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Pharmacology An Introduction 6th Edition Hitner Nagle Test Bank

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Pharmacology An Introduction 6th Edition Hitner Nagle Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073520865

ISBN-10: 0073520861

 

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Pharmacology An Introduction 6th Edition Hitner Nagle Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073520865

ISBN-10: 0073520861

 

 

 

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Chapter 41

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. What are the two dyes used in gram staining?
    A. Crystal violet and safranin
    B. Crystal violet and methylene blue
    C. Methylene blue and safranin
    D. Iodine & methylene blue

 

  1. What are two methods used to determine antibiotic susceptibility?
    A. Disk test and agar plating
    B. Disk test and serial dilution
    C. Serial dilution and agar plating
    D. Disk test and autoclaving

 

  1. An antibiotic will have no effect on an infection if:
    A. The antibiotic is broad-spectrum.
    B. The bacteria is not resistant to the antibiotic.
    C. The bacteria does not lie within the drug’s antibacterial spectrum.
    D. Beta-lactamase activity is not present.

 

  1. Susceptibility of bacterial resistance to penicillin can be attributed to:
    A. The broad-spectrum nature of penicillin
    B. The ineffective response toward gram-positive bacteria
    C. Chemoprophylaxis
    D. The beta-lactam ring structure of the antibiotic

 

  1. Which scenario best represents an ideal candidate for chemoprophylaxis?
    A. A traveler who has had heart valve surgery and is vacationing in South America
    B. A patient scheduled to have hip replacement surgery
    C. An individual not responding to current antibiotic treatment
    D. A patient with uncontrollable diarrhea

 

 

  1. What type of antibiotic action inhibits the reproduction of bacteria?
    A. Bactericidal
    B. Bacteriostatic
    C. Culture and sensitivity testing
    D. Chemoprophylaxis

 

  1. A person experiencing a delayed allergic reaction to a penicillin will likely be switched to a(n):
    A. Aminoglycoside
    B. Tetracycline
    C. Cephalosporin
    D. Sulfonamide

 

  1. A substance that is ingested and increases acetylation activity of the liver would have what type of effect on isoniazid activity?
    A. Antagonism
    B. No activity
    C. Enhanced activity
    D. Decreased activity

 

  1. What must be done if a patient on vancomycin exhibits a flushing redness of the neck and upper body?
    A. Slow the IV drip rate.
    B. Increase the IV drip rate.
    C. Immediately discontinue, and administer antidote for overdose.
    D. Immediately discontinue, and change to another antibiotic.

 

  1. A person taking a diuretic and rifampin should be aware of:
    A. Increased risk of renal bleeding
    B. Voiding red-orange urine
    C. Potential oliguria
    D. Extreme diuresis

 

 

  1. A decrease in rifampin effectiveness with other medications may be due to:
    A. Increased acetylation
    B. Increased beta-lactamase activity
    C. Enterohepatic cycling
    D. Bacterial resistance

 

  1. Why is methicillin no longer used in treating resistant staphylococcal infections?
    A. It is no longer resistant to penicillinase.
    B. Penicillin binding proteins have changed so much that methicillin is now ineffective.
    C. Autolytic enzymes produced by bacteria have become resistant.
    D. Methicillin is toxic.

 

  1. Meningitis can be effectively treated with:
    A. First-generation cephalosporins
    B. Second-generation cephalosporins
    C. Third-generation cephalosporins
    D. Fourth-generation cephalosporins

 

  1. Which one of the following reactions requires emergency medical attention?
    A. Disulfiram reaction
    B. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
    C. Fanconi syndrome
    D. Pruritis and photosensitivity

 

  1. Alcohol consumption should be avoided with which antibiotics?
    A. Penicillins and macrolides
    B. Aminoglycosides and tetracyclines
    C. Cephalosporins and metronidazole
    D. Sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones

 

 

  1. Which group of penicillins has shown beta-lactamase resistance?
    A. First-generation penicillins
    B. Second-generation penicillins
    C. Third-generation penicillins
    D. Fourth-generation penicillins

 

  1. Aminoglycosides can produce a synergistic bactericidal action when combined with:
    A. Cephalosporins
    B. Tetracyclines
    C. Sulfonamides
    D. Macrolides

 

  1. Which antibiotics can be used for bowel sterilization prior to surgery?
    A. Penicillins and macrolides
    B. Aminoglycosides and sulfonamides
    C. Cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones
    D. Tetracyclines and aztreonam

 

  1. Photosensitivity is a reaction that can occur from using which antibiotics?
    A. Macrolides and fluoroquinolones
    B. Chloramphenicol and metronidazole
    C. Tetracyclines and sulfonamides
    D. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide

 

  1. Nephrotoxicity is a concern in which families of antibiotics?
    A. Tetracyclines and second-generation cephalosporins
    B. Sulfonamides and third-generation cephalosporins
    C. Macrolides and fourth-generation cephalosporins
    D. Aminoglycosides and first-generation cephalosporins

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 713)What are the two dyes used in gram staining?
    A. Crystal violet and safranin
    B. Crystal violet and methylene blue
    C. Methylene blue and safranin
    D. Iodine & methylene blue

One of the most important bacteriological stains is the gram stain, which contains two dyes: crystal violet (blue) and safranin (red).

 

ABHES Competency: 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Remembering
CAAHEP Competency: III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents.
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 41.1 Explain the use of the gram stain in bacterial identification and understanding culture and sensitivity testing.

  1. (p. 714)What are two methods used to determine antibiotic susceptibility?
    A. Disk test and agar plating
    B. Disk test and serial dilution
    C. Serial dilution and agar plating
    D. Disk test and autoclaving

Two of the simplest methods to determine antibiotic susceptibility are the disk test and serial dilution.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Remembering
CAAHEP Competency: III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 41.1 Explain the use of the gram stain in bacterial identification and understanding culture and sensitivity testing.

 

 

  1. (p. 715)An antibiotic will have no effect on an infection if:
    A. The antibiotic is broad-spectrum.
    B. The bacteria is not resistant to the antibiotic.
    C. The bacteria does not lie within the drug’s antibacterial spectrum.
    D. Beta-lactamase activity is not present.

Each antibacterial drug is generally effective for only a limited number of pathogenic bacteria. These susceptible bacteria make up the antibacterial spectrum for that particular drug.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Understanding
CAAHEP Competency: III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 41.2 Identify the meaning of the terms antibacterial spectrum, bacterial resistance, chemoprophylaxis, and chemotherapy.

  1. (p. 715)Susceptibility of bacterial resistance to penicillin can be attributed to:
    A. The broad-spectrum nature of penicillin
    B. The ineffective response toward gram-positive bacteria
    C. Chemoprophylaxis
    D. The beta-lactam ring structure of the antibiotic

Certain bacteria have the ability to produce enzymes that inactivate penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. These enzymes are referred to generally as beta-lactamases.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Understanding
CAAHEP Competency: III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 41.2 Identify the meaning of the terms antibacterial spectrum, bacterial resistance, chemoprophylaxis, and chemotherapy.

 

 

  1. (p. 715)Which scenario best represents an ideal candidate for chemoprophylaxis?
    A. A traveler who has had heart valve surgery and is vacationing in South America
    B. A patient scheduled to have hip replacement surgery
    C. An individual not responding to current antibiotic treatment
    D. A patient with uncontrollable diarrhea

Chemoprophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics before bacterial infection has developed in order to prevent infection. Individuals who have had rheumatic fever, heart valve replacement, knee and hip replacement, and other conditions are particularly susceptible to infections that can cause endocarditis and heart valve damage.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Understanding
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 41.2 Identify the meaning of the terms antibacterial spectrum, bacterial resistance, chemoprophylaxis, and chemotherapy.

  1. (p. 714)What type of antibiotic action inhibits the reproduction of bacteria?
    A. Bactericidal
    B. Bacteriostatic
    C. Culture and sensitivity testing
    D. Chemoprophylaxis

Bacteriostatic drugs inhibit the reproduction (growth) of bacteria.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Understanding
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Outcome: 41.2 Identify the meaning of the terms antibacterial spectrum, bacterial resistance, chemoprophylaxis, and chemotherapy.

 

 

  1. (p. 720)A person experiencing a delayed allergic reaction to a penicillin will likely be switched to a(n):
    A. Aminoglycoside
    B. Tetracycline
    C. Cephalosporin
    D. Sulfonamide

Some individuals are allergic to both penicillins and cephalosporins. Usually, cephalosporins can be used in patients who are allergic to penicillins.

 

ABHES Competency: 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Applying
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 41.4 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of cephalosporins.

  1. (p. 727)A substance that is ingested and increases acetylation activity of the liver would have what type of effect on isoniazid activity?
    A. Antagonism
    B. No activity
    C. Enhanced activity
    D. Decreased activity

Isoniazid is well absorbed orally and metabolized by acetylation. Slow acetylators usually experience better antibacterial results, but also experience more adverse effects of the drug.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology b. Identify and apply the knowledge of all body systems; their structure and functions; and their common diseases, symptoms, and etiologies. c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Applying
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 41.11 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of antitubercular drugs.

 

 

  1. (p. 727)What must be done if a patient on vancomycin exhibits a flushing redness of the neck and upper body?
    A. Slow the IV drip rate.
    B. Increase the IV drip rate.
    C. Immediately discontinue, and administer antidote for overdose.
    D. Immediately discontinue, and change to another antibiotic.

A condition known as “red man syndrome” may occur when IV administration is too rapid. There is a flushing redness of the neck and upper body due to histamine release.

 

ABHES Competency: 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Applying
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 41.10 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of miscellaneous antimicrobial drugs.

  1. (p. 728)A person taking a diuretic and rifampin should be aware of:
    A. Increased risk of renal bleeding
    B. Voiding red-orange urine
    C. Potential oliguria
    D. Extreme diuresis

Rifampin also stains urine, tears (contact lens), and other body fluids orange-red.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Applying
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 41.11 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of antitubercular drugs.

 

 

  1. (p. 728)A decrease in rifampin effectiveness with other medications may be due to:
    A. Increased acetylation
    B. Increased beta-lactamase activity
    C. Enterohepatic cycling
    D. Bacterial resistance

Rifampin is taken orally, undergoes enterohepatic cycling, and induces drug-metabolizing enzymes. This leads to a decrease in the duration of action of both itself and other drugs and may require an increase in drug dosage.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Applying
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 41.11 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of antitubercular drugs.

  1. (p. 717)Why is methicillin no longer used in treating resistant staphylococcal infections?
    A. It is no longer resistant to penicillinase.
    B. Penicillin binding proteins have changed so much that methicillin is now ineffective.
    C. Autolytic enzymes produced by bacteria have become resistant.
    D. Methicillin is toxic.

Because of its toxicity, methicillin is no longer available.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Applying
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Outcome: 41.3 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of penicillins.

 

 

  1. (p. 720)Meningitis can be effectively treated with:
    A. First-generation cephalosporins
    B. Second-generation cephalosporins
    C. Third-generation cephalosporins
    D. Fourth-generation cephalosporins

These drugs are more lipid soluble and cross the blood-brain barrier more readily than most other penicillins and cephalosporins.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology b. Identify and apply the knowledge of all body systems; their structure and functions; and their common diseases, symptoms, and etiologies. c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Analyzing
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Outcome: 41.4 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of cephalosporins.

  1. (p. 724)Which one of the following reactions requires emergency medical attention?
    A. Disulfiram reaction
    B. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
    C. Fanconi syndrome
    D. Pruritis and photosensitivity

A very serious type of skin condition, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, produces a skin reaction that can be fatal. Patients who develop any rash after ingestion of the sulfonamides must receive medical evaluation.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology b. Identify and apply the knowledge of all body systems; their structure and functions; and their common diseases, symptoms, and etiologies. c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Analyzing
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Outcome: 41.7 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of sulfonamides.

 

 

  1. (p. 720 and 726)Alcohol consumption should be avoided with which antibiotics?
    A. Penicillins and macrolides
    B. Aminoglycosides and tetracyclines
    C. Cephalosporins and metronidazole
    D. Sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones

Cephalosporins that possess the N-methylthiotetrazone side chain (cefamandole, cefoperazone, cefotetan, others) may interfere with blood coagulation and cause bleeding problems. In addition, these same drugs can cause a disulfiram reaction when combined with alcohol, and patients must be warned to avoid any alcohol consumption when taking these drugs. When mixed with alcohol, metronidazole may cause a disulfiram-like reaction.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Analyzing
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Outcome: 41.4 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of cephalosporins. 41.10 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of miscellaneous antimicrobial drugs.

  1. (p. 716)Which group of penicillins has shown beta-lactamase resistance?
    A. First-generation penicillins
    B. Second-generation penicillins
    C. Third-generation penicillins
    D. Fourth-generation penicillins

Another subgroup of first-generation penicillins is resistant to penicillinase and is indicated primarily for the treatment of resistant staphylococcal (staph) infections.

 

ABHES Competency: 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Analyzing
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Outcome: 41.3 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of penicillins.

 

 

  1. (p. 721)Aminoglycosides can produce a synergistic bactericidal action when combined with:
    A. Cephalosporins
    B. Tetracyclines
    C. Sulfonamides
    D. Macrolides

Aminoglycosides do have some gram-positive activity and are often administered in combination with one of the penicillins or cephalosporins in the treatment of serious gram-positive and gram-negative infections. The combination produces a synergistic bactericidal action.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Analyzing
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Outcome: 41.4 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of aminoglycosides.

 

 

  1. (p. 721 and 723)Which antibiotics can be used for bowel sterilization prior to surgery?
    A. Penicillins and macrolides
    B. Aminoglycosides and sulfonamides
    C. Cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones
    D. Tetracyclines and aztreonam

The aminoglycosides are poorly absorbed from the GI tract, and this effect is used to advantage before intestinal surgery. Large doses are given orally before abdominal surgery to reduce the number of intestinal bacteria and sterilize the bowel. In addition, because of their poor oral absorptionRemember,me sulfonamides are used to reduce intestinal bacteria before intestinal surgery.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology b. Identify and apply the knowledge of all body systems; their structure and functions; and their common diseases, symptoms, and etiologies. c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Analyzing
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Outcome: 41.4 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of aminoglycosides. 41.7 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of sulfonamides.

 

 

  1. (p. 723 and 724)Photosensitivity is a reaction that can occur from using which antibiotics?
    A. Macrolides and fluoroquinolones
    B. Chloramphenicol and metronidazole
    C. Tetracyclines and sulfonamides
    D. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide

The tetracyclines also produce photosensitivity in some individuals. The sulfonamides also may produce allergic reactions, which usually are limited to the skin and mucous membranes. The most common reactions include rashes, pruritis, and photosensitivity.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology b. Identify and apply the knowledge of all body systems; their structure and functions; and their common diseases, symptoms, and etiologies. c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Analyzing
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Outcome: 41.6 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of tetracyclines. 41.7 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of sulfonamides.

 

 

  1. (p. 720 and 721)Nephrotoxicity is a concern in which families of antibiotics?
    A. Tetracyclines and second-generation cephalosporins
    B. Sulfonamides and third-generation cephalosporins
    C. Macrolides and fourth-generation cephalosporins
    D. Aminoglycosides and first-generation cephalosporins

The first-generation cephalosporins may cause nephrotoxicity, especially in patients with renal impairment or in patients who are dehydrated. When taken orally, the aminoglycosides may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. When administered parenterally, the two most serious adverse effects are nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.

 

ABHES Competency: 2. Anatomy and Physiology b. Identify and apply the knowledge of all body systems; their structure and functions; and their common diseases, symptoms, and etiologies. c. Assist the physician with the regimen of diagnostic and treatment modalities as they relate to each body system. 6. Pharmacology b. Properly utilize PDR, drug handbook, and other drug references to identify a drug’s classification, usual dosage, usual side effects, and contraindications. 9. Medical Office Clinical Procedures d. Recognize and understand various treatment protocols.
Bloom’s: Analyzing
CAAHEP Competency: I. Anatomy and Physiology 11. Identify the classifications of medications, including desired effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. 12. Describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology of all body systems and medications used for treatment in each. III. Applied Microbiology/Infection Control 5. List major types of infectious agents. 6. Compare different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms.
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Outcome: 41.4 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of cephalosporins. 41.5 Explain the mechanism of action, main uses, and most serious adverse effects of aminoglycosides.

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