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Nutrition Concepts and Controversies 14th Edition Sizer Whitney Test Bank

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Nutrition Concepts and Controversies 14th Edition Sizer Whitney Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1337041720

ISBN-10: 1305639383

 

Description

Nutrition Concepts and Controversies 14th Edition Sizer Whitney Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1337041720

ISBN-10: 1305639383

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

True / False

 

1. ​Chronic diseases are the only type of diseases that afflict people in developed countries.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/29/2015 11:53 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

2. ​Degenerative conditions are also referred to as chronic diseases.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/29/2015 11:54 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

3. Dietary supplements can trigger extra immune power to fend off dangerous infections in well-fed people.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/29/2015 11:55 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

4. ​A deficiency or toxicity of even a single nutrient can weaken the body’s defenses considerably.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Immune System, Nutrition, and Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/29/2015 11:56 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

5. ​Just as a virus causes influenza, a risk factor causes a chronic disease.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Concept of Risk Factors
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.2 – Discuss the relationship between risk factors and chronic disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/29/2015 11:57 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

6. ​Thirty minutes of brisk walking on at least 5 days a week can improve the odds against heart disease.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/29/2015 11:58 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

7. ​Metabolic syndrome, with its cluster of factors, raises the risk of CVD.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/29/2015 11:59 PM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

8. ​Constituents in foods may be cancer causing, cancer promoting, or protective against cancer.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:00 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

9. ​Excess calories from carbohydrates, protein, and fat all raise cancer rates.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:01 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

10. ​Obesity is a risk factor for certain cancers such as colon, breast, endometrial, pancreas, and kidney cancer.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:04 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

11. ​All men and women experience the same types of symptoms when they are having a heart attack.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:05 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

12. ​High blood pressure presents no symptoms that you can feel.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:06 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

13. ​Diet and physical activity do not play a significant role in controlling hypertension.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:10 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

14. The DASH diet emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The DASH Diet: Preventive Medicine
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.6 – Outline strategies for including sufficient fruits and vegetables in a diet.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:11 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

Controversy 11 True/False Items

 

15. ​It is now the standard practice for health care providers to tailor a person’s treatment to prevent or minimize disease based on their identified genetic profile.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Genomics: Can It Deliver on Its Promises?
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Controversy 11 True/False Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.7 – Describe the emerging science of nutritional genomics.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:12 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

16. ​Fraud is a problem in the genetic-testing marketplace today, particularly as it relates to nutrition.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Genomics: Can It Deliver on Its Promises?
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Controversy 11 True/False Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.7 – Describe the emerging science of nutritional genomics.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:13 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

Multiple Choice

 

Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items

 

17. ​Which of the following holds the key to maintaining the best possible immune system support?

  a. ​nutrient supplements
  b. ​herbal remedies
  c. ​phytochemicals
  d. ​adequate nutrition
  e. ​a high-protein diet

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Immune System, Nutrition, and Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:14 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

18. ​Which of the following must be given careful attention when feeding the person with AIDS?

  a. soft foods​
  b. ​small, frequent snacks
  c. ​food safety
  d. ​USDA Food Patterns recommendations
  e. ​food security

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Immune System, Nutrition, and Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:15 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

19. ​What is one effects of malnutrition on the body’s defense system?

  a. ​The skin becomes thicker with more connective tissue.
  b. ​Antibodies and immune cell numbers are increased.
  c. ​Physical barriers to invasion by microbes are increased.
  d. ​Immune system organs decrease in size.
  e. ​The skin’s sensitivity reaction to antigens is more rapid.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Immune System, Nutrition, and Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:17 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

20. ​Heart disease in women is characterized by:

  a. development at a later age than in men.​
  b. ​a much lower death rate than other chronic diseases.
  c. ​the same symptoms of heart attack as in men.
  d. ​a better heart muscle recovery than in men.
  e. ​development before the onset of menopause.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:36 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

21. ​What is not one of the risk factors for CVD?

  a. ​diabetes
  b. ​hypertension
  c. ​high blood LDL
  d. ​high blood HDL
  e. ​obesity

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:38 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

22. ​In men, aging becomes a significant risk factor for heart disease at age:

  a. ​30.
  b. ​35.
  c. ​40.
  d. ​45.
  e. ​55.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:40 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

23. ​Which is considered a risk factor for CVD?

  a. ​total blood cholesterol below 200 mg/dL
  b. ​HDL higher than 60 mg/dL
  c. ​LDL 160 mg/dL or higher
  d. ​triglycerides less than 150 mg/dL
  e. ​BMI of 19

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:41 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

24. ​Which measurement is associated with a reduced risk of CVD?

  a. ​high HDL
  b. high total cholesterol​
  c. ​high LDL
  d. ​high triglycerides
  e. ​systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:43 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

25. ​Which of the following raises HDL concentration?

  a. ​weight gain
  b. ​low cholesterol intake
  c. ​intake of refined carbohydrates
  d. ​intake of fiber
  e. ​physical activity

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:45 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

26. ​The metabolic syndrome greatly increases a person’s risk of developing:

  a. ​hypertension.
  b. ​cancer.
  c. ​CVD.
  d. ​AIDS.
  e. ​infectious disease.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:47 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

27. ​To lower LDL cholesterol levels, you would tell someone to:

  a. ​reduce his or her sodium intake.
  b. ​consume a very low-fat diet.
  c. ​avoid certain high-fat foods such as avocados and nuts.
  d. ​eat more calcium and potassium.
  e. ​lose weight.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:48 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

28. ​An atherogenic diet is characterized as one that is:

  a. ​high in monounsaturated fats.
  b. ​low in trans fats.
  c. ​high in polyunsaturated fats.
  d. ​high in saturated fats.
  e. ​low in refined carbohydrates.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:49 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

29. ​For CVD prevention, trans fat in the diet should account for less than ____ percent of calories.

  a. ​5
  b. ​10
  c. ​20
  d. ​7
  e. ​1

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:51 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

30. ​According to recommendations for reducing CVD risk, saturated fat should provide no more than ____ percent of total calories.

  a. ​10
  b. ​14
  c. ​20
  d. ​25
  e. ​35

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:52 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

31. ​Wherever dietary fat consists mostly of ____ fats and fish, fruits, and vegetables are eaten in abundance, blood cholesterol and the rate of death from heart disease are low.

  a. ​unsaturated
  b. ​saturated
  c. trans
  d. ​omega-6
  e. ​solid

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:54 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

32. ​All of the following dietary factors are protective against CVD except:

  a. ​omega-3 fatty acids.
  b. ​a low-carbohydrate diet.
  c. ​legumes.
  d. ​fish oils.
  e. ​fruits and vegetables.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:58 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

33. ​In dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of CVD, trans-fatty acids are classified with ____ fat.

  a. ​saturated
  b. ​polyunsaturated
  c. ​unsaturated
  d. ​monounsaturated
  e. ​liquid

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 12:59 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

34. ​Resting blood pressure should ideally be ____ or lower.

  a. ​100 over 70
  b. ​110 over 75
  c. ​120 over 80
  d. ​140 over 90
  e. ​120 over 100

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:01 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

35. ​What is the biggest risk factor for the development of hypertension?

  a. ​dietary supplement intake
  b. ​gender
  c. ​low BMI
  d. ​muscle strength
  e. ​age

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:03 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

36. ​Who is most likely to respond sensitively to dietary sodium intake?

  a. ​women
  b. ​those who are less than 50 years of age
  c. ​those who have asthma
  d. ​African Americans
  e. ​Caucasians

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:04 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

37. ​In addition to calcium, what appears to help prevent and treat hypertension in certain populations?

  a. ​niacin
  b. ​vitamin B12
  c. ​folate
  d. ​potassium
  e. ​iron

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:06 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

38. ​Individuals with hypertension being treated with certain diuretics should consume foods rich in:

  a. calcium.​
  b. ​magnesium.
  c. ​potassium.
  d. ​folate.
  e. ​vitamin D.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:07 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

39. ​To help prevent hypertension, healthy Caucasians less than 51 years old should limit their sodium intake to less than ____ mg per day.

  a. ​2000
  b. ​1500
  c. 2300​
  d. ​2600
  e. ​3000

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:09 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

40. ​Laboratory studies suggest that diets high in _____ seem to promote cancer.

  a. ​calories
  b. ​sugar
  c. ​artificial sweeteners
  d. ​calcium
  e. ​fiber

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:10 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

41. ​Alcohol intake in smokers is strongly associated with cancers of the:

  a. ​kidneys.
  b. ​endometrium.
  c. ​prostate.
  d. ​head and neck.
  e. ​stomach.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5NUCC.SIZR.17.11 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:12 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

42. ​In general, studies of populations have suggested that low cancer rates correlate with:

a. high iron intakes.

  a. high iron intakes.​
  b. ​high vegetable and whole grain intakes.
  c. ​high red meat intakes.
  d. ​low folate intakes.
  e. ​low anticarcinogen intakes.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:14 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

43. ​Which food is not an example of a cruciferous vegetable?

  a. ​turnips
  b. ​broccoli
  c. ​green onions
  d. ​cabbage
  e. ​rutabaga

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:16 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

44. ​The best action to take to decrease your risk of cancer is to:

  a. ​limit foods that are grilled, smoked, and charbroiled.
  b. ​consume a diet moderate in fat.
  c. ​take vitamin supplements.
  d. ​eat a wide variety of vegetables and fruits in generous quantities every day.
  e. ​eat fatty fish several times a week.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:18 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

45. ​The CDC, American Heart Association, and other groups have collaborated to create a program that encourages people to:

  a. ​consume enough whole grains.
  b. ​eat more fish.
  c. ​switch from cow’s milk to soy milk.
  d. ​fill half their plate with vegetables and fruits.
  e. ​eat more milk and milk products.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The DASH Diet: Preventive Medicine
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Comprehension-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.6 – Outline strategies for including sufficient fruits and vegetables in a diet.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:22 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items

 

46. ​A main difference between a person contracting an infectious disease and a chronic disease is:

  a. ​infectious diseases are not related to the nutritional status of a person.
  b. ​some infectious diseases can be cured with medications but chronic diseases cannot.
  c. ​special immune-strengthening foods can prevent infectious diseases.
  d. ​people in developed countries will not get infectious diseases because of existing safeguards.
  e. ​infectious diseases arise not from a straightforward cause but from a mixture of factors.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Introduction
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
NUCC.SIZR.17.11.2 – Discuss the relationship between risk factors and chronic disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:25 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

47. ​A college student who is on a high-protein weight-loss diet that restricts fruits and vegetables has just become ill from a viral infection in her intestines. What might have made her more susceptible than her roommate who is eating regular meals in the cafeteria?

  a. ​protein deficiency, which has affected immune system cells
  b. ​vitamin C deficiency from no fruits and vegetables, which has affected white blood cell protection
  c. ​too much saturated fat from meat, which has increased blood cholesterol levels
  d. ​dehydration, which has affected the health of intestinal cells
  e. ​too much protein, which has disrupted the protective, beneficial bacteria in the gut

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Immune System, Nutrition, and Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:27 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

48. ​You have a friend with AIDS who is trying to maintain his nutrition status. Which recommendation could you make?

  a. ​Offer large, frequent meals.
  b. ​Encourage consumption of megadoses of nutrient supplements.
  c. ​Allow him to eat as little as he wants, since the body uses its fat and protein reserves for survival.
  d. ​Cook a lot of food in advance and leave it out for your friend.
  e. ​Cook foods thoroughly and practice cleanliness.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Immune System, Nutrition, and Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:29 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

49. ​A 58-year-old woman with hypertension and elevated LDL blood levels is complaining that she suddenly is feeling very tired, dizzy, and weak. What would you advise her to do?

  a. ​Lie down and rest for a short time until she feels better.
  b. ​Eat a light snack to help relieve her nausea.
  c. ​See her doctor as soon as she is able to get an appointment to have her lungs checked.
  d. ​Seek immediate medical care because she may be having a heart attack.
  e. ​Call “Poison Control” because she may have ingested a toxic chemical.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:31 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

50. ​What is the root cause of most forms of CVD?

  a. ​plaque formation in the arteries
  b. ​macrophages, which clear blood clots away from artery walls
  c. ​low blood pressure, which damages the artery walls
  d. ​defective red bloods cells, which can narrow passages in arteries and reduce blood flow to the heart
  e. ​low LDL, which prevents oxidation of fat in the arteries
  f. ​heavy metals circulating in the blood and causing damage

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:33 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

51. ​A 45-year-old man who is overweight and has several family members with heart disease is concerned about developing it. Which risk factor does he have the ability to improve or change?

  a. ​gender
  b. ​family history
  c. ​weight
  d. ​age
  e. ​genetics

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Concept of Risk Factors; Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.2 – Discuss the relationship between risk factors and chronic disease.
NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:37 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

52. ​Joe’s doctor tells him his CVD risk is low when tests reveal Joe’s:

  a. ​LDL cholesterol is 150 mg/dL.
  b. ​diastolic blood pressure is 75 mm Hg.
  c. ​HDL cholesterol is 25 mg/dL.
  d. blood cholesterol is 240 mg/dL.
  e. ​systolic blood pressure is 160 mm Hg.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:45 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

53. ​Which strategy would help improve your blood lipid profile?

  a. ​Consume oats, barley, and legumes.
  b. ​Limit foods with polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  c. ​Eliminate eggs from your diet.
  d. ​Replace fats in your diet with sugars.
  e. ​Maintain energy balance if obese.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:49 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

54. ​What is a good strategy to minimize your risks of CVD?

  a. ​Choose full-fat dairy products and tropical oils.
  b. ​Deep-fry all of your vegetables.
  c. ​Consume on or two servings of fatty meats each day.
  d. ​Season all your vegetables with solid fats and salt.
  e. ​Choose more fruits and whole grains.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:52 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

55. ​Jack’s physician has placed him on a diet recommended to control his blood cholesterol. In order to follow this plan, Jack would:

  a. ​consume 300 mg cholesterol per day.
  b. ​limit sodium intake to 2400 mg per day.
  c. ​consume 40% of calories as monounsaturated fats.
  d. ​consume no more than 5 to 6% of calories as saturated fat.
  e. ​replace soluble fiber with insoluble fiber.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:55 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

56. ​Which is the best meal to help reduce LDL cholesterol levels in the blood?

  a. ​grilled salmon, wild rice, steamed broccoli, whole-wheat roll
  b. ​roast chicken, sweet potatoes, green peas, biscuit
  c. ​pinto beans and ham, corn on the cob with margarine, cornbread
  d. ​roast beef, mashed potatoes, tossed salad with ranch dressingRemember,urdough bread
  e. ​fried fish, rice, ice cream

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 1:58 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

57. ​Which of the following would be a good suggestion for making small changes in your diet for better health?

  a. ​Spread margarine instead of butter on your toast for breakfast.
  b. ​Instead of a snack of potato chips and sour cream dip eat carrot sticks and hummus.
  c. ​Purchase only foods labeled “no trans fats” to be guaranteed they are low in fat.
  d. ​Select chicken nuggets instead of a hamburger at a fast-food restaurant.
  e. ​Choose grilled meats instead of smoked meats.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases; The DASH Diet: Preventive Medicine
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
NUCC.SIZR.17.11.6 – Outline strategies for including sufficient fruits and vegetables in a diet.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 2:31 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

58. ​You are interested in controlling your risk of developing CVD. Which strategy would be best?

  a. ​Consume high levels of refined carbohydrates.
  b. ​Start smoking to help prevent weight gain.
  c. ​Use margarine in the place of olive oil.
  d. ​Drink three glasses of red wine each day.
  e. ​Substitute fish for red meat twice a week.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 2:34 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

59. ​Which statement about blood pressure is true?

  a. ​When the pressure is at the right level, cells receive nutrients and oxygen and release their wastes.
  b. ​When heart rate and blood volume increase, blood pressure drops.
  c. ​The kidneys can lower blood pressure by retaining water and salt in the body.
  d. ​Constriction of the smaller peripheral arteries will decrease blood pressure.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 2:38 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

60. ​Which individual is at highest risk for developing hypertension?

  a. ​Susie, a 30-year-old female who is slightly overweight
  b. ​Jack, a 40-year-old African American male whose parents had hypertension
  c. ​Jill, a 50-year-old female of Asian descent who consumes a diet relatively high in sodium
  d. ​Bill, a 45-year-old male of European descent who is a vegetarian
  e. ​Zayn, a 21-year-old African American male who is a college athlete

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 2:41 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

61. ​A 165-lb. woman with hypertension begins a weight-loss program. As her weight declines, the earliest she can expect to see a significantly lower blood pressure value is when her weight drops to _____.

  a. ​125 pounds
  b. ​135 pounds
  c. ​145 pounds
  d. ​155 pounds
  e. ​160 pounds

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 2:43 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

62. ​A man with pre-hypertension is trying to keep his blood pressure from going higher. Which dietary change might help?

  a. ​Have at least two glasses of wine a day with dinner.
  b. ​Choose low-sodium canned soups and beans.
  c. ​Eliminate high-potassium foods like potatoes and broccoli.
  d. ​Add vitamin and mineral supplements to make up deficiencies.
  e. ​Regardless of BMI, lose 5 to 10% of his body weight.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 2:47 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

63. ​Your uncle is considering taking an herbal medicine to control his hypertension after seeing an advertisement for a product on the Internet. What would you tell him?

  a. ​Because herbal medicines have been used for many years, they are safe.
  b. ​Buy herbal products with content labels on the bottle because they are the most reliable.
  c. ​Herbal products are made from natural ingredients so they don’t contain any contaminants.
  d. ​Check to see if the herbs in the product have interactions with any drugs you are taking.
  e. ​Do not take herbal medicines because the FDA does not remove those proven dangerous from the market.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 2:48 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

64. ​Which statement about carcinogens is accurate?

  a. ​The body can detoxify small doses of carcinogens found in foods.
  b. ​People should avoid eating all foods that contain carcinogens.
  c. ​Carcinogens are any toxins that are not naturally found in foods.
  d. ​Food additives in the U.S. are not monitored for carcinogens.
  e. ​Food contaminants that arise through natural processes are noncarcinogenic.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 2:50 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   6/28/2016 12:16 AM

 

65. ​Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention include:

  a. cooking meats at high temperatures or directly over a flame.​
  b. ​increasing intake of salt-cured products.
  c. ​decreasing intake of fruits and vegetables.
  d. ​initiating hormone replacement therapy after menopause.
  e. ​controlling energy intake.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 2:52 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

66. ​A man is at risk of developing colon cancer because his grandfather and father died of it. Adding which of the following foods to his diet might reduce his risk?

  a. ​steamed broccoli
  b. ​grilled chicken
  c. ​boiled, peeled potatoes
  d. ​fruit drink
  e. ​protein shake

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:02 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

67. ​Which of the following would be the best way to add more fruits and vegetables to your diet?

  a. ​use ketchup on your french fries instead of salt
  b. ​have fruit roll-ups for a snack
  c. ​have a glass of orange drink for breakfast every day
  d. ​keep a bag of baby carrots in the refrigerator for snacking
  e. ​use a “high-antioxidant” powdered drink mix

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The DASH Diet: Preventive Medicine
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.6 – Outline strategies for including sufficient fruits and vegetables in a diet.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:06 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

68. ​The role of inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis includes:

  a. ​damage to the cells lining the arteries by factors such as high HDL cholesterol.
  b. ​white blood cells being sent to the site by the immune system to try to repair the damage.
  c. ​production of foam cells that help to capture and remove LDL from the artery wall.
  d. ​proliferation of muscle cells of the artery wall, which repair the site.
  e. ​reducing the tendency of the blood to form clots.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Application-Level Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:08 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

Controversy 11 Multiple-Choice Items

 

69. ​The epigenome on the DNA strand:

  a. ​regulates the expression of genes by turning them on or off.
  b. ​makes the gene expression more permanent and difficult to change.
  c. ​changes the DNA for different functions.
  d. ​is active for only one generation.
  e. ​changes the basic DNA sequence.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Genomics: Can It Deliver on Its Promises?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Controversy 11 Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.7 – Describe the emerging science of nutritional genomics.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:13 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

70. ​Which of the following is an example of the effect of certain nutrients or foods on gene expression and disease development?

  a. ​A phytochemical found in milk has been shown to reverse uncontrolled cancer cell division in laboratory studies.
  b. ​Aflatoxin from corn and other grains is thought to attach methyl groups to both histones and DNA, helping to prevent the development of liver cancer.
  c. ​Genomics testing laboratories have shown the benefits of supplements that are matched to an individual’s personal genetic prescription.
  d. ​Supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 during pregnancy has been shown to turn off the “yellow and fat” gene in pups born to laboratory mice.
  e. ​High levels of certain vitamins and minerals in the diets of mice during pregnancy can result in favorable changes to the DNA sequence of their offspring.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Genomics: Can It Deliver on Its Promises?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Controversy 11 Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.7 – Describe the emerging science of nutritional genomics.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:15 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

71. Your friend’s parents both have heart disease. She is considering having genetic testing done so she can see what changes she might be able to make to reduce her risk of developing it as well. What would you tell her?​

  a. ​Genetic testing is an inexpensive way to understand your medical profile.
  b. ​Ethical concerns are minor when the information is released.
  c. ​You can make lifestyle changes known to reduce your risk without genetic testing.
  d. ​There are fully defined links between specific gene variations and chronic disease.
  e. ​The results of the test will allow you to make specific lifestyle changes that will prevent heart disease.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Genomics: Can It Deliver on Its Promises?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Controversy 11 Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.7 – Describe the emerging science of nutritional genomics.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:17 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

72. ​Most mutations in DNA sequences, called _____, involve the variation of a single​ _____ in a strand of DNA.

  a. moderators; epigenome
  b. ​SNPs; nucleotide
  c. ​promoters; histone
  d. ​initiators; platelet
  e. ​VTNRs; triglyceride

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Genomics: Can It Deliver on Its Promises?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
HAS VARIABLES:   False
PREFACE NAME:   Controversy 11 Multiple-Choice Items
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.7 – Describe the emerging science of nutritional genomics.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:18 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   6/25/2016 12:46 PM

 

Essay

 

73. ​Describe the effects that malnutrition has on the various immune-system organs and tissues and its effect on the risk of infectious disease.

ANSWER:   When deprived of sufficient essential nutrients, indispensable tissues and cells of the immune system can dwindle in size and number, leaving the whole body vulnerable to infection. The skin and body linings, the first line of defense against infections, become thinner because their connective tissue is broken down, allowing agents of disease easy access to body tissues. A healthy digestive system normally musters a formidable defense—its linings not only impose a physical barrier but also are heavily laced with immune tissues, cells, and antibodies that intercept intruders. When malnutrition sets in, all of these defenses diminish, and invading infectious agents encounter little resistance. Once inside the warm, moist, nutritious body fluids and tissues, microbes quickly multiply and infection ensues.
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Immune System, Nutrition, and Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.1 – Outline the relationship between malnutrition and disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:21 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

74. How would you decide whether certain diet recommendations are especially important to you to decrease your risk of chronic diseases? Provide an example.

ANSWER:   Some risk factors, such as avoiding tobacco, are important to everyone’s health. Others, such as some relating to diet, are more important for people who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases. To pinpoint your own areas of concern, you can search your family’s medical history for diseases common to your family. Any condition that shows up in several close blood relatives may be a special concern for you. For example, a person whose parents, grandparents, or other close blood relatives suffered from diabetes and heart disease is urgently advised to avoid becoming obese and not to smoke. Also, after your next physical examination, find out which test results are out of line. The combination of family medical history and laboratory test results is a powerful predictor of disease.
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Concept of Risk Factors
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.2 – Discuss the relationship between risk factors and chronic disease.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:23 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

75. Explain how atherosclerosis can make hypertension worse.

ANSWER:   ​Normally, the arteries expand with each heartbeat to accommodate the pulses of blood that flow through them. Arteries hardened and narrowed by plaque cannot expand, howeverRemember, the blood pressure rises. The increased pressure damages the artery walls further and strains the heart. Because plaques are more likely to form at damage sites, the development of atherosclerosis becomes a self-accelerating process.
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:25 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

76. ​Describe what is meant by the metabolic syndrome. What is a potential cause of metabolic syndrome?

ANSWER:   ​Several diet-related risk factors for CVD—low blood HDL cholesterol, high blood triglycerides, high blood pressure, elevated fasting blood glucose (insulin resistance), and central obesity—comprise a cluster of health risks known as metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome underlies several chronic diseases and increases the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes. The precise cause of metabolic syndrome is not known, but central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to be primary factors in its development. Metabolic syndrome, like the chronic diseases associated with it, involves inflammation and elevates the risk for thrombosis. Even obesity alone, especially central obesity, raises LDL cholesterol, lowers HDL cholesterol, raises blood pressure, and promotes insulin resistance. The opposite also holds true: weight loss and physical activity lower LDL, raise HDL, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower blood pressure.
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:33 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

77. Describe dietary and other strategies for reducing risk of CVD.

ANSWER:   A diet high in saturated fat and trans fatty acids contributes to high blood LDL cholesterol, whereas reducing those fats in the diet lowers blood LDL cholesterol and may reduce the risk of CVD. Wherever in the world populations consume diets high in saturated fat and low in fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains, blood cholesterol is high, and heart disease takes a toll on health and life. Conversely, wherever dietary fats are mostly unsaturated and where fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains are abundant, blood cholesterol and rates of heart disease are low. A diet too high in refined starches and added sugars has the potential to worsen heart disease risk by elevating blood triglycerides and inflammatory markers and by reducing HDL cholesterol. People with elevated triglycerides may find that replacing refined starches and sugars with whole grains, legumes, or vegetables helps to improve blood lipids. Fish oils, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, may reduce inflammation, lower triglycerides, prevent blood clots, and produce other effects that may reduce the risk of sudden death associated with both heart disease and stroke. For these reasons, the American Heart Association recommends two meals of fish per week. People diagnosed with heart disease may require more than this amount, preferably from additional servings of fatty fish.
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Cardiovascular Diseases
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.3 – Explain cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:35 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

78. ​Describe the DASH diet eating plan, including the types of foods and nutrients emphasized and limited by this plan.

ANSWER:   ​The DASH diet is a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and low-fat milk products and low in total fat and saturated fat. Compared to the typical American diet, the DASH eating plan provides more fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium; emphasizes legumes and fish over red meat; limits added sugars and sugar-containing beverages; and meets other recommendations of the report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee.
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Hypertension; The DASH Diet: Preventive Medicine
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.4 – Discuss hypertension and its risk factors, including nutrition risk factors.
NUCC.SIZR.17.11.6 – Outline strategies for including sufficient fruits and vegetables in a diet.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:38 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

79. Describe characteristics of diets or specific food components that are thought to protect or promote cancer.

ANSWER:   When calorie intakes are reduced, cancer rates fall. In animal experiments, this caloric effect proves to be one of the most effective dietary interventions to prevent cancer. It is also true that when a population’s calorie intake rises, cancer rates rise in response; excess calories from carbohydrate, fat, and protein all raise cancer rates.

The type of fat in the diet may influence cancer promotion or prevention. Studies of colon cancer implicate animal fats but not vegetable fat, and although a number of studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids from fish may protect against some cancers, others do not support such findings.

Processed meats may be of special concern. They contain additives, nitrites or nitrates, that contribute a pink color and deter bacterial growth in meats. In the digestive tract, nitrites and nitrates form other nitrogen-containing compounds that may be carcinogenic.

Grilling meat, fish, or other foods—even vegetables—over a direct flame causes fat and added oils to splash on the fire and then vaporize, creating other carcinogens that rise and stick to the food. Smoking foods has the same effect. Eating these foods, or even well-browned meats cooked to the crispy well-done stage, introduces carcinogens into the digestive system. A steady diet of foods containing significant amounts of these toxins can increase cancer risk.

Limit intake of fried foods such as French fries and potato chips, which contain acrylamide. Acrylamide is produced when certain starchy foods, such as potatoes, are fried or baked at high temperatures. In the bodyRemember,me acrylamide is metabolized to a substance that may mutate or damage genetic material.

Fiber may protect against cancer by binding, diluting, and rapidly removing potential carcinogens from the GI tract; alternatively, other constituents of fiber-rich foods, such as the phytochemicals of whole grains or the nutrients of fruits and vegetables, may be at work.

Folate plays roles in DNA synthesis and repair; thus, inadequate folate intakes may allow DNA damage to accumulate. Vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene warrant attention. Once cancer is established, such antioxidants may do more harm than good.

POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutrition and Cancer
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.5 – Explain the relationships between diet and cancer.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:41 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

80. What are SNPs? Describe how a common SNP in a fat metabolism gene changes the body’s response to dietary fats.

ANSWER:   The most common DNA mutations are SNPs, involving the variation of a single nucleotide in a strand of DNA. A single SNP in a high-powered gene can produce a severe disease immediately from birth, such as PKU. More commonly, SNPs do not cause a disease directly but may subtly work with other gene variants and with environmental factors such as diet to increase the risk of developing a chronic disease, such as heart disease, later in life. SNPs set the stage for a chronic disease but the person’s own choices are among the actors that cause it to develop.

As an example, a common SNP in a fat metabolism gene changes the body’s response to dietary fats. People with this SNP maintain lower blood LDL cholesterol when they eat a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and they develop higher blood LDL cholesterol when they consume less PUFA. A gene (in this case, a fat metabolism gene with a SNP) interacts with a nutrient from the diet (in this case, PUFA) to influence a risk factor for a disease (LDL cholesterol, implicated in heart disease).

POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Genomics: Can It Deliver on Its Promises?
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
HAS VARIABLES:   False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NUCC.SIZR.17.11.7 – Describe the emerging science of nutritional genomics.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand
DATE CREATED:   12/30/2015 3:50 AM
DATE MODIFIED:   1/4/2016 6:56 AM

 

 

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