Public Health Nursing Population Centered 7th Edition Stanhope Lancaster Test Bank
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Stanhope: Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community, 7th Edition
Chapter 6: Application of Ethics in the Community
- Florence Nightingale is credited with ethical principles related to the nursing profession. Which of the following is correct about her ideas about ethics?
|1.||Nursing is a call to service, and the moral character of persons entering nursing is important.|
|2.||Ethical principles are based on the values of the individual nurse.|
|3.||Society will dictate the ethical principles nurses must adhere to.|
|4.||Ethics are very important in times of war such as in the Crimean War, where she set up public health centers.|
Florence Nightingale saw nursing as a call to service and viewed the moral character of persons entering nursing as important.
DIF: COG: Application REF: p. 126 OBJ: 1
- Ethical dilemmas are puzzling moral problems in which a person, group, or community can envision morally justified reasons for both taking and not taking a certain course of action. An example of an ethical dilemma is:
|1.||Whether or not to set up a community health center in a rural area|
|2.||Allocating resources in a natural disaster|
|3.||Deciding to withdraw care on a hospice patient|
|4.||Applying the principles of Florence Nightingale in Bangladesh|
When resources are scarce, a dilemma may exist as to how to allocate them.
DIF: COG: Application REF: p. 127 OBJ: 2
- The ethical decision-making process involves several steps. These steps resemble which of the following?
|1.||Healthy People 2010|
|3.||The nursing process|
The nursing process involves the same basic steps: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
DIF: COG: Synthesis REF: p. 128 (Table 6-1)
- The growing multiculturalism of the American society can lead to problems when:
|1.||Cultural standards are congruent with professional standards.|
|2.||Certain ethnic groups do not want to comply with Western medicine ideals.|
|3.||Ethnic groups overburden the health care system.|
|4.||The greater community’s values are jeopardized by specific ethnic values.|
Callahan offered perspectives on judging diversity and states that, in America, we impose standards on ourselves for important moral reasons and there is no good reason to exempt subgroups from those standards.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 127 OBJ: 2
- The ethical principle of nonmaleficience requires:
|1.||Doing no harm|
|2.||There be fair distribution of benefits|
|3.||Individuals being permitted to choose actions and goals to fit their life plan|
|4.||Dignity and worth of all members of society|
Nonmaleficience requires that one do no harm.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 128 (Box 6-2)
- Distributive justice refers to the allocation of benefits and burdens to members of society. Benefits refer to:
|1.||Basic needs, material and social goods, liberties, rights, and entitlements|
|2.||Taxes, military service, location of incinerators or and power plants|
|3.||Entitlement to equal rights and equal treatment|
|4.||The right to private property as the most important benefit|
Justice requires that the distribution of benefits and burdens on a society be fair or equal. Choice No. 3 refers to egalitarianism, and choice No. 4 refers to libertarianism. Taxes, military service, and location of incinerators or power plants are not benefits associated with justice.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 129 OBJ: 2
- The Liberal Democratic Theory of John Rawls stresses the values of liberty and equality. Which of the following statements fit his theory?
|1.||Rejection of any idea that societies, states, or collectives of any form can be the bearers of right or can owe duties.|
|2.||Inequalities result from birth, natural endowment, and historic circumstances.|
|3.||Everyone has a right to private property.|
|4.||Government should be limited.|
Rawls acknowledges that inequities are inevitable in society, but he tries to justify them by establishing a system in which everyone benefits, especially the least advantaged. This is an attempt to address the inequalities that result from birth, natural endowments, and historic circumstances. The other choices relate to libertarianism.
DIF: COG: Application REF: p. 130 OBJ: 2
- Virtue ethics is one of the oldest ethical theories, dating back to the ancient Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle. These ethics can best be described as:
|1.||Caring is the most important virtue of nurses.|
|2.||The disempowering concept; to identify the essence of nursing.|
|3.||Interest in the concept of the good, including benevolence, compassion, trustworthiness, and integrity.|
|4.||Sensitivity to the needs of others and assumption of responsibility of women to care for people.|
According to Aristotle, virtues are acquired and include interest in the concept of the good, including benevolence, compassion, trustworthiness, and integrity.
DIF: COG: Application REF: p. 131 OBJ: 3
- Feminist perspective facilitates critical thought and a focuses on the broad issues such as power, gender, and socioeconomic structures. Which of the following statements is correct related to feminist ethics?
|1.||Feminists include only women in their worldview.|
|2.||Persons who ascribe to feminist ethics are passive and wish to pursue their ideals through the legislative process.|
|3.||Feminists believe that men should not be nurses.|
|4.||Women’s thinking and moral experiences are important and should be taken into account.|
Feminist theory ascribes to the idea that women’s thinking and moral experiences are important and should be considered.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 132 OBJ: 3
- The idea of “servicing citizens, not customers” is part of:
|1.||The ethical tenets of policy development|
|2.||The basis for feminist theory|
|4.||The idea of distributive justice|
There are three tenets of both policy and ethics. The approach is based on the voice of the community as the foundation on which policy is developed.
DIF: COG: Application REF: p. 133 OBJ: 4
- Public health administrators in a community provide a health department to serve an indigent population of immigrants providing translators on certain days of the week. This is an example of:
Assurance refers to the role of public health in making sure that essential community-oriented health services are available, which may include providing essential personal health services for those who would otherwise not receive them.
DIF: COG: Synthesis REF: p. 133 OBJ: 4
- The American Nurses Association House of Delegates adopted the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements in 2001. Which of the following is included in this code?
|1.||The profession of nursing is responsible for making political statements and supporting nurse-friendly candidates for office. .|
|2.||The nurse’s primary focus is on acute bedside nursing, followed by community health care to promote seamless care.|
|3.||The nurse owes duty primarily to the physician to strive to protect health, safety, and the rights of the patient.|
|4.||The nurse collaborates with other health professionals and the public in promoting community, national, and international efforts to meet health needs.|
Collaboration is important, especially in the community health environment. Choices 1, 2, and 3 are incorrect.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 135 (Box 6-3)
- The community leaders in a lesser-developed country decide not to tell the citizens of a small village about a chemical spill at a major industrial facility that could produce harmful effects. Which of the following principles are they violating?
Advocacy requires that the community be properly informed, and this was violated in the above scenario.
DIF: COG: Synthesis REF: p. 137 (Box 6-4)
- Which of the following is considered to be nursing’s first code of ethics?
|2.||Code for Professional Nurses|
|3.||Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements|
|4.||International Council of Nurses (ICN) Code of Ethics for Nurses|
Florence Nightingale lived in the 1800s. The Code for Professional Nurses was adopted in 1950, the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements was adopted in 2001, and International Council of Nurses (ICN) Code of Ethics for Nurses was adopted in 2000.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 126 OBJ: 1
- An orderly process that considers ethical principles, client values, and professional obligations is:
|2.||Ethical decision making|
|4.||Code for Nursing Practice|
Ethical decision making is defined as an orderly process that considers ethical principles, client values, and professional obligations.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 127 OBJ: 2
- There are two medically indigent clients in the clinic who have come to get their monthly supply of free insulin. There is only enough for one client. Which of the following does the nurse do first?
|1.||Identify all options|
|2.||Make a decision|
|3.||Gather additional information|
|4.||Act and assess decisions made|
One must have all information before looking at options and making a decision.
DIF: COG: Application REF: p. 127 OBJ: 2
- The view that everyone is entitled to equal rights and equal treatment in society is:
|1.||Distributive or social justice|
|3.||Libertarian view of justice|
Egalitarianism is defined as the view that everyone is entitled to equal rights and equal treatment in society.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 130 OBJ: 2
- According to Leininger and Watson, the moral ideal of nursing is:
This conceptualization occurred as a response to the technological advances in health care science and the desire of nurses to differentiate nursing practice from medical practice.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 131 OBJ: 4
- According to Christoffel’s conceptual framework for advocacy, which of the following stages focuses on working with legislators?
The strategy stage focuses on such tactics as disseminating the gathered information and policy statements to lay and professional audiences, identifying objectives, building and funding coalitions, and working with legislators.
DIF: COG: Synthesis REF: p. 136 OBJ: 6
- Which of the following applies the knowledge and processes of ethics to the examination of ethical problems in health care?
Bioethics applies the knowledge and processes of ethics to the examination of ethical problems in health care.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 127 OBJ: 1
- According to Christoffel’s conceptual framework for advocacy, which of the following stages focuses on lobbying?
The action stage focuses on implementing the strategies through such tactics as lobbying, testifying, issuing press releases, passing laws, and voting.
DIF: COG: Synthesis REF: p. 136 OBJ: 6
- The community health nurse contacts her community’s state representative to discuss problems is practicing:
Public health advocacy, according to Christoffal, is advocacy that is intended to reduce death or disability in groups of people.
DIF: COG: Application REF: p. 127 OBJ: 3
- Which of the following ethical principles requires that we “do no harm”?
|1.||Respect for Autonomy|
Nonmaleficence refers to doing no harm.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 129 (Box 6-2)
- Community-oriented nursing is an ethical endeavor with moral leadership at its core. The core functions are which of the following? Select all that apply.
|1.||Competency: the persons assigned to develop community knowledge are prepared to collect data on groups and populations|
|2.||Moral character: the persons selected to develop, assess, and disseminate community knowledge possess integrity|
|3.||Feminist theory: a conceptual background on which community-centered care should be based|
|4.||“Do no harm”: dissemination of appropriate information about groups and populations is morally necessary and sufficient|
ANS: 1, 2, 4
Feminist theory is not a core function of community-oriented nursing. Competency, moral character, and do no harm are core functions.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 132 and 133
- According to the Ethical Principles for Effective Advocacy, which of the following are true? Select all that apply.
|1.||Act in the health care provider’s best interest.|
|2.||Keep the client (group, community) properly informed.|
|3.||Maintain client confidentiality.|
|4.||Carry out instructions with diligence and competence.|
ANS: 2, 3, 4
Keep the client (group, community) properly informed, maintain client confidentiality, and carry out instructions with diligence and competence are ethical principles for effective advocacy.
DIF: COG: Knowledge REF: p. 137 OBJ: 6 (Box 6-5)