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Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease 5th Edition Huether McCance Test Bank

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Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease 5th Edition Huether McCance Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323035071

ISBN-10: 0323035078

 

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Pathophysiology The Biologic Basis for Disease 5th Edition Huether McCance Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323035071

ISBN-10: 0323035078

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

Chapter 41: Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System

Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. In adults, hematopoiesis takes place exclusively in the long bones of the extremities.

 

ANS:   F                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1471

 

  1. An osteocyte is a transformed osteoblast that obtains nutrients from capillaries in the canaliculi and helps maintain mineral homeostasis.

 

ANS:   T                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1473

 

  1. Articular cartilage has no blood vessels, lymph vessels, or nerves.

 

ANS:   T                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1482

 

  1. Synovial fluid consists of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), intercellular matrix, protein polysaccharides, and water.

 

ANS:   F                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1481; p. 1482

 

  1. The balance between receptor activator of nuclear factor KB-ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) determine overall osteoclast formation.

 

ANS:   T                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1473

 

  1. A procallus is involved in repair of bones.

 

ANS:   T                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1478

 

  1. Diarthroses are the most movable and the most complex joints.

 

ANS:   T                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1481

 

  1. The joint capsule is avascular.

 

ANS:   F                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1481

 

  1. Remodeling is a three-phase process in which existing bone is resorbed and new bone is laid down to replace it.

 

ANS:   T                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1477

 

  1. During isotonic contraction, the muscle maintains a constant length as the tension is increased; but as the muscle contracts, the limb does not move.

 

ANS:   F                      PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1492

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which minerals are stored in bones?
A. Sodium, iron, and selenium
B. Phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium
C. Potassium, fluoride, and copper
D. Zinc, sulfur, and chloride

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1471

 

  1. Which bone cells are responsive to parathyroid hormone, produce osteocalcin when stimulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and synthesize osteoid?
A. Osteoclasts
B. Osteocytes
C. Fibrocytes
D. Osteoblasts

 

 

ANS:   D                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1472 | p. 1473

 

  1. What happens when bone is “resorbed” during the process of growth and repair?
A. Existing bone is replaced.
B. Bone hardens.
C. Bone is removed.
D. New bone is synthesized.

 

 

ANS:   C                     PTS:    1                      REF:    Fig. 41-5 | p. 1478

 

  1. Which of the following cells function to maintain bone matrix?
A. Osteoclasts
B. Osteocytes
C. Osteoblasts
D. Osteophytes

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1473

 

  1. Which bone cells are large, multinucleated cells of the bone that develop from mononuclear phagocytic cells and contain lysosomes filled with hydrolytic enzymes?
A. Osteoblasts
B. Osteoclasts
C. Osteocytes
D. Fibrocytes

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1473

 

  1. Which bone cell secretes citric and lactic acids to help dissolve bone minerals and collagenase, which aids in digesting collagen?
A. Osteocytes
B. Osteoblasts
C. Osteoclasts
D. Osteophytes

 

 

ANS:   C                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1474

 

  1. Which glucoprotein inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation and plays a part in bone resorption by recruiting osteoclasts?
A. Osteocalcin
B. Osteonectin
C. Laminin
D. Osteopontin

 

 

ANS:   A                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1474

 

  1. Which glucoprotein is thought to transport essential elements such as hormones, ions, and other metabolites to and from the bone cells?
A. Osteocalcin
B. Osteonectin
C. Laminin
D. Bone albumin

 

 

ANS:   D                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1475

 

  1. How is -glycoprotein different from albumin?
A. -Glycoprotein inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation longer than albumin.
B. -Glycoprotein has an affinity for calcium that is 40 times that of albumin.
C. -Glycoprotein is able to maintain osmotic pressure 10 times greater than albumin.
D. -Glycoprotein is able to transport essential elements, such as hormones and ions, faster than albumin.

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1475

 

  1. Compact bone is highly organizedRemember,lid, and extremely strong. The basic structural unit in compact bone is:
A. small channels called canaliculi.
B. osteocytes within the lacunae.
C. tiny spaces within the lacunae.
D. the haversian system.

 

 

ANS:   D                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1475

 

  1. Which part of a joint is insensitive to pain and regenerates slowly and minimally after injury?
A. Synovium
B. Articular cartilage
C. Bursa
D. Tendon

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1483

 

  1. The outer layer of the periosteum contains blood vessels and nervesRemember,me of which penetrate to the inner structures of the bone by way of:
A. Volkmann canals.
B. canaliculi.
C. Sharpey canals.
D. trabeculae.

 

 

ANS:   A                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1476 | p. 1477

 

  1. What is a function of Sharpey fibers?
A. They anchor the outer layer of the periosteum to the inner layer.
B. They contain blood vessels and nerves on the outer layer of the periosteum.
C. They help attach tendons and ligaments to the periosteum.
D. They attach muscles to the periosteum.

 

 

ANS:   C                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1477

 

  1. After puberty, the epiphyseal plate calcifies and the epiphysis and _____ merge.
A. epiphyseal line
B. epiphyseal plate
C. metaphysis
D. articular cartilage

 

 

ANS:   C                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1477

 

  1. In bone, the stage of healing that involves procallus formation entails:
A. formation of a hematoma that allows development of a fibrin network.
B. production of granulation tissue by fibroblasts, capillary buds, and osteoblasts.
C. development of a primitive bone matrix termed woven bone.
D. remodeling of the periosteal and endosteal bone surfaces.

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1478

 

  1. Which of the following terms describes a freely movable joint?
A. Synarthrosis
B. Amphiarthrosis
C. Biarthrosis
D. Diarthrosis

 

 

ANS:   D                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1479

 

  1. The teeth held in the maxilla or mandible are examples of which type of joint?
A. Amphiarthrosis
B. Diarthrosis
C. Synarthrosis
D. Gomphosis

 

 

ANS:   D                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1481

 

  1. The fibrocartilaginous joints between the ribs and sternum are an example of which type of joint?
A. Synchondrosis
B. Symphysis
C. Gomphosis
D. Syndesmosis

 

 

ANS:   A                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1481

 

  1. The elbow joint is an example of a(n):
A. amphiarthrosis.
B. diarthrosis.
C. synarthrosis.
D. biarthrosis.

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1481

 

  1. The synovial membrane has a thin layer called the intima. What is the function of the type A cells within the intima?
A. They release mast cells to initiate the inflammatory process after joint injury.
B. They ingest and remove bacteria and debris by phagocytosis in the joint cavity.
C. They secrete hyaluronate, a binding agent that gives synovial fluid its viscous quality.
D. They store fat cells and glycogen to provide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for joint activity.

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1482

 

  1. Which statement is false about synovial fluid?
A. It contains protein polysaccharides to repair the synovial membrane after injury.
B. It lubricates the joint surfaces.
C. It nourishes the pad of the articular cartilage.
D. It contains leukocytes to phagocytize joint debris and microorganisms.

 

 

ANS:   A                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1482

 

  1. Articular cartilage is anchored to the underlying bone via:
A. Sharpey fibers.
B. collagen.
C. glycoproteins.
D. elastin fibers.

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1482

 

  1. What acts as a pump to control the movement of synovial fluid through the cartilage?
A. Cartiloregulins
B. Hyaluronate
C. Proteoglycans
D. Chondroitin

 

 

ANS:   C                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1483

 

  1. Which statement is false about muscles?
A. Muscle comprises 50% of an adult’s body weight and 40% of a child’s.
B. Muscle is 75% water, 20% protein, and 5% organic and inorganic compounds.
C. Thirty-two percent of all protein stores for energy and metabolism are contained in muscle.
D. Muscles are encased in fascia.

 

 

ANS:   A                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1483

 

  1. Muscle fibers are termed type I (red) or type II (white). Which is a characteristic of type II fibers?
A. Slow contraction speed
B. Fast conduction velocities
C. Profuse capillary supply
D. Oxidative metabolism

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1487

 

  1. The greater the innervation ratio of a particular organ, the greater the:
A. fatigue.
B. movement.
C. strength.
D. endurance.

 

 

ANS:   D                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1485

 

  1. What is neuroregulin (NRG) and what is its role in muscle function?
A. It is a chemical mediator that initiates signals from the anterior horn cell of the spinal card to the axon of motor nerve branches of groups of muscle fibers.
B. It is a neurotransmitter that provides a means of reporting changes in length, tension, velocity, and tone in muscles.
C. It is a proteoglycan secreted by neurons that increases acetylcholine receptors.
D. It is a mechanoreceptor that lies parallel to muscle fibers and responds to muscle stretching.

 

 

ANS:   C                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1487

 

  1. Which of the following describes a muscle contraction’s four-step process?
A. Coupling, contraction, relaxation, excitation
B. Contraction, relaxation, excitation, coupling
C. Relaxation, excitation, coupling, contraction
D. Excitation, coupling, contraction, relaxation

 

 

ANS:   D                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1490

 

  1. Which ion directly controls the contraction of muscles?
A. Sodium
B. Potassium
C. Calcium
D. Magnesium

 

 

ANS:   C                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1490

 

  1. Which hormone influences the rate of protein synthesis of skeletal muscles?
A. Insulin
B. Cortisol
C. Parathyroid hormone
D. Growth hormone

 

 

ANS:   A                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1491

 

  1. In _____ contractions, the muscle maintains a constant tension as it moves.
A. isotonic
B. isometric
C. hypertonic
D. hypotonic

 

 

ANS:   A                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1492

 

  1. Which of the following describes a functional muscle contraction in which the muscle contracts but the limb does not move?
A. Isotonic contraction
B. Isometric contraction
C. Eccentric contraction
D. Concentric contraction

 

 

ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1492

 

  1. Which statement is false about aging and the musculoskeletal system?
A. Haversian systems erode, canals nearest the marrow cavity become widened, and the endosteal cortex converts to spongy bone.
B. The remodeling cycle increases because of a decreased ability of the basic multicellular units to resorb and deposit bone.
C. Cartilaginous rigidity increases because of decreasing water content and increasing concentrations of glycosaminoglycans.
D. Muscle RNA synthesis declines, although the regenerative function of muscle tissue is reportedly normal in the elderly population.

 

 

ANS:   A                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1493

 

MATCHING

 

Match the stages of wound healing of a bone with the description of each. Stages may be used more than once.

A. Callus replacement
B. Hematoma formation
C. Remodeling
D. Procallus formation
E. Callus formation

 

 

  1. Fibroblasts, capillary buds, and osteoblasts move into the wound to produce granulation tissue.

 

  1. Periosteal and endosteal surfaces of the bone are formed to the size and shape of the bone before the injury.

 

  1. Osteoblasts form membranous or woven bone. Enzymes increase the phosphate content and permit the phosphate to join with calcium to be deposited.

 

  1. Fibrin and platelets form a meshwork within the initial framework for healing.

 

  1. Osteoblasts continue to restore callus with lamellar bone or trabecular bone.

 

  1. Stage of bone healing that requires hours to complete.

 

  1. Stage of bone healing that requires days to complete.

 

  1. Stage of bone healing that requires weeks to complete.

 

  1. Stage of bone healing that requires years to complete.

 

  1. ANS:   D                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1478

 

  1. ANS:   C                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1478

 

  1. ANS:   E                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1478

 

  1. ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1478

 

  1. ANS:   A                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1478

 

  1. ANS:   B                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1479

 

  1. ANS:   D                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1479

 

  1. ANS:   E                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1479

 

  1. ANS:   C                     PTS:    1                      REF:    p. 1479

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