e

 

ANS: C

Correct C: This is the correct order for study sections in a research report.

 

Incorrect A: Design description is the beginning of the methods section, following the research question.

Incorrect B: correct order.

Incorrect D: correct order.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Knowledge        REF:  Page 163

 

 

 

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. A neophyte researcher is planning to write a proposal for starting a research study. The researcher is concerned about control for the quantitative design. What components should the researcher include? (Select all that apply.)
a. Using validated, reliable collection methods
b. Including all age ranges of subjects
c. Including trained data collectors
d. Incorporating standardized data collection processes for each subject
e. Using only words for analysis

 

ANS: A, C, D

Correct A: Control requires valid, reliable instruments.

Correct C: Trained research associates help standardize procedures and promote control.

Correct D: Data-collection processes that are standardized promote control.

 

Incorrect B: All age ranges of subjects are not necessary for quantitative design.

Incorrect E: Analysis of words or text is associated with qualitative design.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Application        REF:  Page 163

 

  1. A nursing student is reviewing a research study in which researchers used pretest/posttest design to examine the effect of an AIDS education intervention on teenagers’ knowledge level over a school year. What threats to internal validity could be present? (Select all that apply.)
a. Maturation
b. Selection effects
c. Reactivity
d. Hawthorne effect
e. Testing

 

ANS: A, E

Correct A: Maturation could be an issue because they may learn from other sources over a year.

Correct E: Testing is a threat to internal validity because use of a pretest may affect subjects’ subsequent responses.

 

Incorrect B: Selection effects affect external validity.

Incorrect C: Reactivity, or subjects’ responses to being studied, affects external validity.

Incorrect D: Hawthorne effect is another name for reactivity.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Analysis             REF:  Page 167

 

  1. What would be considered pragmatic considerations for the nurse researcher in determining the feasibility of a research question? (Select all that apply)
a. Time
b. Selection effects
c. Reactive effects
d. Measurement effects
e. Subject availability
f. Money

 

ANS: A, E, F

Correct A: The research question must be one that can be studied within a realistic period.

Correct E: The researcher must determine whether a sufficient number of eligible subjects will be available and willing to participate in the study.

Correct F: Before embarking on a study, the researcher should itemize the expenses and project the total cost of the project.

 

Incorrect B: This is a threat to external validity.

Incorrect C: This is a threat to external validity.

Incorrect D: This is a threat to external validity.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Knowledge        REF:  Page 161

 

  1. What factor(s) would be considered to be threats to internal validity? (Select all that apply).
a. Time
b. Selection effects
c. History
d. Testing
e. Subject availability
f. Money
g. Selection bias

 

ANS: C, D, G

Correct C: History is considered to be a threat to the study’s internal validity because of its effect on the subjects.

Correct D: Testing can be considered to be a threat to the internal validity of a study when implemented with subjects.

Correct G: Selection bias is considered to be a threat to the study’s internal validity when subjects are selected for participation.

 

Incorrect A: This is a pragmatic consideration in determining the feasibility of a research question.

Incorrect B: This is considered to be a threat to external validity.

Incorrect E: This is a pragmatic consideration in determining the feasibility of a research question.

Incorrect F: This is a pragmatic consideration in determining the feasibility of a research question.

 

DIF:   Cognitive Level: Knowledge        REF:  Page 167

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