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Principles of Animal Physiology 2nd Edition Moyes Schulte Test Bank

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ISBN-10: 0321501551

 

 

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Principles of Animal Physiology 2nd Edition Moyes Schulte Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321501554

ISBN-10: 0321501551

 

 

 

 

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Chapter 7      Functional Organization of Nervous Systems

Principles of Animal Physiology, 2e (Moyes/Schulte)

 

 

1)

 

When preparing a mummy for burial, the ancient Egyptians and Greeks preserved this organ because it was believed to be the “seat of consciousness.”

 

  1. A)

 

brain

 

  1. B)

 

heart

 

  1. C)

 

kidneys

 

  1. D)

 

liver

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 306

 

 

2)

 

Functional magnetic resonance imaging works because brain areas that are working harder use more __________ than brain areas that are resting.

 

  1. A)

 

sodium

 

  1. B)

 

glucose

 

  1. C)

 

oxygen

 

  1. D)

 

ATP

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 307

 

 

3)

 

Integrating centers typically contain large numbers of

 

  1. A)

 

interneurons.

 

  1. B)

 

sensory neurons.

 

  1. C)

 

efferent neurons.

 

  1. D)

 

motor neurons.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 308

 

 

4)

 

The axons of afferent and efferent neurons are usually organized into structures called

 

  1. A)

 

nuclei.

 

  1. B)

 

ganglia.

 

  1. C)

 

nerves.

 

  1. D)

 

tracts.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 310

 

 

5)

 

Invertebrates possess a

 

  1. A)

 

solid ventral nerve cord.

 

  1. B)

 

hollow ventral nerve cord.

 

  1. C)

 

solid dorsal nerve cord.

 

  1. D)

 

hollow dorsal nerve cord.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 312

 

6)

 

The optic nerve functions to

 

  1. A)

 

transmit visual information from the retina.

 

  1. B)

 

control movement of the eye.

 

  1. C)

 

control movement of the eyelid.

 

  1. D)

 

sense touch on the skin surrounding the eye.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: Table 7.1

 

 

7)

 

In the vertebrate brain and spinal cord, white matter consists of __________ and gray matter consists of __________.

 

  1. A)

 

axons and myelin; cell bodies and dendrites

 

  1. B)

 

sensory neurons; motor neurons

 

  1. C)

 

axons and myelin; ganglia

 

  1. D)

 

the dorsal horn; the ventral horn

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 314

 

 

8)

 

In the vertebrate spinal cord, the dorsal horn is associated with __________ neurons, and the ventral horn is associated with __________ neurons.

 

  1. A)

 

motor; sensory

 

  1. B)

 

inter; sensory

 

  1. C)

 

afferent; efferent

 

  1. D)

 

spinal; cranial

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 314

 

 

9)

 

In vertebrates, substances from the blood can access the central nervous system by

 

  1. A)

 

gap junctions.

 

  1. B)

 

pinocytosis.

 

  1. C)

 

catalyzed transport.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 314

 

 

10)

 

The ventricles of the vertebrate brain contain

 

  1. A)

 

neurons.

 

  1. B)

 

glia.

 

  1. C)

 

cerebrospinal fluid.

 

  1. D)

 

dura mater.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 315

 

 

11)

 

Among other things, the hindbrain is responsible for

 

  1. A)

 

regulation of involuntary behaviors such as breathing.

 

  1. B)

 

coordination of visual and auditory information.

 

  1. C)

 

regulation of eating and reproduction.

 

  1. D)

 

conversion of short-term memories into long-term memories.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 315

 

 

12)

 

Relative to other major groups of vertebrates, mammals and birds both have an enlarged

 

  1. A)

 

forebrain.

 

  1. B)

 

midbrain.

 

  1. C)

 

hindbrain.

 

  1. D)

 

dorsoventricular ridge.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 316

 

 

13)

 

The following structures of the mammalian nervous system, from posterior to anterior, are laid out in the following order:

 

  1. A)

 

spinal cord, medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellum.

 

  1. B)

 

spinal cord, pons, cerebellum, medulla oblongata.

 

  1. C)

 

medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cerebellum, pons.

 

  1. D)

 

pons, cerebellum, spinal cord, medulla oblongata.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 317

 

 

14)

 

What does the midbrain do in fish and amphibians?

 

  1. A)

 

It coordinates reflex responses to auditory and visual stimuli.

 

  1. B)

 

It detects the presence of pheromones.

 

  1. C)

 

It is responsible for maintaining body posture.

 

  1. D)

 

It controls heart rate and blood pressure.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 318

 

 

15)

 

In nonmammalian vertebrates, the optic lobes are located in the

 

  1. A)

 

forebrain.

 

  1. B)

 

midbrain.

 

  1. C)

 

hindbrain.

 

  1. D)

 

spinal cord.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 318

 

16)

 

Which of the following structures is NOT included in the limbic system?

 

  1. A)

 

amygdala

 

  1. B)

 

hypothalamus

 

  1. C)

 

olfactory bulb

 

  1. D)

 

cerebellum

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: Fig. 7.11

 

 

17)

 

The limbic system is associated with

 

  1. A)

 

emotion.

 

  1. B)

 

motivation.

 

  1. C)

 

decision-making.

 

  1. D)

 

all of the above

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 320, 321

 

 

18)

 

How many distinct layers does the mammalian cortex have?

 

  1. A)

 

6

 

  1. B)

 

4

 

  1. C)

 

3

 

  1. D)

 

2

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 322

 

 

19)

 

In the mammalian brain, the __________ lobe is involved with visual processing.

 

  1. A)

 

frontal

 

  1. B)

 

parietal

 

  1. C)

 

occipital

 

  1. D)

 

temporal

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 323

 

 

20)

 

In a newly discovered vertebrate, the area in the somatosensory cortex devoted to body part A is larger than the area devoted to body part B. This means that body part A

 

  1. A)

 

is bigger than body part B.

 

  1. B)

 

has more sensory neurons.

 

  1. C)

 

is evolutionarily older.

 

  1. D)

 

has more motor control.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 323, Fig. 7.15

 

21)

 

The efferent branch of the peripheral nervous system is composed of the __________ and __________ divisions.

 

  1. A)

 

somatic motor; autonomic

 

  1. B)

 

visceral; emotional

 

  1. C)

 

sympathetic; parasympathetic

 

  1. D)

 

autonomic; involuntary

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 324

 

 

22)

 

The autonomic nervous system can be differentiated into three branches. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

 

  1. A)

 

enteric

 

  1. B)

 

sympathetic

 

  1. C)

 

parasympathetic

 

  1. D)

 

limbic

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 325

 

 

23)

 

The __________ nervous system is most active during periods of stress or physical activity, while the __________ nervous system is most active during periods of rest.

 

  1. A)

 

sympathetic; parasympathetic

 

  1. B)

 

parasympathetic; sympathetic

 

  1. C)

 

voluntary; involuntary

 

  1. D)

 

parasympathetic; enteric

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 325

 

 

24)

 

Most sympathetic pathways originate in the __________ regions of the CNS.

 

  1. A)

 

thoracic and lumbar

 

  1. B)

 

hindbrain and sacral

 

  1. C)

 

cranial

 

  1. D)

 

postganglionic

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 328

 

 

25)

 

In the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, the preganglionic neuron releases the neurotransmitter

 

  1. A)

 

acetylcholine.

 

  1. B)

 

nicotine.

 

  1. C)

 

glycine.

 

  1. D)

 

epinephrine.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 330, Fig. 7.19

 

26)

 

What receptors do the neurosecretory chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla express?

 

  1. A)

 

adrenergic

 

  1. B)

 

muscarinic cholinergic

 

  1. C)

 

nicotinic cholinergic

 

  1. D)

 

glutamatergic

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 330, Fig. 7.19

 

 

27)

 

The __________ nervous system is sometimes referred to as the “fight or flight” nervous system.

 

  1. A)

 

autonomic

 

  1. B)

 

somatic

 

  1. C)

 

parasympathetic

 

  1. D)

 

sympathetic

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 325

 

 

28)

 

The simplest reflex arc, containing only a primary afferent and an effector neuron, is sometimes referred to as

 

  1. A)

 

monosynaptic.

 

  1. B)

 

bineural.

 

  1. C)

 

convergent.

 

  1. D)

 

voluntary.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 333

 

 

29)

 

Central pattern generators do NOT control

 

  1. A)

 

rhythmic behaviors.

 

  1. B)

 

motor pathways.

 

  1. C)

 

reflex arcs.

 

  1. D)

 

locomotion.

 

Answer:

 

C

 

Page Ref: 334

 

 

30)

 

The locomotor pattern generator is located in the

 

  1. A)

 

spinal cord.

 

  1. B)

 

brainstem.

 

  1. C)

 

autonomic nervous system.

 

  1. D)

 

peripheral nervous system.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 335

 

31)

 

The basic mechanism for short-term sensitization begins with

 

  1. A)

 

decreased neurotransmitter release.

 

  1. B)

 

increased presynaptic calcium.

 

  1. C)

 

increased expression of CREB-1.

 

  1. D)

 

increased potassium conductance.

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 339

 

 

32)

 

Which structure is important for the formation of long-term memory in mammals?

 

  1. A)

 

hippocampus

 

  1. B)

 

hypothalamus

 

  1. C)

 

cortex

 

  1. D)

 

medulla oblongata

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 340

 

 

33)

 

Which of the following statements is true about learning?

 

  1. A)

 

It refers to the retention and retrieval of stored information.

 

  1. B)

 

It occurs only in vertebrates.

 

  1. C)

 

It normally represents a permanent change.

 

  1. D)

 

It occurs as the result of nervous system plasticity.

 

Answer:

 

D

 

Page Ref: 338

 

 

34)

 

The hippocampus is important for the

 

  1. A)

 

formation of long-term memories.

 

  1. B)

 

regulation of body temperature.

 

  1. C)

 

Integration of sensory information.

 

  1. D)

 

maintenance of body posture.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 340

 

 

35)

 

Hearing a loud and unexpected noise in the night activates the

 

  1. A)

 

sympathetic nervous system.

 

  1. B)

 

parasympathetic nervous system.

 

  1. C)

 

somatic nervous system.

 

  1. D)

 

enteric nervous system.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 325

 

 

36)

 

Homeostasis is maintained by the

 

  1. A)

 

hypothalamus.

 

  1. B)

 

cerebral cortex.

 

  1. C)

 

hippocampus.

 

  1. D)

 

limbic system.

 

Answer:

 

A

 

Page Ref: 319

 

37)

 

This brain structure is greatly reduced in mammals relative to other vertebrates.

 

  1. A)

 

cerebellum

 

  1. B)

 

midbrain

 

  1. C)

 

forebrain

 

  1. D)

 

isocortex

 

Answer:

 

B

 

Page Ref: 316-318, Fig. 7.9

 

 

38)

 

Phineas Gage was a railway worker who survived an accident in which a tamping iron was driven through his head. After recovery, his personality was changed based on damage to his medulla.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 306, 317

 

 

39)

 

Because cnidarians are not cephalized, they are incapable of complex behavior.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 309

 

 

40)

 

Grouping neurons into ganglia permits more advanced integration.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: 310

 

 

41)

 

The term “ganglion” is equivalent to the term “brain.”

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 310

 

 

42)

 

Invertebrates lack a brain, but instead have groupings of neurons called ganglia.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 310

 

 

43)

 

One of the unique characteristics of the vertebrate nervous system is that it is encased within a cartilaginous or bony covering.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: 312

 

 

44)

 

Cranial nerves function solely to carry information from sensory neurons in the head, face, and neck to the brain.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 313

 

 

45)

 

Generally speaking, the vertebrate spinal nerves at the top of the spinal cord innervate upper parts of the body, and spinal nerves near the bottom of the spinal cord innervate lower parts of the body.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: Fig. 7.5

 

 

46)

 

The blood-brain barrier is completely impermeable.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 314

 

47)

 

Brain size tends to increase with body size.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: Fig. 7.8

 

 

48)

 

The left and right cerebral hemispheres of mammals are functionally identical.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 319

 

 

49)

 

Visual, auditory, touch, and olfactory signals are all routed through the midbrain and thalamus before processing at higher levels.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 321

 

 

50)

 

The limbic systemRemember,metimes referred to as the “emotional brain,” is physically located in the hindbrain.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 320

 

 

51)

 

The purpose of folding the surface of the cortex is to increase the capacity for neuronal connections.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: 322

 

 

52)

 

The size of the cortex devoted to a particular body part generally reflects the physical size of that body part.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 323

 

 

53)

 

The brain is subdivided into several distinct regions. There is a great deal of integration within regions, but little integration between regions.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 316-324

 

 

54)

 

The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are normally active simultaneously in a balanced way to maintain homeostasis.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: 326

 

 

55)

 

The autonomic ganglion is a relay station for autonomic neural pathways, and is also involved with neural integration.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: 328

 

 

56)

 

The adrenal medulla is located in the hindbrain.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 330

 

 

57)

 

Body organs are innervated by either the sympathetic nervous system or parasympathetic nervous system, but not both.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: Table 7.3

 

 

58)

 

The peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system tend to operate independently.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 317

 

 

59)

 

The hypothalamus contains a variety of regulatory centers to maintain homeostasis.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: 319

 

 

60)

 

The activity of a central pattern generator can be modified by sensory feedback.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: 336

 

 

61)

 

Sensory feedback is required for the activity of a central pattern generator.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 334

 

 

62)

 

Habituation occurs based on changes that happen at the presynaptic terminal of the sensory neuron.

 

Answer:

 

TRUE

 

Page Ref: 338

 

 

63)

 

Long-term potentiation is another term for sensitization.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 339-340

 

 

64)

 

The mechanism mediating LTP is the same as that mediating sensitization.

 

Answer:

 

FALSE

 

Page Ref: 339-340

 

 

65)

 

__________ neurons relay information from integrating centers such as the brain to effector organs like muscles or glands.

 

Answer:

 

Efferent

 

Page Ref: 308

 

 

66)

 

__________ is the evolutionary trend that describes the concentration of nervous tissue and sense organs at one end of the body.

 

Answer:

 

Cephalization

 

Page Ref: 310

 

 

67)

 

In vertebrates, the __________ nerves exit directly from the braincase.

 

Answer:

 

cranial

 

Page Ref: 313

 

 

68)

 

The protective layer of connective tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord is called the __________.

 

Answer:

 

meninges (or singular meninx)

 

Page Ref: 314

 

 

69)

 

The vertebrate central nervous system is physiologically separated from the rest of the nervous system by the __________.

 

Answer:

 

blood-brain barrier

 

Page Ref: 314

 

 

70)

 

The three main regions of the vertebrate brain are the prosencephalon, the mesencephalon, and the __________.

 

Answer:

 

rhombencephalon

 

Page Ref: 315

 

 

71)

 

In most vertebrates, except the mammals, the __________ contains the regions that are involved in interpreting visual information.

 

Answer:

 

midbrain

 

Page Ref: 315, 318

 

 

72)

 

In mammals, the midbrain can be grouped together with the pons and medulla oblongata, and is called the __________.

 

Answer:

 

brainstem

 

Page Ref: 318

 

 

73)

 

The mammalian cerebral hemispheres are connected by a mass of white matter called the __________.

 

Answer:

 

corpus callosum

 

Page Ref: 319

 

 

74)

 

The __________ is essentially a relay station that filters sensory information and forwards it to the cortex.

 

Answer:

 

thalamus

 

Page Ref: 321

 

 

75)

 

In species with cortical folds, the outer regions of the folds are called __________ and the inner grooves are called __________.

 

Answer:

 

gyri; sulci

 

Page Ref: 322

 

 

76)

 

The somatosensory cortex and primary motor cortex are organized __________. That is, each part of the cortex corresponds to the specific part of the body that it governs.

 

Answer:

 

topographically

 

Page Ref: 323, Fig. 7.15

 

 

77)

 

The only organ controlled by efferent motor neurons is __________.

 

Answer:

 

skeletal muscle

 

Page Ref: 332

 

78)

 

All vertebrate motor neurons release the neurotransmitter __________.

 

Answer:

 

acetylcholine

 

Page Ref: 332

 

 

79)

 

The __________ nervous system is sometimes referred to as the “rest and digest” nervous system.

 

Answer:

 

parasympathetic

 

Page Ref: 325

 

 

80)

 

The tendency to reduce the magnitude of a response following repeated stimulation is called __________.

 

Answer:

 

habituation

 

Page Ref: 338

 

 

81)

 

An increase in a response following exposure to a strong or noxious stimulus is called __________.

 

Answer:

 

sensitization

 

Page Ref: 339

 

 

82)

 

NMDA and AMPA receptors both bind the neurotransmitter __________.

 

Answer:

 

glutamate

 

Page Ref: 341

 

 

83)

 

Split-brain syndrome follows from severing the __________.

 

Answer:

 

corpus callosum

 

Page Ref: Box 7.1

 

 

84)

 

In its protective role, the blood-brain barrier becomes an obstacle in delivering therapeutic drugs to specific regions of the brain in the treatment of a variety of brain disorders. Describe what the blood-brain barrier is made of, and how different compounds are capable of crossing it.

 

Answer:

 

The blood brain barrier is formed by tight junctions between the endothelial cells lining the brain capillaries. It prevents materials from leaking out of the bloodstream and into the central nervous system. These cells do not perform pinocytosis. Despite the tight junctions, there are still ways that compounds can cross the blood-brain barrier, including:

  1. Dissolving in the membrane. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as ethanol and some barbiturate drugs can cross directly into the central nervous system.
  2. Catalyzed transport mechanisms (protein exchanger, channel, pump) allow the brain to take up circulating nutrients such as glucose and amino acids.
  3. In some areas of the brain, the blood-brain barrier is more permeable. In particular, the regions around the pineal gland, the pituitary gland, and parts of the hypothalamus are quite permeable, allowing secreted molecules such as hormones to leave the brain and enter the circulatory system.

 

Page Ref: 314

 

 

85)

 

Describe five differences between the actions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems on the same effector organs. For example, the parasympathetic system causes urine release from the bladder, while the sympathetic system causes urine retention.

 

Answer:

 

Effector organ Parasympathetic effect Sympathetic effect
Pupil of eye Constricts Dilates
Heart Slows heart rate Increases rate and force of contraction
Arterioles None Constricts
Digestive tract Increased motility and secretion Decreased motility and secretion
Bladder Release of urine Retention of urine
Sweat glands General sweating Localized sweating
Bronchioles of lungs Constricts Dilates
Adipose tissue None Fat breakdown

 

Page Ref: Table 7.3

 

 

86)

 

What are the three main anatomical differences between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems?

 

Answer:

 

Sympathetic Parasympathetic
Originate in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord Originate in the hindbrain or in the sacral region of the spinal cord
Ganglia are found in a chain that runs close to the spinal cord Ganglia are located close to the effector organ
Single preganglionic neuron synapses with 10 or more postganglionic neurons Preganglionic neuron synapses with three or fewer postganglionic neurons

 

Page Ref: 328

 

 

87)

 

What four major brain structures are included in the limbic system? Where is it located in the vertebrate brain? What does the limbic system do?

 

Answer:

 

The limbic system is part of the forebrain, and lies on the border between the cortex and the rest of the brain. The four main structure included in the limbic system are (1) the amygdala, (2) the hippocampus, (3) the hypothalamus, and (4) the olfactory bulbs.  The limbic system is often called the “emotional brain” because it controls emotions such as pleasure and fear, as well as decision-making, motivation, sex drive, hunger, and memory. The hypothalamus, within the limbic system, is also responsible for regulation of homeostasis, including body temperature, fluid balance, blood pressure, and body weight.

 

Page Ref: 320-321

 

88)

 

If the central pattern generator for a human walking is located in the spinal cord, then is the brain required at all for successful walking behavior? Justify your answer.

 

Answer:

 

A central pattern generator is a subset of neurons that can maintain spontaneous rhythmic output in the absence of sensory input. Therefore, the basic neural control for coordinating the action of the limbs during walking is housed in the spinal cord, and it can maintain its own activity without input from the brain. However, in a natural environment, inputs from the brain ARE required for a variety of other tasks associated with successful locomotion. For example, the cortex and brainstem are required to initiate locomotion. In other words, while the central pattern generator can maintain its own activity without input from the brain, it does, in fact, need a brain “trigger” in order to start.

 

The cerebellum is required for balance and coordination to prevent the human from falling over. The brainstem controls the speed of locomotion. The cortex assists in regulating gait based on visual inputs such as obstacles and uneven terrain. Even though the central pattern generator can control basic muscular coordination, other sensory inputs and higher integrative inputs are required for successful walking behavior in a real setting

 

Page Ref: 334-336

 

 

89)

 

List five ways that efferent motor pathways can be distinguished from autonomic pathways.

 

Answer:

 

Efferent motor neurons control only one type of effector organ-skeletal muscle. Autonomic pathways control many organs. The cell bodies of motor neurons are located in the CNS, never in ganglia outside the CNS. Efferent motor pathways are monosynaptic, meaning that there is only a single synapse between the CNS and the skeletal muscle. This means that efferent motor neurons can be very long. Autonomic pathways are polysynaptic. Synapse morphology is different between autonomic and motor pathways. At the neuromuscular junction, a motor neuron splits into a cluster of axon terminals that branch out over the motor end plate. Autonomic neurons have several synaptic varicosities arranged in series like a string of beads. The size of the synaptic cleft is different. The synaptic cleft between the motor neuron and the muscle is much narrower than that between autonomic neurons and their effector cells. The nature of the neurotransmitter is different. All vertebrate motor neurons release acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, whereas sympathetic neurons release epinephrine and parasympathetic neurons release acetylcholine. The response of the effector organ differs. The effect of acetylcholine on skeletal muscle is always excitatory, whereas autonomic neurons may be excitatory or inhibitory.

 

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