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Personality 9th Edition Burger Test Bank

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Personality 9th Edition Burger Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1285740225

ISBN-10: 128574022X

 

 

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Personality 9th Edition Burger Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1285740225

ISBN-10: 128574022X

 

 

 

 

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Chapter 10

The Biological Approach: Relevant Research

 

 

  1. One reason for the resistance by psychologists to acknowledge the important role of biology in human personality is that the
  2. biological determinants of personality matter little.
  3. blank slate view has such great appeal.
  4. field of psychology is determined to remain separate from biology.
  5. results of biologically-based research can always be explained without reference to genetic factors.

ANS: B    REF: 252

  1. How do most personality researchers phrase the “nature‑nurture” question today?
  2. Which determines personality—genetics or the environment?
  3. Which is more important in determining personality—genetics or the environment?
  4. To what extent are our personalities influenced by genetics?
  5. To what extent and how do both genetics and the environment influence personality?

ANS: D    REF: 253

  1. Researchers use the twin-study method to
  2. separate environmental from genetic influences.
  3. determine how much of our personality is inherited from our parents.
  4. determine how much of our personality is the result of experience.
  5. all of the above

ANS: D    REF: 254

  1. A personality psychologist designs an experiment in which she plans to use the twin-study method. The psychologist is probably conducting research to examine the
  2. stability of temperament over time.
  3. influence of genetics on personality.
  4. influence of siblings on personality.
  5. effects of birth order on personality.

ANS: B    REF: 254    WWW

  1. Those twins we commonly call “identical twins” are more technically called
  2. monozygotic.
  3. dizygotic.
  4. difertilized eggs.
  5. fraternal twins.

ANS: A    REF: 255

  1. Suppose you design a personality study in which you plan to use the twin-study method. You are probably conducting research to examine the
  2. influence of siblings on personality.
  3. stability of temperament over time.
  4. influence of genetics on personality.
  5. effects of birth order on personality.

ANS: C    REF: 254

  1. Researchers have difficulty determining genetic influences on personality when they simply compare children with their parents. This is because
  2. it is difficult to find comparable measures for children and adults.
  3. genetic and environmental influences on personality are confounded when using this method.
  4. it is difficult to find control groups that match the experimental groups.
  5. we need to follow the development of the children’s personalities for many years to determine genetic influences.

ANS: B    REF: 254

  1. Siblings’ personalities may be similar because
  2. children inherited personality traits from their parents.
  3. siblings share the same living environments during childhood.
  4. siblings are raised in the same way by parents.
  5. all of the above

ANS: D    REF: 254

  1. The twin‑study method is used by researchers to get around which methodological problem?
  2. Biased samples
  3. A confound between genetic and environmental influences
  4. Questions about generalizability
  5. Validity of measures

ANS: B    REF: 254

  1. Researchers using the twin‑study method take advantage of which naturally occurring phenomenon?
  2. Monozygotic twins have identical genes.
  3. Dizygotic twins have similar genes.
  4. Monozygotic twins are often treated alike by parents.
  5. Dizygotic twins are more alike genetically than typical siblings.

ANS: A    REF: 254

  1. Two babies that come from different fertilized eggs may be
  2. siblings.
  3. dizygotic twins
  4. unrelated
  5. all of the above

ANS: D    REF: 255

  1. Personality researchers sometimes examine the personalities of children who were adopted shortly after birth. They do this because
  2. these children were likely raised in a very supportive, nurturing environment.
  3. genetic and environmental influences are not confounded like they are when examining children raised by their biological parents.
  4. extensive records of the child’s health and early personality indicators are available.
  5. the researchers want to know if adoption is traumatic for the children.

ANS: B    REF: 256

  1. A researcher using the twin‑study method finds an average correlation of .50 between monozygotic twins’ scores on a measure of self‑esteem. The researcher finds an average correlation of .30 between dizygotic twins’ scores on this measure. The difference between the size of the correlations is statistically significant. What conclusion might the researcher draw from these results?
  2. Genetics has more of an influence on self‑esteem than environment has.
  3. There is evidence for a genetic influence on self‑esteem.
  4. There is no evidence for a genetic influence on self‑esteem.
  5. The results are opposite of what would be expected if there were a genetic influence on self‑esteem.

ANS: B    REF: 256

  1. A psychologist conducts research using the twin-study method. He administers a need for Achievement scale to sets of monozygotic and dizygotic twins and finds a correlation of .50 between the scores for pairs of monozygotic twins. If this study is to demonstrate evidence for a genetic influence on need for Achievement, what would we expect the correlation to be between scores for pairs of dizygotic twins?
  2. Higher than .50
  3. Lower than .50
  4. Very close to .50
  5. There is no way to demonstrate a genetic influence with these data.

ANS: B    REF: 256

  1. Which assumption is made by researchers using the twin‑study method?
  2. Dizygotic twins share an environment that is more similar than the environment shared by monozygotic twins.
  3. Monozygotic twins share an environment that is more similar than the environment shared by dizygotic twins.
  4. Dizygotic twins share an environment that is just as similar as the environment shared by monozygotic twins.
  5. Monozygotic twins will be treated more alike than dizygotic twins.

ANS: C    REF: 255

  1. Behavior genetics researchers have taken their data from twin studies and used formulas to estimate that about _________ percent of the stability in adult personalities can be attributed to genetics.
  2. 10
  3. 20
  4. 30
  5. 40

ANS: D    REF: 257

  1. Compared to the results obtained using other research methods, the results from twin‑study research
  2. probably underestimate the role of genetics in personality.
  3. make a stronger case for the role of genetic influences on personality.
  4. are less subject to criticisms about underlying assumptions.
  5. often are not replicated.

ANS: B    REF: 257    WWW

  1. One problem with adoption studies is that the homes in which twins are placed
  2. are so very different that comparisons cannot be made.
  3. are often very similar because adoptive families are similar in important ways.
  4. are highly specialized for adoptive parenting.
  5. allow the same genetic influences to emerge.

ANS: B    REF: 257

  1. Although it is difficult to determine precisely how much of personality is determined by genetics, the results of twin studies suggest that genetics probably accounts for about _______ percent of the variance of adult personality.
  2. 85
  3. 60
  4. 40
  5. 5

ANS: C    REF: 257

  1. The assumption that MZ and DZ twins are raised in equally similar environments can be problematic. Which of the following is a problem?
  2. DZ twins may be treated more alike than identical twins.
  3. MZ twins purposefully join different clubs and have different friends.
  4. MZ twins may share more of their environment than DZ twins.
  5. All of the above

ANS: C    REF: 257

  1. Which of the following is a problem for the assumption that MZ and DZ twins are raised in equally similar environments?
  2. DZ twins may be treated more alike than identical twins.
  3. MZ twins purposefully join different clubs and have different friends.
  4. MZ twins may share more of their environment than DZ twins.
  5. All of the above

ANS: C    REF: 258

  1. Which of the following kinds of data provides the weakest scientific evidence for a genetic influence on personality?
  2. Twin-study data
  3. Similarity between personalities of parents and children raised by their parents
  4. Adoption studies data
  5. Comparing personalities of twins separated at birth

ANS: B    REF: 258     WWW

  1. Critics have pointed to several weaknesses in the research used to make a case for the role of genetics on personality development. Their criticisms include each of the following points except one. Which one?
  2. Dizygotic twins may share an environment more alike than the environment shared by monozygotic twins.
  3. Families who adopt children are different from those who do not adopt.
  4. Parents may treat adopted children differently than they treat biological children.
  5. Parents of dizygotic twins may look for and emphasize the differences between the twins more than parents of monozygotic twins.

ANS: A    REF: 258

  1. Research on genetic determinants of personality tell us that
  2. personality is fixed at birth.
  3. most, but not all, of adult personality is determined by genetics.
  4. a significant percentage of adult personality is determined by genetics, but experience also plays a large role.
  5. except for a few traits, there is very little genetic influence on personality.

ANS: C    REF: 258

  1. Which of the following hypothetical research findings would present a problem for researchers trying to interpret results from a twin-study design?
  2. Parents of monozygotic twins treat the two twins more alike than do parents of dizygotic twins.
  3. Dizygotic twins don’t look as much like one another as do monozygotic twins.
  4. Parents treat female pairs of twins differently than they treat male twins.
  5. There are more dizygotic twins born each year than monozygotic twins.

ANS: A    REF: 258

  1. Some investigators suggest that genetic influences on personality may not be seen unless a unique combination of more than one gene is inherited. Researchers refer to these complex influences as ________ effects.
  2. interactive
  3. nonadditive
  4. multiple-gene
  5. compound

ANS: B    REF: 259

  1. The genetic influence of some personality traits may not be seen unless a specific combination of genes in inherited. Such complex influences are known as
  2. monozygotic influences.
  3. nonadditive effects.
  4. combinatorial effects.
  5. genetic correlations.

ANS: B    REF: 259

  1. One reason twin studies produce higher estimates of heritability than some other methods may be that the twin studies
  2. capture nonadditive effects of genetics.
  3. often incorrectly classify dizygotic and monozygotic twins.
  4. are based on small samples.
  5. overlook gender differences.

ANS: A    REF: 259

  1. Research on extraversion‑introversion has found
  2. consistent evidence for a genetic component to extraversion‑introversion.
  3. some evidence for a genetic component to extraversion‑introversion, but a significant amount of research that disputes this.
  4. almost no evidence for a genetic component to extraversion‑introversion.
  5. consistent evidence arguing against a genetic component to extraversion‑introversion.

ANS: A    REF: 259

  1. Research on the genetic heritability of extraversion-introversion has made use of
  2. brain electrical activity measures.
  3. the twin-study method.
  4. differences in sensitivity to stimulation.
  5. only twins that have been reared together (in the same environment).

ANS: B    REF: 260

  1. One team of investigators examined where extraverts and introverts sat in the library. They based their predictions on which of the following notions?
  2. Extraverts enjoy people more than introverts do.
  3. Introverts are more likely to study in the library than extraverts.
  4. Extraverts and introverts have different levels of preferred arousal and different sensitivity to stimulation.
  5. Introverts are less spontaneous than extraverts.

ANS: C    REF: 261

  1. Research finds that, compared to introverts, extraverts tend to
  2. be happier, but only on weekends.
  3. be less happy.
  4. have higher levels of subjective well-being and happiness.
  5. be just about as happy, but they enjoy different things.

ANS: C    REF: 263

  1. A team of researchers examined where extraverts and introverts sat in the library. Which of the following did the team find?
  2. Extraverts preferred open, accessible locations, whereas introverts preferred isolated locations.
  3. Introverts preferred open, accessible locations, whereas extraverts preferred isolated locations.
  4. Extraverts enjoyed open, accessible locations better, but got more work done in an isolated location.
  5. a clear pattern for extraverts, but no preferred location for introverts

ANS: A    REF: 261

  1. Based on research on extraversion‑introversion, which piece of advice seems justified?
  2. Extraverts should isolate themselves in a quiet place if they are going to get any work done.
  3. Introverts should move to a more stimulating environment if they are having trouble studying.
  4. Because they are less aware of external disturbances than extraverts are, introverts should be better able to study in a room filled with potential distractions.
  5. Introverts should study in quieter places than extraverts study.

ANS: D    REF: 262

  1. As reported in the , research demonstrating a genetic influence on a person’s level of extraversion-introversion comes primarily from research
  2. using the twin-study method.
  3. comparing adopted children and biological children to their parents.
  4. comparing strength of relationship with similarity of personality scores.
  5. comparing adopted children’s personalities with the personalities of their biological parents.

ANS: A    REF: 260

  1. Margaret is an extravert. She has to study for a test in the morning.  Where is the most likely place she will choose to study?
  2. In a quiet room
  3. Alone in an isolated study area in the library
  4. In an open area in the library where she can see a lot of other students
  5. Outside in a place where others can’t disturb her

ANS: C    REF: 263

  1. You know a woman who has many friends and is often out having fun. But this woman also typically acts before thinking, thus bringing her a lot of trouble. This woman is probably
  2. high on neuroticism.
  3. low on neuroticism.
  4. an extravert.
  5. an introvert.

ANS: C    REF: 263

  1. Those acquaintances of yours who prefer quiet and perhaps isolated rooms in which to study are, according to research, more likely to be
  2. neurotics.
  3. extraverts.
  4. introverts
  5. of no particular personality.

ANS: C    REF: 263

  1. For extraverts, friends often serve as an important buffer against stress. This finding supports the idea that extraverts
  2. are generally more anxious than introverts.
  3. often find interacting with friends an unpleasant experience.
  4. are less sensitive to information about rewards than introverts.
  5. have higher positive affect due to greater social activity.

ANS: D    REF: 265

  1. The fact that friends often serve as a buffer against stress supports the idea that extraverts
  2. are generally more anxious than introverts.
  3. have higher positive affect due to greater social activity.
  4. are less sensitive to information about rewards than introverts.
  5. often find interacting with friends to be an unpleasant experience.

ANS: B    REF: 265    WWW

  1. A researcher asks extraverts and introverts to work on a series of math problems while listening to loud or soft music. Based on past research, we would expect to find that
  2. the extraverts do better on the test, regardless of the music level.
  3. the introverts do better when listening to loud music, the extraverts better when listening to soft music.
  4. the extraverts do better when listening to loud music, the introverts better when listening to soft music.
  5. introverts and extraverts do equally well regardless of how loud the music is playing.

ANS: C    REF: 263

  1. In one study introverts found themselves ________ mood when the experimenter instructed them to act more extraverted.
  2. in the same
  3. in a better
  4. in a sour
  5. more sad in

ANS: B    REF: 265

  1. Research has found that extraverts are not always happier than introverts. Why not?
  2. Extraverts are more likely to be impulsive.
  3. Extraverts are more likely to be socially active.
  4. Introverts do not involve themselves in activities that increase feelings of competence and worth.
  5. Extraverts are more sensitive to positive feedback.

ANS: A    REF: 266

  1. A researcher reports that men in this country tend to marry younger women and women tend to marry older men. This finding might be used to support which theory?
  2. Eysenck’s theory of personality
  3. The five-factor model
  4. The goodness of fit model
  5. Evolutionary personality theory

ANS: D    REF: 266

  1. Which of the following is true about parental investment?
  2. Males are more selective about with whom they choose to mate than females.
  3. Males of many species are free to mate with as many females as they can.
  4. Investment in selecting a mate is larger for males than for females.
  5. Males select mates who are more likely to be good parents.

ANS: B    REF: 267

  1. According to evolutionary personality theory, men prefer physically attractive women because
  2. the attributes we call beautiful are associated with youth and fertility.
  3. physically attractive women tend to be in better health.
  4. physically attractive women tend to be stronger and thus better able to survive.
  5. they want physically attractive offspring.

ANS: A    REF: 267    WWW

  1. According to evolutionary personality theory, men and women base their choice of romantic partners in part on concerns for “parental investment.” This means we
  2. want the parents of our spouses to be involved in the raising of our children.
  3. select mates who are likely to contribute to successful reproduction and child-raising.
  4. consider what the parents of our potential partners are like because personality is partly inherited from one’s parents.
  5. prefer partners for whom both parents were actively involved with their children.

ANS: B    REF: 266

  1. The “lipstick effect” refers to
  2. the application of more lipstick at different times during the ovulatory cycle.
  3. how cosmetic marketing often heightens insecurity about one’s appearance.
  4. the tendency for women to spend more money on cosmetics during bad economic times.
  5. men who pay more attention to superficial beauty.

ANS: C    REF: 268

  1. Cross-cultural studies find similar patterns of what men and women look for in their spouses across many different cultures. These findings support evolutionary personality theory because they suggest that mate preferences do not merely reflect differences in
  2. social learning patterns.
  3. the genetic makeup of different cultures.
  4. inherited human characteristics.
  5. economic opportunities in different cultures.

ANS: A    REF: 269

  1. According to the parental investment model, women prefer men who are
  2. the same age they are.
  3. capable of achieving financial security.
  4. physically attractive.
  5. gentle and sensitive to their needs.

ANS: B    REF: 271

  1. Which of the following research findings do advocates of evolutionary personality theory point to as strong evidence for their interpretation of mate selection?
  2. Most people eventually get married and have children.
  3. College students today tend to get married for the same reasons college students got married a generation ago.
  4. Men and women say they look for just about the same qualities in their spouses.
  5. The qualities people say they look for in their spouses are the same reported by men and women from many different cultures.

ANS: D    REF: 269

  1. We can safely say that one result of the human male’s preference in mate selection is that
  2. women share intimate secrets about their sexual encounters.
  3. women compete for promotions in the workplace.
  4. women will compete for a man’s attention.
  5. all of the above

ANS: C    REF: 271

  1. One limitation of evolutionary personality theory with regard to mate selection is that
  2. it assumes mate selection is a direct result of environmental influences.
  3. the methods do not give researchers the ability to make strong predictions.
  4. researchers cannot manipulate the variables they study.
  5. our instincts inherited from ancestors may overshadow the characteristics men and women look for in some cultures.

ANS: C    REF: 274

  1. Discuss the rationale behind the twin-study method and adoption studies of genetic influence. Give the general findings regarding the contribution of genetic influences on personality.  Discuss any problems associated with each of these methods of research.

REF: 254-259

  1. Discuss the difference in preference for arousal between extraverts and introverts. Give two ways in which sensitivity to stimulation translates into behavior.  What research evidence has been offered for the heritability of the extraversion?

REF: 260-262

  1. Discuss what men look for in women and describe the research that supports the evolutionary basis of mate selection in men. Discuss what women look for in men and describe the research that supports the evolutionary basis of mate selection in women.

REF: 267-272

 

  1. For both technological reasons and ethical reasons, it is not possible to manipulate people’s genes and observe the kind of adult they become.

ANS: TRUE    REF: 253

  1. The most popular method used to examine the role of genetics and the environment in personality is the factor analysis method.

ANS: FALSE    REF: 254

  1. Extraversion has one of the strongest genetic components of any personality variable.

ANS: TRUE    REF: 262

  1. Each person born an introvert will develop a lower sensitivity to stimulation than those born extraverts.

ANS: FALSE    REF: 263

  1. Extraverts are less likely than introverts to seek out tasks that will make them happy.

ANS: FALSE    REF: 265

 

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