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Principles of Pediatric Nursing 7th Edition Ball Bindler Cowen Test Bank

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Principles of Pediatric Nursing 7th Edition Ball Bindler Cowen Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0134257013

ISBN-10: 0134257014

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Principles of Pediatric Nursing 7th Edition Ball Bindler Cowen Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0134257013

ISBN-10: 0134257014

 

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Principles of Pediatric Nursing: Caring for Children, 7e (Ball et al.)

Chapter 25   Alterations in Gastrointestinal Function

 

1) The nurse is planning postoperative care for an infant after a cleft-lip repair. Which nursing intervention is most appropriate for this infant?

  1. Prone positioning
  2. Suctioning with a Yankauer device
  3. Supine or side-lying positioning
  4. Avoidance of soft elbow restraints

Answer:  3

Explanation:  1. Integrity of the suture line is essential for postoperative care of cleft-lip repair. The infant should be placed in a supine or side-lying position to avoid rubbing the suture line on the bedding. The prone position should be avoided. A Yankauer suction device is made of hard plastic and, if used, could cause trauma to the suture line. Suctioning should be done with a smallRemember,ft suction catheter. Soft elbow restraints may be used to prevent the infant from touching the incisional area.

  1. Integrity of the suture line is essential for postoperative care of cleft-lip repair. The infant should be placed in a supine or side-lying position to avoid rubbing the suture line on the bedding. The prone position should be avoided. A Yankauer suction device is made of hard plastic and, if used, could cause trauma to the suture line. Suctioning should be done with a smallRemember,ft suction catheter. Soft elbow restraints may be used to prevent the infant from touching the incisional area.
  2. Integrity of the suture line is essential for postoperative care of cleft-lip repair. The infant should be placed in a supine or side-lying position to avoid rubbing the suture line on the bedding. The prone position should be avoided. A Yankauer suction device is made of hard plastic and, if used, could cause trauma to the suture line. Suctioning should be done with a smallRemember,ft suction catheter. Soft elbow restraints may be used to prevent the infant from touching the incisional area.
  3. Integrity of the suture line is essential for postoperative care of cleft-lip repair. The infant should be placed in a supine or side-lying position to avoid rubbing the suture line on the bedding. The prone position should be avoided. A Yankauer suction device is made of hard plastic and, if used, could cause trauma to the suture line. Suctioning should be done with a smallRemember,ft suction catheter. Soft elbow restraints may be used to prevent the infant from touching the incisional area.

Page Ref: 664

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.5 Analyze developmentally appropriate approaches for nursing management of gastrointestinal disorders in the pediatric population.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Differentiate treatment options and strategies for continuity of care for the child and family.

 

2) An infant is born with an esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Which preoperative nursing diagnosis is the priority for this infant?

  1. Risk for Aspiration Related to Regurgitation
  2. Acute Pain Related to Esophageal Defect
  3. Ineffective Infant Feeding Pattern Related to Uncoordinated Suck and Swallow
  4. Ineffective Tissue Perfusion: Gastrointestinal, Related to Decreased Circulation

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. With the most common type of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula, the upper segment of the esophagus ends in a blind pouch and a fistula connects the lower segment to the trachea. Preoperatively, there is a risk of aspiration of gastric secretions from the stomach into the trachea because of the fistula that connects the lower segment of the esophagus to the trachea. Pain is not usually experienced preoperatively with this condition. The infant is always kept NPO (nothing by mouth) preoperativelyRemember, ineffective feeding pattern would not apply. Tissue perfusion is not a problem with this condition.

  1. With the most common type of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula, the upper segment of the esophagus ends in a blind pouch and a fistula connects the lower segment to the trachea. Preoperatively, there is a risk of aspiration of gastric secretions from the stomach into the trachea because of the fistula that connects the lower segment of the esophagus to the trachea. Pain is not usually experienced preoperatively with this condition. The infant is always kept NPO (nothing by mouth) preoperativelyRemember, ineffective feeding pattern would not apply. Tissue perfusion is not a problem with this condition.
  2. With the most common type of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula, the upper segment of the esophagus ends in a blind pouch and a fistula connects the lower segment to the trachea. Preoperatively, there is a risk of aspiration of gastric secretions from the stomach into the trachea because of the fistula that connects the lower segment of the esophagus to the trachea. Pain is not usually experienced preoperatively with this condition. The infant is always kept NPO (nothing by mouth) preoperativelyRemember, ineffective feeding pattern would not apply. Tissue perfusion is not a problem with this condition.
  3. With the most common type of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula, the upper segment of the esophagus ends in a blind pouch and a fistula connects the lower segment to the trachea. Preoperatively, there is a risk of aspiration of gastric secretions from the stomach into the trachea because of the fistula that connects the lower segment of the esophagus to the trachea. Pain is not usually experienced preoperatively with this condition. The infant is always kept NPO (nothing by mouth) preoperativelyRemember, ineffective feeding pattern would not apply. Tissue perfusion is not a problem with this condition.

Page Ref: 666

Cognitive Level:  Analyzing

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.2 Discuss the pathophysiologic processes associated with specific gastrointestinal disorders in the pediatric population.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Examine etiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations as seen in children.

 

3) The nurse is evaluating an infant’s tolerance of feedings after a pyloromyotomy. Which finding indicates that the infant is not tolerating the feeding?

  1. Need for frequent burping
  2. Irritability during feeding
  3. The passing of gas
  4. Emesis after two feedings

Answer:  4

Explanation:  1. An infant is not tolerating feedings after a pyloromyotomy if emesis is present. Frequent burping, irritability, and the passing of gas would be expected findings following a pyloromyotomy and would indicate tolerance of the feeding.

  1. An infant is not tolerating feedings after a pyloromyotomy if emesis is present. Frequent burping, irritability, and the passing of gas would be expected findings following a pyloromyotomy and would indicate tolerance of the feeding.
  2. An infant is not tolerating feedings after a pyloromyotomy if emesis is present. Frequent burping, irritability, and the passing of gas would be expected findings following a pyloromyotomy and would indicate tolerance of the feeding.
  3. An infant is not tolerating feedings after a pyloromyotomy if emesis is present. Frequent burping, irritability, and the passing of gas would be expected findings following a pyloromyotomy and would indicate tolerance of the feeding.

Page Ref: 668

Cognitive Level:  Analyzing

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Nursing judgement | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.4 Contrast nursing management and plan care for disorders of the gastrointestinal system for the child needing abdominal surgery versus the child needing nonoperative management.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

 

4) An infant born with an omphalocele defect is admitted to the intensive-care nursery. Which instruction from the nurse manager to the unlicensed assistive personnel is most appropriate?

  1. Prepare a warmer.
  2. Prepare a crib.
  3. Prepare a feeding of formula.
  4. Prepare the bilirubin light.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Omphalocele is a congenital malformation in which intra-abdominal contents herniate through the umbilical cord. The infant many lose heat through the viscera; a warmer is indicated to prevent hypothermia. The crib would not provide adequate maintenance of temperature control. The infant is NPO (nothing by mouth) preoperatively and may or may not need a bilirubin light before surgery.

  1. Omphalocele is a congenital malformation in which intra-abdominal contents herniate through the umbilical cord. The infant many lose heat through the viscera; a warmer is indicated to prevent hypothermia. The crib would not provide adequate maintenance of temperature control. The infant is NPO (nothing by mouth) preoperatively and may or may not need a bilirubin light before surgery.
  2. Omphalocele is a congenital malformation in which intra-abdominal contents herniate through the umbilical cord. The infant many lose heat through the viscera; a warmer is indicated to prevent hypothermia. The crib would not provide adequate maintenance of temperature control. The infant is NPO (nothing by mouth) preoperatively and may or may not need a bilirubin light before surgery.
  3. Omphalocele is a congenital malformation in which intra-abdominal contents herniate through the umbilical cord. The infant many lose heat through the viscera; a warmer is indicated to prevent hypothermia. The crib would not provide adequate maintenance of temperature control. The infant is NPO (nothing by mouth) preoperatively and may or may not need a bilirubin light before surgery.

Page Ref: 671

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Nursing judgement | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.4 Contrast nursing management and plan care for disorders of the gastrointestinal system for the child needing abdominal surgery versus the child needing nonoperative management.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Differentiate treatment options and strategies for continuity of care for the child and family.

 

5) The nurse is providing instruction to the parents of an infant with a colostomy. Which statement by the parents indicates appropriate understanding of the teaching session?

  1. “We will change the colostomy bag with each wet diaper.”
  2. “We will use adhesive enhancers when we change the bag.”
  3. “We will watch for skin irritation around the stoma.”
  4. “We will expect a moderate amount of bleeding after cleansing the area around the stoma.”

Answer:  3

Explanation:  1. Skin irritation around the stoma should be assessed; it may indicate leakage. Physical or chemical skin irritation may occur if the appliance is changed too frequently or with each wet diaper. Adhesive enhancers should be avoided on the skin of newborns. Their skin layers are thin, and removal of the appliance can strip off the skin. Also, adhesive contains latex, and its constant use is not advised due to risk of latex allergy development. Bleeding is usually attributable to excessive cleaning.

  1. Skin irritation around the stoma should be assessed; it may indicate leakage. Physical or chemical skin irritation may occur if the appliance is changed too frequently or with each wet diaper. Adhesive enhancers should be avoided on the skin of newborns. Their skin layers are thin, and removal of the appliance can strip off the skin. Also, adhesive contains latex, and its constant use is not advised due to risk of latex allergy development. Bleeding is usually attributable to excessive cleaning.
  2. Skin irritation around the stoma should be assessed; it may indicate leakage. Physical or chemical skin irritation may occur if the appliance is changed too frequently or with each wet diaper. Adhesive enhancers should be avoided on the skin of newborns. Their skin layers are thin, and removal of the appliance can strip off the skin. Also, adhesive contains latex, and its constant use is not advised due to risk of latex allergy development. Bleeding is usually attributable to excessive cleaning.
  3. Skin irritation around the stoma should be assessed; it may indicate leakage. Physical or chemical skin irritation may occur if the appliance is changed too frequently or with each wet diaper. Adhesive enhancers should be avoided on the skin of newborns. Their skin layers are thin, and removal of the appliance can strip off the skin. Also, adhesive contains latex, and its constant use is not advised due to risk of latex allergy development. Bleeding is usually attributable to excessive cleaning.

Page Ref: 673

Cognitive Level:  Analyzing

Client Need &Sub:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential VII: Clinical prevention and population health | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation/Health teaching and health promotion

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.4 Contrast nursing management and plan care for disorders of the gastrointestinal system for the child needing abdominal surgery versus the child needing nonoperative management.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

 

6) A nurse is preparing for the delivery of a newborn with a known diaphragmatic hernia defect. Which equipment does the nurse ensure is prepared at the bedside?

  1. Intubation setup
  2. Appropriate bag and mask
  3. Sterile gauze and saline
  4. Soft arm restraints

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. A diaphragmatic hernia (protrusion of abdominal contents into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm) is a life-threatening condition. Intubation is required immediately so the newborn’s respiratory status can be stabilized. A bag and mask will not be adequate to ventilate a newborn with this condition. The defect is not externalRemember, sterile gauze and saline are not needed. Soft arm restraints are not immediately necessary.

  1. A diaphragmatic hernia (protrusion of abdominal contents into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm) is a life-threatening condition. Intubation is required immediately so the newborn’s respiratory status can be stabilized. A bag and mask will not be adequate to ventilate a newborn with this condition. The defect is not externalRemember, sterile gauze and saline are not needed. Soft arm restraints are not immediately necessary.
  2. A diaphragmatic hernia (protrusion of abdominal contents into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm) is a life-threatening condition. Intubation is required immediately so the newborn’s respiratory status can be stabilized. A bag and mask will not be adequate to ventilate a newborn with this condition. The defect is not externalRemember, sterile gauze and saline are not needed. Soft arm restraints are not immediately necessary.
  3. A diaphragmatic hernia (protrusion of abdominal contents into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm) is a life-threatening condition. Intubation is required immediately so the newborn’s respiratory status can be stabilized. A bag and mask will not be adequate to ventilate a newborn with this condition. The defect is not externalRemember, sterile gauze and saline are not needed. Soft arm restraints are not immediately necessary.

Page Ref: 675

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.4 Contrast nursing management and plan care for disorders of the gastrointestinal system for the child needing abdominal surgery versus the child needing nonoperative management.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

 

7) The nurse is administering several medications to an infant with neurologic impairment and delay. Which medication is a proton pump inhibitor that is administered for gastroesophageal reflux?

  1. Omeprazole
  2. Ranitidine
  3. Phenytoin
  4. Glycopyrrolate

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Omeprazole is the proton pump inhibitor that blocks the action of acid-producing cells and is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. Ranitidine causes the stomach to produce less acid and may be used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, but it is a histamine-2 receptor blocker. Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant used to treat seizures, and glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic agent used to inhibit excessive salivation.

  1. Omeprazole is the proton pump inhibitor that blocks the action of acid-producing cells and is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. Ranitidine causes the stomach to produce less acid and may be used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, but it is a histamine-2 receptor blocker. Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant used to treat seizures, and glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic agent used to inhibit excessive salivation.
  2. Omeprazole is the proton pump inhibitor that blocks the action of acid-producing cells and is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. Ranitidine causes the stomach to produce less acid and may be used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, but it is a histamine-2 receptor blocker. Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant used to treat seizures, and glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic agent used to inhibit excessive salivation.
  3. Omeprazole is the proton pump inhibitor that blocks the action of acid-producing cells and is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. Ranitidine causes the stomach to produce less acid and may be used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, but it is a histamine-2 receptor blocker. Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant used to treat seizures, and glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic agent used to inhibit excessive salivation.

Page Ref: 670

Cognitive Level:  Understanding

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.2 Discuss the pathophysiologic processes associated with specific gastrointestinal disorders in the pediatric population.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Examine etiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations as seen in children.

 

8) A newborn is diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease. Which clinical manifestations found on assessment support this newborn’s diagnosis?

  1. Acute diarrhea; dehydration
  2. Failure to pass meconium; abdominal distension
  3. Currant jelly; gelatinous stools; pain
  4. Projectile vomiting; altered electrolytes

Answer:  2

Explanation:  1. Hirschsprung disease is the absence of autonomic parasympathetic ganglion cells in the colon that prevent peristalsis at that portion of the intestine. In newborns, the symptoms include failure to pass meconium and abdominal distension. Acute diarrhea and dehydration are symptoms characteristic of gastroenteritis. Currant jelly, gelatinous stools, and pain are symptoms of intussusception, and projectile vomiting and altered electrolytes are symptoms of pyloric stenosis.

  1. Hirschsprung disease is the absence of autonomic parasympathetic ganglion cells in the colon that prevent peristalsis at that portion of the intestine. In newborns, the symptoms include failure to pass meconium and abdominal distension. Acute diarrhea and dehydration are symptoms characteristic of gastroenteritis. Currant jelly, gelatinous stools, and pain are symptoms of intussusception, and projectile vomiting and altered electrolytes are symptoms of pyloric stenosis.
  2. Hirschsprung disease is the absence of autonomic parasympathetic ganglion cells in the colon that prevent peristalsis at that portion of the intestine. In newborns, the symptoms include failure to pass meconium and abdominal distension. Acute diarrhea and dehydration are symptoms characteristic of gastroenteritis. Currant jelly, gelatinous stools, and pain are symptoms of intussusception, and projectile vomiting and altered electrolytes are symptoms of pyloric stenosis.
  3. Hirschsprung disease is the absence of autonomic parasympathetic ganglion cells in the colon that prevent peristalsis at that portion of the intestine. In newborns, the symptoms include failure to pass meconium and abdominal distension. Acute diarrhea and dehydration are symptoms characteristic of gastroenteritis. Currant jelly, gelatinous stools, and pain are symptoms of intussusception, and projectile vomiting and altered electrolytes are symptoms of pyloric stenosis.

Page Ref: 673

Cognitive Level:  Analyzing

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.3 Identify signs and symptoms that may indicate a disorder of the gastrointestinal system.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Examine etiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations as seen in children.

 

9) A child with severe gastroenteritis is admitted to a semiprivate room on the pediatric unit. The charge nurse should place this client with which roommate?

  1. An infant with meningitis
  2. A child with fever and neutropenia
  3. Another child with gastroenteritis
  4. A child recovering from an appendectomy

Answer:  3

Explanation:  1. Gastroenteritis may be viral or bacterial and can be infectious. It is best to cohort children with this infectious process. Good handwashing is essential to prevent the spread. An infant with meningitis, a child with fever and neutropenia, and a child recovering from an appendectomy should not be placed with another child with an infectious process.

  1. Gastroenteritis may be viral or bacterial and can be infectious. It is best to cohort children with this infectious process. Good handwashing is essential to prevent the spread. An infant with meningitis, a child with fever and neutropenia, and a child recovering from an appendectomy should not be placed with another child with an infectious process.
  2. Gastroenteritis may be viral or bacterial and can be infectious. It is best to cohort children with this infectious process. Good handwashing is essential to prevent the spread. An infant with meningitis, a child with fever and neutropenia, and a child recovering from an appendectomy should not be placed with another child with an infectious process.
  3. Gastroenteritis may be viral or bacterial and can be infectious. It is best to cohort children with this infectious process. Good handwashing is essential to prevent the spread. An infant with meningitis, a child with fever and neutropenia, and a child recovering from an appendectomy should not be placed with another child with an infectious process.

Page Ref: 684

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Nursing judgement | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.2 Discuss the pathophysiologic processes associated with specific gastrointestinal disorders in the pediatric population.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Examine etiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations as seen in children.

 

10) The nurse is preparing to ambulate a school-age client who had an appendectomy. In addition to pharmacological pain management, the nurse can use which nonpharmacological pain-management strategy for this client?

  1. A heating pad
  2. A warm, moist pack
  3. A pillow on the abdomen
  4. An ice pack

Answer:  3

Explanation:  1. A pillow placed on the abdomen can be a nonpharmacological strategy to decrease discomfort after an appendectomy. Heat and ice are not used on the incisional area as they can impair the healing process of the wound.

  1. A pillow placed on the abdomen can be a nonpharmacological strategy to decrease discomfort after an appendectomy. Heat and ice are not used on the incisional area as they can impair the healing process of the wound.
  2. A pillow placed on the abdomen can be a nonpharmacological strategy to decrease discomfort after an appendectomy. Heat and ice are not used on the incisional area as they can impair the healing process of the wound.
  3. A pillow placed on the abdomen can be a nonpharmacological strategy to decrease discomfort after an appendectomy. Heat and ice are not used on the incisional area as they can impair the healing process of the wound.

Page Ref: 679

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.4 Contrast nursing management and plan care for disorders of the gastrointestinal system for the child needing abdominal surgery versus the child needing nonoperative management.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

 

11) A neonate is fed 20 mL of formula every three hours by orogastric lavage. At the beginning of this feeding, the nurse aspirates 15 mL of gastric residual. Which action by the nurse is the most appropriate?

  1. Withhold the feeding and notify the healthcare provider.
  2. Replace the residual and continue with the full feeding.
  3. Replace the residual but only give 5 mL of the feeding.
  4. Withhold the feeding and check the residual in three hours.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Residual of more than half the amount of feeding indicates a feeding intolerance and could be a sign of necrotizing enterocolitis. Early detection of enterocolitis is essential, and aggressive management is required. Therefore, the healthcare provider should be notified of this finding. The amount of residual is too much to replace and continue with the feeding, and waiting for 3 hours to recheck the residual could delay treatment of a serious condition.

  1. Residual of more than half the amount of feeding indicates a feeding intolerance and could be a sign of necrotizing enterocolitis. Early detection of enterocolitis is essential, and aggressive management is required. Therefore, the healthcare provider should be notified of this finding. The amount of residual is too much to replace and continue with the feeding, and waiting for 3 hours to recheck the residual could delay treatment of a serious condition.
  2. Residual of more than half the amount of feeding indicates a feeding intolerance and could be a sign of necrotizing enterocolitis. Early detection of enterocolitis is essential, and aggressive management is required. Therefore, the healthcare provider should be notified of this finding. The amount of residual is too much to replace and continue with the feeding, and waiting for 3 hours to recheck the residual could delay treatment of a serious condition.
  3. Residual of more than half the amount of feeding indicates a feeding intolerance and could be a sign of necrotizing enterocolitis. Early detection of enterocolitis is essential, and aggressive management is required. Therefore, the healthcare provider should be notified of this finding. The amount of residual is too much to replace and continue with the feeding, and waiting for 3 hours to recheck the residual could delay treatment of a serious condition.

Page Ref: 688

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Teamwork and collaboration | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential VI: Interprofessional communication and collaboration for improving patient health outcomes | NLN Competencies: Nursing judgement | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Collaboration

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.3 Identify signs and symptoms that may indicate a disorder of the gastrointestinal system.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Examine etiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations as seen in children.

 

12) A child with inflammatory bowel disease is prescribed prednisone daily. At which time is it most appropriate for the family to administer the prednisone?

  1. Between meals
  2. One hour before meals
  3. At bedtime
  4. With meals

Answer:  4

Explanation:  1. Prednisone, a corticosteroid, can cause gastric irritation. It should be administered with meals to reduce the gastric irritation.

  1. Prednisone, a corticosteroid, can cause gastric irritation. It should be administered with meals to reduce the gastric irritation.
  2. Prednisone, a corticosteroid, can cause gastric irritation. It should be administered with meals to reduce the gastric irritation.
  3. Prednisone, a corticosteroid, can cause gastric irritation. It should be administered with meals to reduce the gastric irritation.

Page Ref: 682

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Nursing judgement | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.5 Analyze developmentally appropriate approaches for nursing management of gastrointestinal disorders in the pediatric population.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

 

13) The nurse is caring for a school-age client who had an appendectomy after a ruptured appendix. Which orders does the nurse anticipate for this client? Select all that apply.

  1. Antibiotics
  2. A clear liquid diet
  3. NG tube
  4. Vital signs every 4 hours
  5. Frequent monitoring of bowel sounds

Answer:  1, 3, 4, 5

Explanation:  1. Antibiotics, an NG tube, vital signs every 4 hours, and frequent monitoring of bowel sounds are appropriate interventions following a ruptured appendix. The client is NPO until bowel sounds return.

  1. Antibiotics, an NG tube, vital signs every 4 hours, and frequent monitoring of bowel sounds are appropriate interventions following a ruptured appendix. The client is NPO until bowel sounds return.
  2. Antibiotics, an NG tube, vital signs every 4 hours, and frequent monitoring of bowel sounds are appropriate interventions following a ruptured appendix. The client is NPO until bowel sounds return.
  3. Antibiotics, an NG tube, vital signs every 4 hours, and frequent monitoring of bowel sounds are appropriate interventions following a ruptured appendix. The client is NPO until bowel sounds return.
  4. Antibiotics, an NG tube, vital signs every 4 hours, and frequent monitoring of bowel sounds are appropriate interventions following a ruptured appendix. The client is NPO until bowel sounds return.

Page Ref: 678-679

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Nursing judgement | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.4 Contrast nursing management and plan care for disorders of the gastrointestinal system for the child needing abdominal surgery versus the child needing nonoperative management.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

 

14) A 3-day-old preterm infant is diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis. The nurse plans care around the frequent radiographs. How frequently should the nurse anticipate that the radiology staff will bring the portable machine to the nursery?

  1. Every 6 hours
  2. Every 12 hours
  3. Every 24 hours
  4. Every 48 hours

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Radiographs are done every 6 hours to evaluate for perforation.

  1. Radiographs are done every 6 hours to evaluate for perforation.
  2. Radiographs are done every 6 hours to evaluate for perforation.
  3. Radiographs are done every 6 hours to evaluate for perforation.

Page Ref: 680

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Teamwork and collaboration | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential VI: Interprofessional communication and collaboration for improving patient health outcomes | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Collaboration

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.4 Contrast nursing management and plan care for disorders of the gastrointestinal system for the child needing abdominal surgery versus the child needing nonoperative management.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

 

15) A school-age client is recovering after abdominal surgery. The nurse is planning care for the return of bowel function. Which intervention should be included in the client’s plan of care?

  1. Fowler’s position 3 times per day for 30 minutes each time
  2. Assist the child in choosing a low-fat diet.
  3. Commode at bedside
  4. Ambulate 3 to 4 times a day.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  1. The best data that indicate return of bowel sounds are flatus and passage of stool. Ambulation is the primary intervention to assist with both. A Fowler’s position, bedside commode, and a low-fat diet will not assist with bowel function.

  1. The best data that indicate return of bowel sounds are flatus and passage of stool. Ambulation is the primary intervention to assist with both. A Fowler’s position, bedside commode, and a low-fat diet will not assist with bowel function.
  2. The best data that indicate return of bowel sounds are flatus and passage of stool. Ambulation is the primary intervention to assist with both. A Fowler’s position, bedside commode, and a low-fat diet will not assist with bowel function.
  3. The best data that indicate return of bowel sounds are flatus and passage of stool. Ambulation is the primary intervention to assist with both. A Fowler’s position, bedside commode, and a low-fat diet will not assist with bowel function.

Page Ref: 679

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice : NLN Competencies: Nursing judgement | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.4 Contrast nursing management and plan care for disorders of the gastrointestinal system for the child needing abdominal surgery versus the child needing nonoperative management.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

 

16) A child experienced a lacerated spleen in a motor vehicle accident. Which is the highest-priority nursing intervention on admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) following surgery?

  1. Observing for signs of hypovolemic shock
  2. Maintaining IV fluids
  3. Implementing strict bedrest
  4. Administering blood products as ordered

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. The priority nursing intervention is observing for signs of hypovolemic shock due to bleeding from the lacerated spleen. The other interventions are appropriate but not the highest priority.

  1. The priority nursing intervention is observing for signs of hypovolemic shock due to bleeding from the lacerated spleen. The other interventions are appropriate but not the highest priority.
  2. The priority nursing intervention is observing for signs of hypovolemic shock due to bleeding from the lacerated spleen. The other interventions are appropriate but not the highest priority.
  3. The priority nursing intervention is observing for signs of hypovolemic shock due to bleeding from the lacerated spleen. The other interventions are appropriate but not the highest priority.

Page Ref: 696-697

Cognitive Level:  Analyzing

Client Need &Sub:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Nursing judgement | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.6 Plan nursing care for the child with an injury to the gastrointestinal system.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

 

17) The nurse educator is preparing an in-service on the basic functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Which statements will the nurse educator include in the in-service?

Select all that apply.

  1. “The GI system is responsible for the ingestion of fluids and nutrients.”
  2. “The GI system is responsible for the excretion of fluids and nutrients.”
  3. “The GI system is responsible for the metabolism of nutrients.”
  4. “As infants grow, their stomach capacity increases, decreasing the frequency with which they need to be fed.”
  5. By the second year of life, digestive processes are still developing.”

Answer:  1, 3, 4

Explanation:  1. The GI system is responsible for the ingestion of fluids and nutrients as well as the metabolism of nutrients. As infants grow, their stomach capacity increases, which does decrease the frequency with which they need to be fed. The GI system is responsible for the excretion of waste products. By the second year of life, digestive processes are fairly complete.

  1. The GI system is responsible for the ingestion of fluids and nutrients as well as the metabolism of nutrients. As infants grow, their stomach capacity increases, which does decrease the frequency with which they need to be fed. The GI system is responsible for the excretion of waste products. By the second year of life, digestive processes are fairly complete.
  2. The GI system is responsible for the ingestion of fluids and nutrients as well as the metabolism of nutrients. As infants grow, their stomach capacity increases, which does decrease the frequency with which they need to be fed. The GI system is responsible for the excretion of waste products. By the second year of life, digestive processes are fairly complete.
  3. The GI system is responsible for the ingestion of fluids and nutrients as well as the metabolism of nutrients. As infants grow, their stomach capacity increases, which does decrease the frequency with which they need to be fed. The GI system is responsible for the excretion of waste products. By the second year of life, digestive processes are fairly complete.
  4. The GI system is responsible for the ingestion of fluids and nutrients as well as the metabolism of nutrients. As infants grow, their stomach capacity increases, which does decrease the frequency with which they need to be fed. The GI system is responsible for the excretion of waste products. By the second year of life, digestive processes are fairly complete.

Page Ref: 657-659

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential VII: Clinical prevention and population health | NLN Competencies: Nursing judgement | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation/Health teaching and health promotion

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.1 Describe the general function of the gastrointestinal system.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Examine etiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations as seen in children.

 

18) The nurse is caring for a 5-month-old with biliary atresia. The mother asks why the healthcare provider wants her child to take the medication, cholestyramine. What would the nurse’s response be?

  1. Decrease itching
  2. Increase WBCs
  3. Decrease use of antibiotics
  4. Increase appetite

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Cholestyramine is taken to decrease itching.

  1. Cholestyramine is taken to decrease itching.
  2. Cholestyramine is taken to decrease itching.
  3. Cholestyramine is taken to decrease itching.

Page Ref: 693

Cognitive Level:  Analyzing

Client Need &Sub:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential VII: Clinical prevention and population health | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.3 Identify signs and symptoms that may indicate a disorder of the gastrointestinal system.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Differentiate treatment options and strategies for continuity of care for the child and family.

 

19) The nurse is caring for the newborn with hyperbilirubinemia. What nursing diagnoses would the nurse address? Select all that apply.

  1. Activity intolerance
  2. Deficient fluid volume
  3. Risk for impaired attachment
  4. Ineffective breathing pattern
  5. Risk for imbalanced body temperature

Answer:  2, 3, 5

Explanation:  1. Nursing diagnoses that may apply to the newborn with hyperbilirubinemia are deficient fluid volume, risk for impaired attachment, risk for imbalanced body temperature, and risk for injury.

  1. Nursing diagnoses that may apply to the newborn with hyperbilirubinemia are deficient fluid volume, risk for impaired attachment, risk for imbalanced body temperature, and risk for injury.
  2. Nursing diagnoses that may apply to the newborn with hyperbilirubinemia are deficient fluid volume, risk for impaired attachment, risk for imbalanced body temperature, and risk for injury.
  3. Nursing diagnoses that may apply to the newborn with hyperbilirubinemia are deficient fluid volume, risk for impaired attachment, risk for imbalanced body temperature, and risk for injury.
  4. Nursing diagnoses that may apply to the newborn with hyperbilirubinemia are deficient fluid volume, risk for impaired attachment, risk for imbalanced body temperature, and risk for injury.

Page Ref: 691-692

Cognitive Level:  Applying

Client Need &Sub:  Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

Standards:  QSEN Competencies: Patient-centered care | AACN Essential Competencies: Essential IX: Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice | NLN Competencies: Human flourishing | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis/Coordination of care

Learning Outcome:  LO 25.6 Plan nursing care for the child with an injury to the gastrointestinal system.

MNL LO:  Gastrointestinal Disorders/Apply the nursing process in providing care for the child and family.

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