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Nutrition An Applied Approach 3rd Edition Thompson Manore Test Bank

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Nutrition An Applied Approach 3rd Edition Thompson Manore Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321813701

ISBN-10: 0321813707

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Nutrition An Applied Approach 3rd Edition Thompson Manore Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321813701

ISBN-10: 0321813707

 

 

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Nutrition: An Applied Approach, 3e, My Plate Edition (Thompson/Manore)

Chapter 12  Nutrition and Physical Activity: Keys to Good Health

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) Which of the following BEST describes exercise?

  1. A) any movement produced by muscles that increases energy expenditure
  2. B) maximal force or tension level that can be produced by a muscle group
  3. C) leisure physical activity that is purposeful, planned, and structured
  4. D) ability to move a joint fluidly through the complete range of motion

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 412

Skill:  Applied

 

2) Which of the following is NOT one of the physiological effects of regular physical activity?

  1. A) enhances the action of insulin
  2. B) enhances gastric motility
  3. C) improves sleep patterns
  4. D) decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 412-413

Skill:  Conceptual

 

3) Approximately what percentage of Americans report that they do NOT engage in any leisure-time activity?

  1. A) 10 percent
  2. B) 16 percent
  3. C) 25 percent
  4. D) 50 percent

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 413

Skill:  Factual

 

4) Physical activity NOT related to a person’s occupation is known as

  1. A) nonoccupational physical activity.
  2. B) leisure-time physical activity.
  3. C) free-time physical activity.
  4. D) physical fitness.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 412

Skill:  Factual

 

 

5) The top of the Physical Activity Pyramid emphasizes activities that

  1. A) are harmful, such as failing to stretch before starting an activity.
  2. B) we should do less of, such as watching TV.
  3. C) should be done three to five times a week to improve cardiovascular fitness, such as aerobic exercise.
  4. D) should be engaged in every day.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 414-415

Skill:  Applied

6) Marco wants to improve his cardiorespiratory fitness. Which type of activity would be the MOST effective to achieve this goal?

  1. A) weight lifting every other day
  2. B) yoga four times a week
  3. C) resistance training three times a week
  4. D) bicycling three times a week

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 414-415

Skill:  Applied

 

7) What is meant by the overload principle?

  1. A) subjecting the body to inappropriately high stress
  2. B) stretching a muscle group beyond the joint’s healthy range of motion
  3. C) improving fitness by placing extra physical demand on the body
  4. D) complete depletion of the body’s glycogen

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 415

Skill:  Factual

 

8) After completing an exercise session, adequate hydration in an athlete is BEST determined by

  1. A) lack of fatigue and soreness in the muscles.
  2. B) urine that is light yellow in color.
  3. C) no sweat production.
  4. D) absence of leg cramps.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 432

Skill:  Applied

 

9) To achieve cardiorespiratory fitness, you should train a minimum of how many day(s) per week?

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 2
  4. D) 7

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 416

Skill:  Factual

10) The FIT principle is

  1. A) the level of fitness one should achieve according to one’s age.
  2. B) the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time.
  3. C) a method to determine your fitness level based on your target heart rate.
  4. D) a method to determine fitness based on flexibility and muscle strength.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 415

Skill:  Applied

11) Which of the following is traditionally used to evaluate the level of intensity of aerobic activity?

  1. A) heart rate
  2. B) blood glucose level
  3. C) blood pressure
  4. D) distance traveled per unit of time (e.g., steps per hour)

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 416

Skill:  Applied

 

12) To achieve moderate intensity physical activity, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a target heart rate range of what percentage of an individual’s maximal heart rate?

  1. A) 50 to 55 percent
  2. B) 50 to 70 percent
  3. C) 50 to 65 percent
  4. D) 50 to 80 percent

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 416

Skill:  Factual

 

13) Which of the following individuals does NOT need to have a medical evaluation before beginning an exercise regimen?

  1. A) Jack, a 65-year-old man with diabetes
  2. B) Betty, a 55-year-old woman who is healthy but inactive
  3. C) Frank, a 45-year-old man who is healthy but inactive
  4. D) Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 413

Skill:  Applied

 

 

14) In which of the following types of exercise would creatine phosphate (CP) be an important source of energy?

  1. A) running a 10-kilometer road race
  2. B) biking up a mountain
  3. C) playing in a football game
  4. D) sprinting in a 100-meter race

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 419-420

Skill:  Conceptual

 

15) During exercise, what source(s) of energy is/are used by the body for glucose?

  1. A) glycogen stored in muscles
  2. B) glucose found in bones
  3. C) fatty acids stored in adipose tissue
  4. D) protein found in blood

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 420

Skill:  Applied

16) The primary end product of glycolysis is

  1. A) adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
  2. B) creatine phosphate (CP).
  3. C) lactic acid.
  4. D) pyruvic acid.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 420

Skill:  Factual

 

17) The amount of ATP produced in glycolysis can maintain exercise for no more than how many minutes?

  1. A) 10
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 30
  4. D) 60

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 420

Skill:  Conceptual

 

18) When oxygen is scarce, cellular pyruvic acid will be converted to

  1. A) glucose.
  2. B) ATP.
  3. C) lactic acid.
  4. D) fatty acids.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 420

Skill:  Conceptual

 

19) Which of the following is FALSE concerning aerobic metabolism?

  1. A) Its by-products are carbon dioxide and water.
  2. B) It leads to muscle fatigue.
  3. C) It provides fuel for low-intensity exercise.
  4. D) It supplies more energy than anaerobic exercise.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 420, 422

Skill:  Conceptual

 

20) Which of the following is NOT TRUE about cool-down exercise after an exercise session?

  1. A) helps to prevent injury
  2. B) helps to reduce muscle soreness
  3. C) involves stretching
  4. D) helps digestion later on

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 418

Skill:  Applied

21) Fatty-acid molecules provide MOST of the energy for

  1. A) high-intensity, short-term activity.
  2. B) long-term activity such as hiking.
  3. C) participation in a marathon.
  4. D) sprinting in a 1500-meter race.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 421

Skill:  Conceptual

 

22) Which of the following BEST describes how ATP provides energy to the body’s cells?

  1. A) Energy is released when a phosphate group is cleaved from the ATP molecule.
  2. B) Energy is released when two molecules of ATP combine.
  3. C) Energy is released when ATP is transported out of the cell membrane.
  4. D) Energy is released when adenosine binds to three phosphate molecules.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 419

Skill:  Applied

 

23) The major fuel source used by the working muscle during long-duration physical activity is

  1. A) amino acids.
  2. B) fatty acids.
  3. C) glycogen.
  4. D) glucose.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 421

Skill:  Factual

 

 

24) Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?

  1. A) increases the number and activity of various enzymes involved in fat metabolism
  2. B) improves the ability of muscles to store fat
  3. C) improves the ability to extract fat from the blood during exercise
  4. D) replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 429

Skill:  Conceptual

 

25) Where in the body do we find the greatest storage of potential energy?

  1. A) muscle glycogen
  2. B) blood glucose
  3. C) muscle protein
  4. D) body fat

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 421

Skill:  Factual

26) At rest, the body’s fuel source is primarily

  1. A) protein.
  2. B) carbohydrate.
  3. C) fat.
  4. D) amino acids.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 421

Skill:  Factual

 

27) George plays basketball for his high school team, and he is concerned that he is not consuming enough kilocalories to support his activity. Which of the following would be the BEST indicator that he is not consuming adequate kilocalories?

  1. A) impaired performance on the court
  2. B) weight loss
  3. C) low blood glucose levels
  4. D) low hemoglobin

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 426

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

28) Elisa is a gymnast who trains on average for two hours each day. She supports her daily activity by consuming 2,500 kilocalories per day. What is the minimum number of kilocalories she should consume from carbohydrates?

  1. A) 1,050 kcal
  2. B) 1,125 kcal
  3. C) 1,580 kcal
  4. D) 1,790 kcal

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 426

Skill:  Applied

 

29) When does the body experience the highest rates of glycogen storage?

  1. A) at rest
  2. B) during high-intensity exercise
  3. C) a few hours after exercising
  4. D) 30 hours after exercising

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 426

Skill:  Factual

 

30) Petra is a long-distance track athlete who would like to optimize her glycogen stores. If she weighs 132 pounds, what is the minimum amount of carbohydrate she should consume to achieve this goal?

  1. A) 250 grams
  2. B) 290 grams
  3. C) 360 grams
  4. D) 800 grams

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 426-427

Skill:  Applied

31) In which of the following events would carbohydrate loading NOT be beneficial?

  1. A) weight lifting
  2. B) distance swimming
  3. C) cross-country skiing
  4. D) marathon

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 428

Skill:  Applied

 

 

32) Andrea thinks that carbohydrate loading could be beneficial to her. Which of the following statements is FALSE about this practice?

  1. A) Carbohydrate loading is appropriate in endurance activities such as a marathon.
  2. B) Carbohydrate loading may cause water retention.
  3. C) Carbohydrate loading maximizes glycogen stores.
  4. D) Carbohydrate loading is helpful for moderately intense physical activity to maintain fitness.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 428

Skill:  Conceptual

 

33) Which of the following is NOT a side effect of carbohydrate loading?

  1. A) water retention
  2. B) gastrointestinal distress
  3. C) diarrhea
  4. D) improved performance

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 428

Skill:  Conceptual

 

34) Jorge is a weight lifter who believes that consuming large amounts of protein-rich foods will increase his muscle mass. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding Jorge’s protein needs?

  1. A) It is a good practice for Jorge to consume a minimum of 2 grams of protein/kilogram of body weight to increase his muscle mass.
  2. B) Jorge cannot meet his protein needs without taking protein supplements.
  3. C) It is impossible for Jorge to get adequate amounts of protein without eating meat, fish, and poultry.
  4. D) Jorge can meet his protein needs by consuming a healthy, balanced diet that is calorically sufficient to meet his activity level.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 429-430

Skill:  Conceptual

 

35) Which of the following BEST describes Dr. Barry Sears’s Zone Diet?

  1. A) high-carbohydrate diet designed for noncompetitive athletes
  2. B) high-protein diet designed for competitive athletes
  3. C) high-fat diet designed for competitive athletes
  4. D) high-protein diet designed for noncompetitive athletes

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 430

Skill:  Applied

 

36) In physical activity lasting less than one hour, the MOST appropriate fluid replacement is

  1. A) plain water.
  2. B) orange juice.
  3. C) Kool-Aid.
  4. D) sports drinks.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 431

Skill:  Applied

 

37) Which of the following ergogenic aids has been banned in the United States?

  1. A) creatine
  2. B) gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)
  3. C) chromium
  4. D) carnitine

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 436

Skill:  Factual

 

38) What is the cause of sports anemia?

  1. A) low blood hemoglobin levels
  2. B) poor dietary intake of iron-rich foods
  3. C) increased plasma volume due to training
  4. D) dehydration

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 433

Skill:  Factual

 

39) Some athletes believe that caffeine can enhance athletic performance because it has been shown to

  1. A) increase muscle flexibility and strength.
  2. B) increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source.
  3. C) regenerate ATP for energy.
  4. D) increase the transport of amino acids to exercising muscle.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 436-437

Skill:  Applied

 

40) Why are the B vitamins especially important to an athlete?

  1. A) Carbohydrates are a poor source of the B vitamins.
  2. B) During exercise large amounts of the B vitamins are lost in the urine.
  3. C) The B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism.
  4. D) Active athletes cannot eat a sufficient amount of calories to meet the RDAs for the B vitamins.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 433

Skill:  Conceptual

41) The breakdown of glucose to provide quick energy to the body is called

  1. A) fatty acid breakdown.
  2. B) ketoacidosis.
  3. C) glucolysis.
  4. D) glycolysis.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 420

Skill:  Conceptual

 

42) Placing an extra physical demand on the body to improve the fitness level is called

  1. A) the overload principle.
  2. B) carbohydrate loading.
  3. C) ergogenic training.
  4. D) lactic-acid loading.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 415

Skill:  Applied

 

43) Which of the following weekly routines most closely follows the FIT principle recommendations to improve flexibility?

  1. A) two sets of weight lifting 5-lb barbells twice a week
  2. B) swimming 30 minutes twice a week at 64% max heart rate
  3. C) full-range-motion yoga stretches (twice per stretch) twice a week
  4. D) thirty-minute Pilates stretching class five mornings a week

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 415-416

Skill:  Factual

 

44) The intensity of a physical activity is defined as

  1. A) the amount of effort expended.
  2. B) how long a training session lasts.
  3. C) how often a training session occurs.
  4. D) the availability of ATP for energy.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 416

Skill:  Factual

 

45) Eating frequent small meals throughout the day is called

  1. A) carbohydrate loading.
  2. B) grazing.
  3. C) glycolyzing.
  4. D) ketoning.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 425

Skill:  Factual

 

46) Carbohydrate loading maximizes the amount of which substance stored in skeletal muscles?

  1. A) calcium
  2. B) hemoglobin
  3. C) glucose
  4. D) glycogen

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 428

Skill:  Conceptual

 

47) The primary way the body loses heat is through

  1. A) urine.
  2. B) feces.
  3. C) sweating.
  4. D) respiration.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 431

Skill:  Factual

 

48) After about three seconds of exercise, which substance is broken down to help regenerate ATP?

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) pyruvic acid
  3. C) creatine phosphate (CP)
  4. D) lactic acid

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 419

Skill:  Applied

 

49) The combination of heart, lungs, and circulatory system that supplies oxygen and nutrients to working muscles is known as the

  1. A) cardiorespiratory system.
  2. B) musculoskeletal system.
  3. C) enteric nervous system.
  4. D) central nervous system.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 412

Skill:  Factual

 

 

50) Which of the following is NOT a long-term, irreversible effect of steroid use?

  1. A) liver damage
  2. B) delayed closure of the growth plates of the long bones
  3. C) severe acne
  4. D) infertility

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 435

Skill:  Factual

 

True/False Questions

 

1) Regular physical activity can increase HDL-cholesterol.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 412

Skill:  Factual

2) More than 50% of adults in the United States do not meet national healthy recommendations for exercise.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 413

Skill:  Factual

 

3) During pregnancy, exercise is not recommended as it can cause serious damage to the developing fetus.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 413

Skill:  Applied

 

4) Due to the high cost, physical education programs are no longer mandated in schools throughout the United States.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 413

Skill:  Applied

 

5) Intensity of aerobic activities should be at least 110% of maximal heart rate.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 416

Skill:  Applied

 

6) Warm-up exercises prepare the muscles for exertion by increasing blood flow and temperature.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 418

Skill:  Applied

 

 

7) When a phosphate group is cleaved from ATP, energy is released.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 419

Skill:  Conceptual

 

8) Lactic acid is an important intermediate of glucose breakdown, playing a critical role in supplying fuel to the working muscle, heart, and resting tissues.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 420

Skill:  Conceptual

 

9) The amount of ATP stored in muscles is unlimited.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 419

Skill:  Conceptual

 

10) The human body cannot store glycogen during the first 24 hours of recovery from intense exercise.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 426

Skill:  Conceptual

11) Consuming high glycemic foods immediately after exercising can enhance glycogen storage.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 427

Skill:  Applied

 

12) Carbohydrate loading is effective for most athletes and poses no disadvantages.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 428

Skill:  Factual

 

13) The longer the fatty acid chain, the more ATP can be generated from breakdown.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 421

Skill:  Conceptual

 

14) Glycolysis can be sustained only for a brief period of time, generally for less than 3 minutes.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 420

Skill:  Factual

 

15) Amino acids are the primary fuel source utilized in both anaerobic and aerobic exercise.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 423

Skill:  Applied

 

16) The best way to stimulate growth of skeletal muscle is to eat a high-protein diet.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 423

Skill:  Applied

 

17) To stay healthy, athletes should consume less than 15% of their kilocalories from fat.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 429

Skill:  Factual

 

18) Muscle tissue contains enough creatine phosphate (CP) to sustain physical activity for up to 10 to 15 minutes.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 419-420

Skill:  Applied

 

19) Most athletes consume sufficient dietary protein to support their physical activity.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 430

Skill:  Factual

 

20) Thirst is a relatively poor indicator of dehydration.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 431

Skill:  Factual

21) The best way to treat sports anemia is with iron supplements.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 433

Skill:  Applied

 

22) Athletes should not take iron supplements unless prescribed by a health care professional.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 433

Skill:  Factual

 

23) Studies demonstrate that supplements of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 435-436

Skill:  Factual

 

24) Creatine use is permitted by collegiate and professional sports organizations.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 436

Skill:  Factual

 

25) Flexibility is defined as the ability to move a joint fluidly through its full range of motion.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 412

Skill:  Factual

 

26) The currency of energy for most cells in the body is ATP.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 419

Skill:  Factual

 

27) Aerobic reactions occur in the absence of oxygen.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 419

Skill:  Factual

 

28) When oxygen availability is limited in the cell, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 420

Skill:  Conceptual

 

29) Substances that claim to build muscle and increase strength are called anaerobic steroids.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 435

Skill:  Factual

Essay Questions

 

1) Discuss the health benefits of physical activity.

Answer:  Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 412-413

Skill:  Conceptual

 

2) Describe how the body uses carbohydrate, protein, and fat during physical activity.

Answer:  Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 420-423

Skill:  Conceptual

 

3) Design a physical fitness program for yourself. What are the most important components to include in planning a sound fitness program?

Answer:  Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 415-418

Skill:  Conceptual

 

 

4) Describe the optimal diet for an athlete.

Answer:  Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 424-433

Skill:  Conceptual

 

5) Discuss fluid replacement before, during, and after physical activity.

Answer:  Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 431-432

Skill:  Conceptual

 

Nutrition Debate Questions

 

1) In 1996, the Surgeon General’s report recommended 30 minutes of physical activity most, if not all, days of the week. This recommendation was based on studies that

  1. A) assessed fitness and health outcomes in individuals in a prescribed training program.
  2. B) assessed the relationship between physical activity and rates of disease and mortality.
  3. C) compared target heart rates in individuals with high and low BMIs.
  4. D) assessed energy expenditures and BMI.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 439

Skill:  Applied

 

2) What type of study compares self-reports of physical activity with rates of illness and mortality?

  1. A) exercise training studies
  2. B) population-based epidemiological studies
  3. C) case-control studies
  4. D) clinical trials

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 439

Skill:  Factual

3) The 2005 Institute of Medicine’s recommendation of 60 minutes each day is based on the amount of exercise needed to

  1. A) maintain a healthy body mass index.
  2. B) lose 1/2 pound a week until a healthy BMI is reached.
  3. C) decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  4. D) maintain blood pressure within normal levels.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 439

Skill:  Applied

 

 

4) Explain how the physical activity recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (which contributed to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans) differ from the 1996 Surgeon General’s recommendations, and how they are similar.

Answer:  Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 439

Skill:  Conceptual

 

Questions from Chapter Boxes

 

1) Ronald is a healthy, 40-year-old tax accountant who is sedentary. He would like to start an exercise program to improve his cardiorespiratory fitness. Utilizing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, which of the following heart rates (beats per minute) should Ronald maintain to achieve a moderate-intensity workout?

  1. A) 50 bpm
  2. B) 90 bpm
  3. C) 143 bpm
  4. D) 154 bpm

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 417

Skill:  Conceptual

 

2) Lactic acid is produced during both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 422

Skill:  Conceptual

 

3) Endurance training improves the muscle’s ability to use lactic acid for energy during exercise.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 422

Skill:  Conceptual

 

4) List and describe five different deceptive practices used to market and sell ergogenic aids.

Answer:  Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 435

Skill:  Conceptual

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