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Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 14th Edition Tortora Derrickson Test Bank

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Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 14th Edition Tortora Derrickson Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1118345009

ISBN-10: 1118345002

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Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 14th Edition Tortora Derrickson Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1118345009

ISBN-10: 1118345002

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Package Title: Testbank

Course Title: pap14

Chapter Number: 14

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) The brain and spinal cord develop from the _____ neural tube.

 

  1. a) mesodermal
  2. b) endodermal
  3. c) ectodermal
  4. d) cranial
  5. e) caudal

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.19 Describe how the parts of the brain develop.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.9 Development of the Nervous System

 

 

2) Which brain vesicle gives rise to the midbrain and cerebral aqueduct?

 

  1. a) Prosencephalon
  2. b) Mesencephalon
  3. c) Rhombencephalon
  4. d) Telencephalon
  5. e) Myelencephalon

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.19 Describe how the parts of the brain develop.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.9 Development of the Nervous System

 

 

3) Which of the following is NOT a major region of the brain?

 

  1. a) Brain stem
  2. b) Cerebellum
  3. c) Cauda equina
  4. d) Diencephalon
  5. e) Cerebrum

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.1 Identify the major parts of the brain and explain how the brain is protected.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.1.1 Identify the major parts of the brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply

 

 

4) Which of the following brain structures consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain?

 

  1. a) Brain stem
  2. b) Cerebrum
  3. c) Cerebellum
  4. d) Diencephalon
  5. e) Dura mater

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.1 Identify the major parts of the brain and explain how the brain is protected.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.1.1 Identify the major parts of the brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply

 

 

5) Which of the following brain structures consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus?

 

  1. a) Cerebellum
  2. b) Brain stem
  3. c) Cerebrum
  4. d) Diencephalon
  5. e) Dura mater

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.1 Identify the major parts of the brain and explain how the brain is protected.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.1.1 Identify the major parts of the brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply

 

 

6) Which of the following meninges has two layers?

 

  1. a) Spinal dura mater
  2. b) Cranial dura mater
  3. c) Spinal arachnoid mater
  4. d) Cranial arachnoid mater
  5. e) All of these choices

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.1 Identify the major parts of the brain and explain how the brain is protected.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.1.2 Describe how the brain is protected.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply

 

 

7) Which extension of the dura mater separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum?

 

  1. a) Falx cerebri
  2. b) Falx cerebelli
  3. c) Tentorium cerebelli
  4. d) Tentorium cerebri
  5. e) None of these choices

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.1 Identify the major parts of the brain and explain how the brain is protected.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.1.2 Describe how the brain is protected.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply

 

 

8) Which of the following structures protect the brain by preventing the movement of harmful substances and pathogens from the blood into the brain tissue?

 

  1. a) Dura mater
  2. b) Arachnoid mater
  3. c) Cerebrospinal fluid
  4. d) Blood brain barrier
  5. e) All of these choices

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.1 Identify the major parts of the brain and explain how the brain is protected.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.1.2 Describe how the brain is protected.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply

 

 

9) Cerebrospinal fluid carries small amounts of chemicals like glucose from the _____ to neurons and neuroglia.

 

  1. a) interstitial fluid
  2. b) bile
  3. c) intracellular fluid
  4. d) arachnoid space
  5. e) blood

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.2 Explain the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

 

10) Which of the following is a fluid-filled cavity located in each hemisphere of the cerebrum?

 

  1. a) Lateral ventricle
  2. b) Septum pellucidum
  3. c) Fourth ventricle
  4. d) Third ventricle
  5. e) Corpus callosum

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.2 Explain the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

 

11) Which of the following is a narrow fluid-filled cavity found along the midline superior to the hypothalamus and between the right and left halves of the thalamus?

 

  1. a) Lateral ventricle
  2. b) Septum pellucidum
  3. c) Third ventricle
  4. d) Fourth ventricle
  5. e) Fifth ventricle

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.2 Explain the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

 

12) Which of the following describes a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
1. Mechanical protection
2. pH homeostasis
3. Circulation

 

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) 3 only
  4. d) Both 1 and 2
  5. e) All of these choices

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.2 Explain the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

 

13) Which of the following are networks of capillaries that produce cerebrospinal fluid and are found in the walls of the ventricles of the brain?

 

  1. a) Choroid plexuses
  2. b) Lateral apertures
  3. c) Interventricular foramina
  4. d) Brachial plexuses
  5. e) Aqueduct of the midbrain

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.2 Explain the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

 

14) Which fingerlike projections found in the dural venous sinuses reabsorb cerebrospinal fluid?

 

  1. a) Choroid plexuses
  2. b) Microvilli
  3. c) Arachnoid villi
  4. d) Dural villi
  5. e) Lemnisci

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.2 Explain the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

 

15) Which of the following disorders is the most common brain disorder?

 

  1. a) Transient ischemic attack
  2. b) Alzheimer’s disease
  3. c) Cerebrovascular accident
  4. d) Brain tumor
  5. e) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.21 Describe the disorders that affect the brain and cranial nerves.

Section Reference 1: Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that Affect the Brain

 

 

16) Which brain structure is responsible for the “startle reflex” in response to loud sounds?

 

  1. a) Superior colliculus
  2. b) Inferior colliculus
  3. c) Pontine nucleus
  4. d) Medial lemniscus
  5. e) Arbor vitae

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.3 Describe the structures and functions of the brain stem and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation

 

 

17) Which region of the brain contains the pontine respiratory group and apneustic areas that help control respiration?

 

  1. a) Spinal cord
  2. b) Midbrain
  3. c) Pons
  4. d) Thalamus
  5. e) Cerebellum

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.3 Describe the structures and functions of the brain stem and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation

 

 

18) Pyramids are

 

  1. a) gray matter protrusions found on the medulla oblongata.
  2. b) white matter protrusions found on the medulla oblongata.
  3. c) gray matter protrusions found on the pons.
  4. d) white matter protrusions found on the pons.
  5. e) a network of white and gray matter found in the medulla oblongata.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.3 Describe the structures and functions of the brain stem and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation

 

 

19) Which region of the brain contains the inferior olivary nucleus?

 

  1. a) Pons
  2. b) Medulla oblongata
  3. c) Pyramids
  4. d) Hypothalamus
  5. e) Midbrain

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.3 Describe the structures and functions of the brain stem and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation

 

 

20) Which of the following is a branch of the trigeminal (V) nerve?

 

  1. a) Opthalmic nerve
  2. b) Maxillary nerve
  3. c) Mandibular nerve
  4. d) All of these are branches of the trigeminal (V) nerve
  5. e) None of these are branches of the trigeminal (V) nerve

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.12 Identify the origin of the trigeminal (V) nerve in the brain, describe the foramina through which each of its three major branches exits the skull, and explain the function of each branch.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.D Trigeminal (V) Nerve

 

 

21) Which of the following is a nucleus found in the medulla oblongata that receives sensory information associated with touch, pressure and vibration?

 

  1. a) Tectum
  2. b) Superior colliculus
  3. c) Substantia nigra
  4. d) Pontine nucleus
  5. e) Gracile nucleus

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.3 Describe the structures and functions of the brain stem and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation

 

 

22) Which of the following is a nucleus found in the midbrain that releases dopamine?

 

  1. a) Substantia nigra
  2. b) Inferior olivary nucleus
  3. c) Inferior colliculus
  4. d) Cerebral peduncle
  5. e) pontine nucleus

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.3 Describe the structures and functions of the brain stem and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation

 

 

23) Which portion of the cerebellum contributes to equilibrium and balance?

 

  1. a) Tentorium cerebelli
  2. b) Anterior lobe
  3. c) Posterior lobe
  4. d) Flocculonodular lobe
  5. e) Transverse fissure

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

24) The cerebellar cortex consists of folia, which are

 

  1. a) parallel folds of white matter.
  2. b) found in the vermis only.
  3. c) portions of the pyramids.
  4. d) parallel folds of gray matter.
  5. e) used in the RAS system.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

25) Which structure carries sensory information coming from proprioceptors found in the trunk and limbs into the cerebellum?

 

  1. a) Inferior cerebellar peduncle
  2. b) Middle cerebellar peduncle
  3. c) Superior cerebellar peduncle
  4. d) Anterior lobe
  5. e) Posterior lobe

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

26) Which region of the brain serves as the major relay station for most sensory impulses that reach the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex from the spinal cord and brain stem?

 

  1. a) Thalamus
  2. b) Hypothalamus
  3. c) Epithalamus
  4. d) Pons
  5. e) Midbrain

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.5 Describe the components and functions of the diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus).

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

27) Which of the following are NOT controlled by the hypothalamus?

 

  1. a) Hunger
  2. b) Thirst
  3. c) Blood calcium concentration
  4. d) Emotional behavior
  5. e) Body temperature

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.5 Describe the components and functions of the diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus).

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

28) Which of the following glands is directly controlled by hormones produced by the hypothalamus?

 

  1. a) Posterior pituitary gland
  2. b) Anterior pituitary gland
  3. c) Thymus gland
  4. d) Pancreas
  5. e) Pineal gland

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.5 Describe the components and functions of the diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus).

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

29) Which region of the brain contains the pineal gland?

 

  1. a) Thalamus
  2. b) Cerebellum
  3. c) Hypothalamus
  4. d) Cerebrum
  5. e) Epithalalmus

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.5 Describe the components and functions of the diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus).

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

30) During brain development, the gyri of the cerebrum are formed because

 

  1. a) the white matter enlarges faster than the overlying gray matter.
  2. b) the cerebrum grows faster than the dura mater.
  3. c) the hypothalamus is larger than the epithalamus.
  4. d) the gray matter grows faster than the underlying white matter.
  5. e) the lobes of the cerebrum are not symmetrical.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their locations and functions.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.6.1 Describe the cortex, gyri, fissures, and sulci of the cerebrum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

31) Which of the following structures conducts nerve impulses between the two different hemispheres of the cerebrum?

 

  1. a) Association tracts
  2. b) Corpus callosum
  3. c) Projection tracts
  4. d) Pyramids
  5. e) Sulci

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their locations and functions.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.6.3 Describe the tracts that compose the cerebral white matter.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

32) Together the lentiform and caudate nuclei are known as the

 

  1. a) globus pallidus.
  2. b) putamen.
  3. c) medial geniculate nucleus.
  4. d) corpus striatum.
  5. e) internal capsule.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their locations and functions.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.6.4 Describe the nuclei that compose the basal nuclei.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

33) Which of the following functional areas of the cerebrum is responsible for sensing body touch and temperature?

 

  1. a) Broca’s area
  2. b) Primary visual area
  3. c) Common integrative area
  4. d) Prefrontal cortex area
  5. e) Primary somatosensory area

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization, brain wave activity and the effects of learning on the nervous system.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.1 Describe the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

34) Which of the following functional areas of the cerebrum is responsible for vision?

 

  1. a) Broca’s area
  2. b) Primary visual area
  3. c) Common integrative area
  4. d) Primary olfactory area
  5. e) Primary somatosensory area

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization and brain wave activity.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.1 Describe the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

35) Which of the following functional areas of the cerebrum is responsible for conscious movements of the body?

 

  1. a) Broca’s area
  2. b) Primary visual area
  3. c) Somatosensory association area
  4. d) Primary motor area
  5. e) Primary somatosensory area

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization, brain wave activity and the effects of learning on the nervous system.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.1 Describe the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

36) Which of the following functional areas of the cerebrum is responsible for speech?

 

  1. a) Broca’s area
  2. b) Primary gustatory area
  3. c) Common integrative area
  4. d) Prefrontal cortex area
  5. e) Primary somatosensory area

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization, brain wave activity and the effects of learning on the nervous system.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.1 Describe the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

37) Which of the following cranial nerves carries sensory information coming from the nasal cavity to the olfactory area of the cerebrum?

 

  1. a) olfactory (I) nerve (cranial nerve I)
  2. b) trigeminal (V) nerve (cranial nerve V)
  3. c) abducens (VI) nerve (cranial nerve VI)
  4. d) vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve (cranial nerve VIII)
  5. e) vagus (X) nerve (cranial nerve X)

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.9 Identify the termination of the olfactory (I) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it passes, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.A Olfactory (I) Nerve

 

 

38) Which of the following cranial nerves control movements of the eyeball?

 

  1. a) optic (II) nerve, oculomotor (III) nerve, and trochlear (IV) nerve
  2. b) olfactory (I) nerve, trigeminal (V) nerve, and vagus (X) nerve
  3. c) oculomotor (III) nerve, glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve, and trigeminal (V) nerve
  4. d) oculomotor (III) nerve, trochlear (IV) nerve, and abducens (VI) nerve
  5. e) vagus (X) nerve, accessory (XI) nerve, and hypoglossal (XII) nerve

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.11 Identify the origins of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves in the brain, the foramen through which each exits the skull, and their functions.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.C Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves

 

 

39) Cranial nerve V is also known as the _____ nerve.

 

  1. a) trochlear
  2. b) oculomotor
  3. c) trigeminal
  4. d) vagus
  5. e) abducens

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.12 Identify the origin of the trigeminal (V) nerve in the brain, describe the foramina through which each of its three major branches exits the skull, and explain the function of each branch.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.D Trigeminal (V) Nerve

 

 

40) Which of the following cranial nerves is responsible for regulating visceral activity?

 

  1. a) Oculomotor
  2. b) Trigeminal
  3. c) Spinal accessory
  4. d) Facial
  5. e) Vagus

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.16 Identify the origin of the vagus (X) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.H Vagus (X) Nerve

 

 

41) Which of the following cranial nerves is primarily responsible for changing facial expressions?

 

  1. a) Oculomotor
  2. b) Trigeminal
  3. c) Spinal accessory
  4. d) Facial
  5. e) Vagus

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.13 Identify the origins of the facial nerve (VII)  in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.E Facial (VII) Nerve

 

 

42) Which of the labeled structures in the diagram is the thalamus?

 

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.5 Describe the components and functions of the diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus).

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.5 The Diencephalon

 

 

43) Which of the labeled structures in the diagram contains centers that control heart rate and blood pressure?

 

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) D
  4. d) E
  5. e) F

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.3 Describe the structures and functions of the brain stem and reticular formation.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation

 

 

44) This major portion of the brain is used to monitor movements initiated by the motor areas of the cerebrum.

 

  1. a) B
  2. b) E
  3. c) F
  4. d) C
  5. e) A

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.4 Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.4 The Cerebellum

 

 

Question type: Essay

 

 

45) In 1848, a railroad worker named Phineas Gage was seriously injured during an explosion on the job. A tapered metal rod ranging from 0.25 inches to 1.25 inches in diameter and over 3 feet long entered his skull just under his left cheek bone and exited through the top of his skull. The rod was found over twenty feet away. Amazingly, Gage lived even though he suffered massive damage to the left front of his brain. His personality and intellectual abilities changed, however. Before the accident, he was respected as a smart, capable and even-tempered man. After the accident, he was foul-mouthed and bad-tempered and could not make up his mind. In the years immediately preceding his death, he began to have epileptic seizures. Explain the changes observed in Mr. Gage based on your knowledge of the brain.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization, and brain wave activity.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.1 Describe the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

Solution: The accident apparently damaged the frontal lobe and specifically the prefrontal cortex of the left side of Mr. Gage’s brain. The frontal lobe is involved in memory and intellect. The prefrontal cortex is involved in judgment, ethics, and conscious. The changes Mr. Gage experienced indicate that the right side of his brain could not compensate for the losses on the left side of the brain. It is remarkable that the story doesn’t mention that Mr. Gage lost some motor function on his right side since it is controlled by the primary motor region on left side of the brain. There is also no mention of loss of speech, which is largely processed on the left side of the brain. Perhaps the iron rod just missed those areas. As far as the epileptic seizures are concerned, it is possible that the accident damaged the basal ganglia to some degree. As he aged and lost connections between neurons that damage might have become more evident as the basal ganglia could no longer communicate effectively with the rest of the brain.

 

 

46) Describe the structural and functional relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.5 Describe the components and functions of the diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus).

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.5 The Diencephalon

Solution: The hypothalamus releases regulatory hormones into the capillary networks in the median eminence to increase or decrease hormone production and secretion from the anterior pituitary. Axons from the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei extend through the infundibulum to the posterior pituitary. Their cell bodies produce oxytocin or antidiuretic hormone, which through axonal transport these hormones are moved into the posterior pituitary where they are stored and released from the axon terminals.

 

 

Question type: Multiple Choice

 

 

47) Anosmia may result from head injuries in which the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone is fractured. This condition results in impaired function of which cranial nerve in the diagram?

 

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.9 Identify the termination of the olfactory nerve (I)  in the brain, the foramen through which it passes, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.A Olfactory (I) Nerve

 

 

48) Which cranial nerve in the diagram is primarily involved in the sense of vision?

 

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.10 Identify the termination of the optic nerve (II) in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.B Optic (II) Nerve

 

 

49) Which cranial nerve in the diagram has a somatic motor function primarily involved in moving the upper eyelid and eyeball?

 

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) F

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.11 Identify the origins of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (IV) nerves in the brain, the foramen through which each exits the skull, and their functions.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.C Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves

 

 

50) Which cranial nerve in the diagram has an autonomic motor function primarily involved in near vision accommodation and constriction of the pupil?

 

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) F

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.11 Identify the origins of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves in the brain, the foramen through which each exits the skull, and their functions.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.C Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves

 

 

51) Damage to which of the cranial nerves in the diagram would result in strabismus?

 

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) E
  5. e) G

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.11 Identify the origins of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI)  nerves in the brain, the foramen through which each exits the skull, and their functions.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.C Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves

 

 

52) Which cranial nerve in the diagram has a somatic motor function primarily involved in chewing?

 

  1. a) E
  2. b) G
  3. c) H
  4. d) I
  5. e) J

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.12 Identify the origin of the trigeminal (V) nerve in the brain, describe the foramina through which each of its three major branches exits the skull, and explain the function of each branch.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.D Trigeminal (V) Nerve

 

 

53) The maxillary branch of this labeled cranial nerve is found in the area where dentists apply anesthetic drugs for numbing the upper jaw.

 

  1. a) E
  2. b) G
  3. c) H
  4. d) I
  5. e) J

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.12 Identify the origin of the trigeminal (V) nerve in the brain, describe the foramina through which each of its three major branches exits the skull, and explain the function of each branch.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.D Trigeminal (V) Nerve

 

 

54) Which cranial nerve in the diagram innervates the lateral rectus muscle?

 

  1. a) B
  2. b) C
  3. c) D
  4. d) E
  5. e) F

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.11 Identify the origins of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves in the brain, the foramen through which each exits the skull, and their functions.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.C Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves

 

 

55) Damage to which cranial nerve in the diagram will cause the inability of an eyeball to move laterally beyond the midpoint?

 

  1. a) B
  2. b) C
  3. c) D
  4. d) E
  5. e) F

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.11 Identify the origins of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves in the brain, the foramen through which each exits the skull, and their functions.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.C Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves

 

 

56) Which cranial nerve in the diagram has an autonomic motor function primarily involved in the secretion of saliva and tears?

 

  1. a) B
  2. b) C
  3. c) D
  4. d) F
  5. e) G

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.13 Identify the origins of the facial (VII) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which its exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.E facial (VII) Nerve

 

 

57) Damage to which cranial nerve in the diagram by shingles or Lyme disease produces Bell’s palsy?

 

  1. a) F
  2. b) G
  3. c) H
  4. d) I
  5. e) L

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.13 Identify the origins of the facial (VII) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which its exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.E facial (VII) Nerve

 

 

58) Which cranial nerve in the diagram has an autonomic motor function primarily involved in stimulating secretion of saliva?

 

  1. a) F
  2. b) I
  3. c) J
  4. d) K
  5. e) L

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.15 Identify the origin of the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.G Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve

 

 

59) Which cranial nerve in the diagram causes heart rate to decrease?

 

  1. a) H
  2. b) I
  3. c) J
  4. d) K
  5. e) L

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.16 Identify the origin of the vagus (X) nerve in the brain, the foramen through which it exits the skull, and its function.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.H Vagus (X) Nerve

 

 

60) Which cranial nerve in the diagram is involved with speech and swallowing and has a purely motor function?

 

  1. a) H
  2. b) I
  3. c) J
  4. d) K
  5. e) L

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.12 Identify the origin of the trigeminal nerve (V) in the brain, describe the foramina through which each of its three major branches exits the skull, and explain the function of each branch.

Section Reference 1: Exhibit 14.D Trigeminal (V) Nerve

 

 

61) Hand preference when writing or throwing is an example of

 

  1. a) cranial nerve damage.
  2. b) hemispheric lateralization.
  3. c) damage to the olfactory nerve.
  4. d) damage to the Broca’s area.
  5. e) None of these choices.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization and brain wave activity.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.2 Explain the significance of hemispheric lateralization.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

62) Patients with damage in the left hemisphere often exhibit aphasia (inability to use or comprehend words). This is an example of

 

  1. a) apraxia.
  2. b) delirium.
  3. c) cerebral lacerations.
  4. d) hemispheric lateralization.
  5. e) decussations.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization and brain wave activity.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.2 Explain the significance of hemispheric lateralization.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

63) An electroencephalogram (EEG) measures brain waves primarily generated by

 

  1. a) neurons in the pons.
  2. b) neurons in the medulla oblongata.
  3. c) neurons in the thalamus.
  4. d) neurons in the cerebral cortex.
  5. e) neurons in the cerebellum.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization and brain wave activity.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.3 Define brain waves and indicate their significance.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

64) This type of brain wave occurs at regular intervals when a person is awake but not when a person is sleeping.

 

  1. a) Alpha waves
  2. b) Beta waves
  3. c) Theta waves
  4. d) Delta waves.
  5. e) All of the selections are correct

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization and brain wave activity.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.3 Define brain waves and indicate their significance.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

65) Brain waves that generally appear during periods of sensory input and mental activity are called

 

  1. a) alpha waves.
  2. b) beta waves.
  3. c) theta waves.
  4. d) delta waves.
  5. e) P waves.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization and brain wave activity.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.3 Define brain waves and indicate their significance.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

66) Brain waves that appear during deep sleep are called

 

  1. a) alpha waves.
  2. b) beta waves.
  3. c) theta waves.
  4. d) delta waves.
  5. e) P waves.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Study Objective 1: SO 14.7 Describe the location and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and the importance of hemispheric lateralization and brain wave activity.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.7.3 Define brain waves and indicate their significance.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

 

 

67) Blood flows to the brain through the _____ arteries and away from the brain through the _____ vein.

 

  1. a) internal carotid and vertebral; internal jugular
  2. b) external carotid and vertebral; external jugular
  3. c) internal jugular and vertebral; internal carotid
  4. d) internal carotid and axillary; internal jugular
  5. e) external jugular and axillary; external jugular

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.1 Identify the major parts of the brain and explain how the brain is protected.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.1.3 Describe the blood supply of the brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply

 

 

68) Which of the following statements best describes the structure of the blood-brain barrier that provides its functional characteristics?

 

  1. a) Processes of astrocytes wrap tightly around capillaries in the brain.
  2. b) Tight junctions tightly seal endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain.
  3. c) Gap junctions tightly seal endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain.
  4. d) Spot desmosomes tightly link capillary endothelial cells together.
  5. e) The basement membrane of capillaries in the brain contains extremely small pores.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.1 Identify the major parts of the brain and explain how the brain is protected.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.1.3 Describe the blood supply of the brain.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply

 

 

69) A deep indentation found along the medial plane that separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the

 

  1. a) septum pellucidum.
  2. b) transverse fissure.
  3. c) tentorium cerebelli.
  4. d) corpus callosum.
  5. e) longitudinal fissure.

 

Answer: e

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their locations and functions.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.6.1 Describe the cortex, gyri, fissures, and sulci of the cerebrum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

70) The central sulcus of the cerebrum separates the

 

  1. a) two cerebral hemispheres.
  2. b) frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
  3. c) frontal lobe from the temporal lobe.
  4. d) parietal lobe from the temporal lobe.
  5. e) temporal lobe from the occipital lobe.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their locations and functions.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.6.2 List and locate the lobes of the cerebrum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

71) Which lobe of the cerebrum is found deep to the other four lobes and thus cannot be observed from the surface?

 

  1. a) occipital lobe
  2. b) temporal lobe
  3. c) parietal lobe
  4. d) insula
  5. e) corpus callosum

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Study Objective 1: SO 14.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their locations and functions.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.6.2 List and locate the lobes of the cerebrum.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

72) Which of the following types of tracts are used to conduct nerve impulses between gyri within the same cerebral hemisphere?

 

  1. a) Association tracts
  2. b) Commissural tracts
  3. c) Projection tracts
  4. d) Mammillothalamic tracts
  5. e) Stria medullaris

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their locations and functions.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.6.3 Describe the tracts that compose the cerebral white matter.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

73) Which three areas of gray matter found in each cerebral hemisphere are important in helping to control the initiation and termination of skeletal muscle movements?

 

  1. a) red nuclei
  2. b) vestibular nuclei
  3. c) lateral olivary nuclei
  4. d) basal nuclei
  5. e) autonomic ganglia

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their locations and functions.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.6.4 Describe the nuclei that compose the basal nuclei.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

74) Damage to which portion of the limbic system results in loss of memory of recent events and difficulty committing anything new to memory?

 

  1. a) amygdala
  2. b) dentate gyrus
  3. c) cingulate gyrus
  4. d) hippocampus
  5. e) septal nuclei

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.6 Describe the features of the cerebrum including their locations and functions.

Study Objective 2: SO 14.6.5 List the structures and describe the functions of the limbic system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.6 The Cerebrum

 

 

75) A common type of disabling senile dementia that affects about 11% of the population over 65 and results in loss of reasoning and ability to care for oneself, is called

 

  1. a) agnosia.
  2. b) prosopagnosia.
  3. c) Alzheimer disease.
  4. d) transient ischemic attack syndrome.
  5. e) amylotrophic lateral sclerosis.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Study Objective 1: SO 14.20 Describe the effects of aging on the nervous system.

Section Reference 1: Sec 14.10 Aging and the Nervous System

 

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