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Resarch Methods 8th Edition Graziano Raulin Test Bank

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Resarch Methods 8th Edition Graziano Raulin Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205907694

ISBN-10: 0205907695

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Resarch Methods 8th Edition Graziano Raulin Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205907694

ISBN-10: 0205907695

 

 

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Graziano and Raulin Research Methods Test Bank

 

Chapter 4 Data and the Nature of Measurement

4.1 Measurement

1) A variable is

  1. A) anything that varies a specific amount.
  2. B) any characteristic that can take more than one value.
  3. C) used only in well controlled experimental research.
  4. D) always manipulated by researchers.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78

Skill: Factual

 

2) The level of measurement of the dependent variable affects the

  1. A) statistical procedures.
  2. B) observational procedures.
  3. C) observational analysis.
  4. D) quasi-experimental observational procedures.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78

Skill: Interpretive

 

3) To measure a variable means

  1. A) to control for external validity.
  2. B) to increase its reliability.
  3. C) assign numbers to it.
  4. D) match it with another variable.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78

Skill: Factual

 

4) The major task in measurement is to

  1. A) make sure variables are arranged in the proper order.
  2. B) make sure the proper measurement is taken.
  3. C) represent the research variables numerically.
  4. D) make sure all participants are counted.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) Psychologists are limited in the type of mathematical operations they can perform on the data chiefly because

  1. A) they do not have adequate training in mathematics.
  2. B) the characteristics of the variables may not match the characteristics of the real number system.
  3. C) computers are not yet sophisticated enough to do the necessary calculations.
  4. D) they often don’t think it is necessary to assign numbers to the data since the data speak for themselves.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 79

Skill: Interpretive

 

6) The concept of “equal intervals” implies that

  1. A) numbers have an inherent order from smaller to larger.
  2. B) each number has a particular meaning.
  3. C) the difference between units is the same anywhere on the scale.
  4. D) an IQ of 120 is twice as high as an IQ of 60.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78-79 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

7) The fact that 600 is larger than 500 illustrates the mathematical property of

  1. A) magnitude.
  2. B) identity.
  3. C) equal intervals.
  4. D) magnanimity.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78

Skill: Applied

 

8) The fact that the difference between 5 and 7 is the same as the difference between 52 and 54 illustrates the mathematical property of

  1. A) symmetry.
  2. B) equal intervals.
  3. C) magnitude.
  4. D) identity.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78

Skill: Applied

 

9) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the abstract number system?

  1. A) identity
  2. B) orderliness
  3. C) equal intervals
  4. D) a true zero

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78

Skill: Interpretive

 

10) The four characteristics of the abstract number system are identity, magnitude, a true zero, and

  1. A) reversibility.
  2. B) transitivity.
  3. C) additivity.
  4. D) equal intervals.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

11) In which of the following examples is the number system most closely matched to the variables?

  1. A) preference rankings of Dr. Pepper, root beer, and ginger ale
  2. B) the range of scores on an IQ test
  3. C) the total number of outbursts of autistic children
  4. D) ratings of job satisfaction

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78

Skill: Applied

 

12) Measurement of a variable is affected by

  1. A) the variable’s characteristics and the binary number system.
  2. B) extraneous variables and the concrete number system.
  3. C) extraneous variables and the imaginary number system.
  4. D) the variable’s characteristics and the abstract number system.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78-80

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) A dependent variable of the number of correct responses on a test would

  1. A) not match the real number system.
  2. B) partially match the real number system.
  3. C) not be applicable to the real number system.
  4. D) provide a good match to the real number system.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78-80

Skill: Applied

 

14) When a dependent variable, such as number of correct responses, provides a good match with the real number system,

  1. A) all of the mathematical operations can be performed on the data.
  2. B) only the operations of addition and subtraction can be performed on the data.
  3. C) only the positive operations of addition and multiplication can be performed on the data.
  4. D) the variable shows a magnitude in the opposite direction of the real number system.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 78-80

Skill: Interpretive

 

15) When dependent variables are well matched with the real number system,

  1. A) more powerful statistical tests can be used to analyze the data.
  2. B) less powerful statistical tests must be used to analyze the data.
  3. C) statistical tests become meaningless.
  4. D) interpretation of the results becomes more difficult.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 79-80

Skill: Interpretive

 

16) In order to select the appropriate statistical test, it is critical that the researcher

  1. A) be able to identify the level of measurement of the dependent variable.
  2. B) be able to predict the results in advance.
  3. C) be familiar with the most sophisticated statistical packages.
  4. D) have all the data collected before deciding.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 79-80

Skill: Interpretive

 

17) The Mars weather satellite discussed in this chapter

  1. A) succeeded.
  2. B) failed.
  3. C) has yet to be launched.
  4. D) is on its way to Mars.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 80

Skill: Factual

 

18) The Mars Orbiter Satellite

  1. A) failed because of a mix-up of measurement.
  2. B) failed because of insufficient fuel.
  3. C) succeeded because of good measurement.
  4. D) succeeded in spite of poor measurement.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 80

Skill: Factual

 

4.2 Scales of measurement

1) According to Stevens’ (1946) classification, the four scales of measurement are

  1. A) general, interval, modal, and ratio.
  2. B) nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
  3. C) frequency, weight, volume, and ratio.
  4. D) frequency, pitch, tone, and amplitude.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 80

Skill: Factual

 

2) The scale of measurement that is called the naming scale is the

  1. A) nominal scale.
  2. B) ordinal scale.
  3. C) interval scale.
  4. D) ratio scale.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 80-81

Skill: Factual

 

3) The differences between values or categories in nominal scales are

  1. A) quantitative.
  2. B) qualitative.
  3. C) at equal intervals.
  4. D) not equal, but are ordered.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 80-81

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) Nominal scales have which property (properties) of the real number system?

  1. A) identity
  2. B) magnitude
  3. C) equal intervals
  4. D) both A and B

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) The data produced by nominal scales are called

  1. A) grouped frequency data.
  2. B) score data.
  3. C) ordered data.
  4. D) categorical data.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

6) A researcher measures the variable of living situation as follows: 1=urban; 2=suburban; 3=rural. This is an example of a(n) ________ scale.

  1. A) nominal
  2. B) ordinal
  3. C) interval
  4. D) ratio

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

7) What characteristics or mathematical properties would the variable “gender of the participant” possess?

  1. A) identity only
  2. B) identity and magnitude
  3. C) magnitude only
  4. D) identity, magnitude, equal interval, and a true zero

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

8) The lowest level of measurement is represented by the ________ scale.

  1. A) interval
  2. B) ordinal
  3. C) ratio
  4. D) nominal

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

9) The scale with the least matching to the number system is a ________ scale.

  1. A) frequency
  2. B) nominal
  3. C) interval
  4. D) modal

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

10) Which of the following is NOT an example of an everyday use of a nominal scale?

  1. A) telephone numbers
  2. B) zip code
  3. C) the numbers on a football player’s jersey
  4. D) the ranking of color preferences when ordering a shirt by mail

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Applied

 

11) The differences between the different values on nominal scales are

  1. A) minimal.
  2. B) numerical.
  3. C) quantitative.
  4. D) qualitative.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) The only mathematical property that nominal scales have is the property of

  1. A) identity.
  2. B) equal intervals.
  3. C) magnitude.
  4. D) true zero.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Factual

 

13) Since nominal scales require classification or categorization, researchers can only

  1. A) multiply or divide.
  2. B) tally the frequency data.
  3. C) rank order the data from low to high.
  4. D) add or subtract the numbers.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

14) A researcher wishes to find out if there is any relationship between gender and types of crime committed, such as felonies, misdemeanors, and traffic violations. The researcher must take into account that these legal categories represent ________ variables.

  1. A) manipulated
  2. B) ratio
  3. C) ordinal
  4. D) nominal

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Applied

 

15) Both nominal and ordinal scales have in common the mathematical property of

  1. A) a true zero.
  2. B) identity.
  3. C) magnitude.
  4. D) equal intervals.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

16) Ordinal scales have the mathematical properties of identity and

  1. A) true zero.
  2. B) equal intervals.
  3. C) magnitude.
  4. D) transitivity.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Factual

 

17) Measurements by ranked categories, such as class rankings or academic grades (A, B, C, D, F), provide examples of

  1. A) a nominal scale.
  2. B) an interval scale.
  3. C) a ratio scale.
  4. D) an ordinal scale.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

18) Unlike nominal scales, ordinal scales give us information about

  1. A) the relative order of magnitude.
  2. B) the differences between categories or ranks.
  3. C) identity.
  4. D) the relationship of the data to an arbitrary zero point.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

19) What kind of scale would be used to measure taste preferences or students’ relative standing in class?

  1. A) nominal
  2. B) ordinal
  3. C) interval
  4. D) ratio

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Applied

 

20) What can we legitimately say about the relationship between the scores of two people on class ranking where person A is ranked fifth and person B is ranked fifteenth?

  1. A) Person A and person B are different on class rank.
  2. B) Person B is ranked higher than person A.
  3. C) Person A is ranked three times higher than person B.
  4. D) All of the above are true.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

21) What scale of measurement has the properties of identity and magnitude?

  1. A) interval
  2. B) nominal
  3. C) ratio
  4. D) ordinal

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

22) Nominal scales are ________ scales.

  1. A) numerical
  2. B) ranking
  3. C) naming
  4. D) virtually useless

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Factual

 

23) The differences between consecutive values in ordinal scales are

  1. A) qualitative only.
  2. B) at equal intervals.
  3. C) not at equal intervals, but ordered.
  4. D) at equal intervals and ordered.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

24) Ordinal scales have which property (properties) of the real number system?

  1. A) magnitude
  2. B) equal intervals
  3. C) a true zero point
  4. D) Both A and B

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

25) A researcher measures student’s attitudes towards test-taking in the following way: 1-fun; 2-very fun; 3-extremely fun. This is an example of a(n) ________ scale of measurement.

  1. A) ordinal
  2. B) nominal
  3. C) interval
  4. D) ratio

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Applied

 

26) Which of the following represents data arranged on an ordinal scale of measurement?

  1. A) ranking of color preferences in a human factors engineering study
  2. B) total number of calories consumed on a weight reduction program
  3. C) scores on an anxiety inventory
  4. D) diagnostic categories such as diabetes, hypertension, and colitis

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Applied

 

27) The order of finish in a race would be an example of

  1. A) a nominal scale.
  2. B) an ordinal scale.
  3. C) an interval scale.
  4. D) a ratio scale.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

28) The scale of measurement that produces ranks is a(n)

  1. A) nominal scale.
  2. B) ordinal scale.
  3. C) interval scale.
  4. D) ratio scale.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Interpretive

 

29) The data produced by ordinal scales are called ________ data.

  1. A) nominal
  2. B) score
  3. C) categorical
  4. D) ordered

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Factual

 

30) The differences between consecutive values in interval scales are

  1. A) qualitative only.
  2. B) not at equal intervals, but ordered.
  3. C) at equal intervals.
  4. D) reflective of a true zero point.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Interpretive

 

31) Which of the following is NOT a property of interval scales?

  1. A) identity
  2. B) magnitude
  3. C) a true zero point
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Interpretive

 

32) Of the following scales, which is the only one to have all of the mathematical properties of the others?

  1. A) ratio scale
  2. B) nominal scale
  3. C) ordinal scale
  4. D) interval scale

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Interpretive

 

33) Both ordinal and interval scales have in common the mathematical properties of

  1. A) identity and equal intervals.
  2. B) identity and a true zero.
  3. C) identity and magnitude.
  4. D) magnitude and equal intervals.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Interpretive

 

34) What type of data will be produced if the variable measured is “golf ability”?

  1. A) ordered data
  2. B) nominal data
  3. C) score data
  4. D) It would depend on how the variable is operationally defined.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

35) Think about the properties of the different scales of measurement. Which scale do you think researchers would try to use most?

  1. A) ordinal
  2. B) nominal
  3. C) ratio
  4. D) interval

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Interpretive

 

36) The data produced by interval scales are called

  1. A) interval data.
  2. B) ordered data.
  3. C) categorical data.
  4. D) score data.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82 (PQ)

Skill: Factual

 

37) SAT scores are an example of which type of scale of measurement?

  1. A) interval
  2. B) ratio
  3. C) nominal
  4. D) ordinal

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

38) Which mathematical operations can be performed on data from interval scales with meaningful results?

  1. A) multiplication and division
  2. B) addition and subtraction
  3. C) rank ordering
  4. D) Both B and C

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Interpretive

 

39) Which scale of measurement provides the best match with the real number system?

  1. A) ordinal
  2. B) nominal
  3. C) ratio
  4. D) interval

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82-83

Skill: Interpretive

 

40) Which property (properties) of the real number system do ratio scales NOT have?

  1. A) magnitude
  2. B) a true zero point
  3. C) equal intervals
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82-83

Skill: Interpretive

 

41) Which of the following represents data measured on an interval scale?

  1. A) ranking of contestants in an essay contest
  2. B) scores on an inventory of attitudes toward the head-injured
  3. C) categorizing participants according to their sexual preference
  4. D) reaction time of air traffic controllers on a signal detection task

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Applied

 

42) A standard IQ test is constructed on a(n) ________ scale.

  1. A) interval
  2. B) ratio
  3. C) nominal
  4. D) ordinal

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Applied

 

43) The best match to the real number system is provided by

  1. A) interval scales.
  2. B) nominal scales.
  3. C) ratio scales.
  4. D) ordinal scales.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82

Skill: Interpretive

 

44) The highest level of measurement is represented by the ________ scale.

  1. A) interval
  2. B) ordinal
  3. C) ratio
  4. D) nominal

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82

Skill: Interpretive

 

45) Which type of measurement scale is the only one to have a true zero point?

  1. A) nominal scale
  2. B) ratio scale
  3. C) ordinal scale
  4. D) interval scale

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82

Skill: Interpretive

 

46) The data produced by ratio scales are called ________ data.

  1. A) ratio
  2. B) nominal
  3. C) ordered
  4. D) score

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82-83

Skill: Factual

 

47) Which of the following mathematical operations can be carried out with data from ratio scales?

  1. A) multiplication and division
  2. B) addition and subtraction
  3. C) rank ordering
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 80-83

Skill: Applied

 

48) A researcher wants to measure the number of stressful behaviors students display before a test. Which type of scale of measurement would be most appropriate?

  1. A) nominal
  2. B) ordinal
  3. C) ratio
  4. D) interval

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81

Skill: Applied

 

49) Having a scale with a true zero point and equal intervals allows what kind of mathematical operation?

  1. A) dividing one value by another to yield a legitimate and meaningful value
  2. B) addition
  3. C) subtraction
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82-83

Skill: Applied

 

50) All of the possible mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) can be carried out on data from what type of scale?

  1. A) nominal
  2. B) interval
  3. C) ratio
  4. D) ordinal

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82-83

Skill: Applied

 

51) When using an interval scale, which types of mathematical operations are appropriate?

  1. A) all mathematical operations
  2. B) addition and subtraction
  3. C) division and multiplication
  4. D) addition and multiplication

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Interpretive

 

52) In order to determine that a person who walks 50 units of distance is walking twice as far as someone who walks 25 units of distance, what type of measurement scale must be employed?

  1. A) nominal
  2. B) interval
  3. C) ordinal
  4. D) ratio

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82

Skill: Interpretive

 

53) Score data can be based on which two of the following scales of measurement?

  1. A) interval and ordinal
  2. B) ordinal and ratio
  3. C) ordinal and nominal
  4. D) interval and ratio

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Interpretive

 

54) The category called “score data” is comprised of data from

  1. A) nominal scales.
  2. B) interval and ratio scales.
  3. C) ordinal scales.
  4. D) nominal and interval scales.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 81-82

Skill: Factual

 

55) The differences between consecutive values in ratio scales are

  1. A) qualitative only.
  2. B) not equal, but ordered.
  3. C) at equal intervals.
  4. D) reflective of a true zero point.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82

Skill: Interpretive

 

56) If the capacity of short-term memory is operationally defined as the number of single digits that can be remembered by a participant, the type of data produced will be

  1. A) ordered data.
  2. B) nominal data.
  3. C) score data.
  4. D) none of the above

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

57) Which of the following operational definitions of variables would have the properties of identity, magnitude, equal intervals, and a true zero?

  1. A) IQ as measured by a standard IQ test
  2. B) driving speed measured in miles per hour
  3. C) political affiliation (classified as Democrat, Republican, or other)
  4. D) a person’s body temperature measured on a Celsius scale

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

58) All mathematical operations are possible with what level of measurement?

  1. A) ratio
  2. B) interval
  3. C) ordinal
  4. D) nominal

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 82

Skill: Interpretive

 

4.3 Measuring and Manipulating Variables

1) Measurement error

  1. A) will distort the scores.
  2. B) can affect both the reliability and the validity of the measures.
  3. C) may be the result of a social-desirability response set.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) Measurement error can be responsible for all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) distorting the participant’s scores.
  2. B) attenuating the observed strength of a relationship between variables.
  3. C) giving the impression that two variables are unrelated when they are indeed related.
  4. D) incorrectly assigning variables to the wrong scale of measurement.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Interpretive

 

3) One group of students takes the SATs in a quiet room, while another group takes the SATs in a loud, hot room. It is NOT possible to compare scores of the two groups due to

  1. A) the type of measurement scale.
  2. B) systematic measurement error.
  3. C) the type of test the SATs exemplify.
  4. D) comparison error.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Applied

 

4) Assume that scores on an independent variable are distorted so that they no longer accurately reflect reality. This is called

  1. A) reality error.
  2. B) distortion error.
  3. C) measurement error.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

5) A researcher measures some participants on a measure that required concentration in a loud and distracting environment and others in a quiet environment. The researcher does not find the predicted relationship between performance on this measure and IQ. If you assume that such a relationship exists in reality, the failure to find it in this study may be due to

  1. A) measurement error.
  2. B) reality error.
  3. C) comparison error.
  4. D) scale of measurement error.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Applied

 

6) A source of measurement error is

  1. A) response-set definitional biases.
  2. B) response-set biases.
  3. C) operational definition biases.
  4. D) social undesirability.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Interpretive

 

7) What is the best way to reduce measurement error?

  1. A) Develop and apply a good operational definition.
  2. B) Use a ratio scale of measurement.
  3. C) Keep the number of participants equal in all groups.
  4. D) Conduct research at the experimental level.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Interpretive

 

8) A researcher studies stealing in college students. Research assistants do face-to-face interviews with participants. This study would appear susceptible to what source of measurement error?

  1. A) operational definition biases
  2. B) scale attenuation effects
  3. C) social desirability
  4. D) It would not appear to be susceptible to any source of measurement error.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Applied

 

9) The best ways to minimize measurement error are developing a well thought out ________ and diligently using it in research.

  1. A) operational definition of the measurement procedure
  2. B) practical definition of the measurement procedure
  3. C) statistical measure
  4. D) operational definition of the statistical procedure

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

10) One of the most common and powerful response-set biases is

  1. A) random responding.
  2. B) social desirability.
  3. C) social justice.
  4. D) prejudice.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Factual

 

11) Response-set biases are important sources of

  1. A) racial prejudice.
  2. B) mathematical errors.
  3. C) measurement error.
  4. D) attitudinal rigidity.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) The best way of minimizing measurement error is to

  1. A) develop and use an excellent operational definition of the measurement procedures.
  2. B) check the data at least twice before entering it.
  3. C) be sure to employ the appropriate statistical test.
  4. D) give participants enough time to complete the research tasks.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) In a questionnaire designed to investigate the social phenomenon of gossip, a respondent who answered that he or she never gossiped would most likely be engaging in the response-set bias of

  1. A) social desirability.
  2. B) measurement error.
  3. C) memory loss.
  4. D) repression.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

14) One of the best ways to minimize measurement error is to

  1. A) develop well thought-out operational definitions.
  2. B) use several measures.
  3. C) use several raters.
  4. D) choose the appropriate research question.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 83

Skill: Interpretive

 

15) Carefully defined operational definitions will assure that the measure is

  1. A) both valid and reliable.
  2. B) valid, but not necessarily reliable.
  3. C) reliable, but not necessarily valid.
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

16) An operational definition is a definition of the

  1. A) operating principles.
  2. B) procedures used to operate any instruments.
  3. C) statistical operations to be used in analyzing the data.
  4. D) procedures used to measure or manipulate a variable.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85

Skill: Factual

 

17) When research assistants went to measure participants’ height, they found the units of measurement (inches or centimeters) had not been specified by the researcher. This is an example of

  1. A) measurement error.
  2. B) measurement confusion.
  3. C) an incomplete operational definition.
  4. D) an incomplete practical definition.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85

Skill: Applied

 

18) An operational definition of a variable

  1. A) defines the variable in lay terms and is understandable to everyone.
  2. B) defines how the variable will be measured or manipulated.
  3. C) has nothing to do with the activities of the researcher, since the researcher should be blind.
  4. D) is the same as the dictionary definition.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85

Skill: Factual

 

19) As mentioned in the text, one purpose of having a good operational definition is to make

  1. A) replication of research possible.
  2. B) research more interesting and popular.
  3. C) research acceptable.
  4. D) research more popular.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85

Skill: Factual

 

20) In the example in the book on the study of autistic children, the independent variable was

  1. A) disruptive behavior.
  2. B) relaxation.
  3. C) violent behavior.
  4. D) autistic behavior.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85

Skill: Applied

 

21) Replication of research is made possible chiefly by

  1. A) research grants.
  2. B) the researcher’s fervor.
  3. C) good operational definitions of the variables.
  4. D) sophisticated statistical procedures.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

22) In the example mentioned in the text of relaxation training for autistic children, the operational definition for the independent variable was

  1. A) the children’s scores on an autism inventory.
  2. B) the set of explicit relaxation procedures followed by the researcher.
  3. C) the measurement of parameters of relaxation.
  4. D) the level of disruptive behavior prior to the manipulation.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85

Skill: Applied

 

23) A good operational definition of a research variable

  1. A) specifies the type of statistical analysis to be employed.
  2. B) defines a variable on a consensual basis.
  3. C) defines the procedure so precisely that another researcher could easily perform the same procedure by following the description.
  4. D) defines the variable in terms of its frequency, duration, and intensity.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85

Skill: Interpretive

 

24) Which of the following would be a good operational definition for the manipulated independent variable of “level of anxiety”?

  1. A) a person’s score on a well validated measure of anxiety
  2. B) a person’s self-report of how anxious he or she was in a given situation
  3. C) the characteristics of the situation each person was placed in as part of the study (e.g., a performance task in which the researcher has rigged the task so that some participants almost always succeed and others almost always fail, regardless of their actual performance)
  4. D) the performance of participants on the task described in (C) above

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

25) Which of the following are not part of operational definitions?

  1. A) instructions to participants
  2. B) statistical analyses
  3. C) questionnaires used to measure the variable
  4. D) units of measurement

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85

Skill: Interpretive

 

26) Feelings such as sadness, stress, and fear can be studied by

  1. A) operationally defining a set of procedures for manipulating those feelings.
  2. B) practically defining a set of procedures for manipulating those feelings.
  3. C) operationally defining a set of procedures for directly observing those feelings.
  4. D) They cannot be studied effectively.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85

Skill: Interpretive

 

27) Operational definitions must be

  1. A) very specific and detailed.
  2. B) conceptual and not cluttered with detail.
  3. C) easy to use and not require external equipment.
  4. D) very scientific and factual.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

28) Which of the following variables would be most difficult to operationally define?

  1. A) anxiety
  2. B) intelligence
  3. C) theory
  4. D) athletic ability

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-85 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

29) Developing an operational definition involves combining

  1. A) past research and statistical output.
  2. B) statistical output and arbitrary decisions.
  3. C) information from past research and procedural output.
  4. D) information from past research and arbitrary decisions.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-86

Skill: Interpretive

 

30) Developing a good operational definition depends on

  1. A) making arbitrary decisions about how best to measure a variable.
  2. B) a combination of a knowledge of past research and making some arbitrary decisions.
  3. C) a knowledge of past research wisdom.
  4. D) sheer luck in picking the right definition.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-86

Skill: Interpretive

 

31) Operational definitions should take into account

  1. A) theory.
  2. B) past research.
  3. C) the demands of the study.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 84-86

Skill: Interpretive

 

4.4 Evaluating Measures

1) In order to carry out independent ratings,

  1. A) raters must be blind to the participants’ behavior.
  2. B) the measures must be at the ratio scale of measurement.
  3. C) raters must be blind to the ratings of other raters.
  4. D) the study must be at the experimental level of constraint.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87

Skill: Interpretive

 

2) The reproducibility of a measure is referred to as

  1. A) the reliability of the measure.
  2. B) the validity of the measure.
  3. C) the veracity of the measure.
  4. D) the verisimilitude of the measure.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87

Skill: Factual

 

3) The type of reliability that involves two observers is

  1. A) test-retest.
  2. B) internal consistency.
  3. C) interrater.
  4. D) internal raters.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) When two independent raters make ratings that agree with one another, the measure used is said to demonstrate

  1. A) test-retest reliability.
  2. B) interrater reliability.
  3. C) split-half reliability.
  4. D) internal consistency reliability.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) Reliability of a measure refers to

  1. A) whether it is an accurate reflection of the characteristic in the participants.
  2. B) the reproducibility factor.
  3. C) the reproducibility of an accurate reflection of the characteristic.
  4. D) whether researchers can depend on it.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87

Skill: Interpretive

 

6) A researcher is concerned about whether his eye color measurement device will be consistent in its measure of eye color. The researcher is concerned about

  1. A) validity.
  2. B) reliability.
  3. C) internal consistency.
  4. D) scale attenuation effects and validity.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87

Skill: Applied

 

7) In a study of the credibility of eyewitness testimony, at least two independent raters view video tapes and make ratings. What is the purpose of comparing these ratings?

  1. A) to increase the internal validity
  2. B) to aid in making operational definitions
  3. C) to establish test-retest reliability
  4. D) to establish interrater reliability

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87

Skill: Applied

 

8) Which of the following is NOT a type of reliability?

  1. A) test-retest
  2. B) interrater
  3. C) internal consistency
  4. D) effective range

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87-88

Skill: Interpretive

 

9) Reliability is usually quantified by using

  1. A) test-retest coefficients.
  2. B) correlation coefficients.
  3. C) standard deviations.
  4. D) reliability deviations.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87-88

Skill: Interpretive

 

10) All of the following contribute to reliability EXCEPT

  1. A) the precision and clarity of the operational definition.
  2. B) the number of independent observations on which the score is based.
  3. C) the validity of the measure.
  4. D) the precision with which the procedures outlined in the operational definition are followed.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87-88

Skill: Interpretive

 

11) Which of the following could seriously affect research results?

  1. A) scale attenuation effects
  2. B) effective range of a scale
  3. C) reliability
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87-88

Skill: Interpretive

 

12) Factors contributing to reliability include all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) the precision and clarity of the operational definition of the construct.
  2. B) the care and precision with which we carry out the measures and follow procedures of the operational definition.
  3. C) the attention we pay to making sure we have a large number of participants.
  4. D) the number of independent observations on which to base the score.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87-88

Skill: Interpretive

 

13) The procedure used most often to quantify degrees of validity and reliability is

  1. A) a chi-square test.
  2. B) an analysis of variance (ANOVA).
  3. C) a correlation coefficient.
  4. D) the multivariate analysis coefficient.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87-88

Skill: Factual

 

14) Which of the following errors will reduce the validity of a measure of the weight of a person without reducing the reliability of the measure?

  1. A) The scale is not properly adjusted so that it always gives a reading that is six pounds too low.
  2. B) Participants are weighed wearing whatever clothes they happen to be wearing when they walk into the laboratory.
  3. C) Two different scales, each properly calibrated to give accurate readings, are used.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87-90 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

15) The type of reliability based on comparing two measurements of the variable at different times is

  1. A) interrater.
  2. B) inter-measurement.
  3. C) test-retest.
  4. D) internal consistency.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

16) Which type of reliability would provide an index of the stability of a variable?

  1. A) interrater reliability
  2. B) test-retest reliability
  3. C) inter-subject stability
  4. D) internal consistency reliability

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

17) If a measure remains consistent over time, the measure is said to demonstrate

  1. A) time validity.
  2. B) internal consistency reliability.
  3. C) test-retest reliability.
  4. D) interrater reliability.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 87

Skill: Interpretive

 

18) Internal consistency reliability is high when

  1. A) each of the items or observations correlate with each other.
  2. B) each of the items or observations do not correlate with each other.
  3. C) measurements at different times correlate with each other.
  4. D) measurements at different times do not correlate with each other.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Interpretive

 

19) Internal consistency reliability will generally be higher when

  1. A) fewer observations make up an individual score.
  2. B) more observations make up an individual score.
  3. C) one observation makes up an individual score.
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Interpretive

 

20) A researcher wants to develop a measure of test anxiety with high internal consistency reliability. It would be best for her to have the measure consist of

  1. A) one item.
  2. B) ten items.
  3. C) twenty items.
  4. D) Item number is not important to internal consistency reliability.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Applied

 

21) Which of the following would be expected to have the highest internal consistency reliability?

  1. A) a 100-item comprehensive final
  2. B) a 100-item test covering several chapters
  3. C) a 100-item quiz covering one topic
  4. D) an essay test comprised of two essays

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Applied

 

22) In the development of a new measure of job satisfaction, the researchers give the measures twice to the same participants at 6-month intervals in order to establish

  1. A) test-retest reliability.
  2. B) interrater reliability.
  3. C) a correlation coefficient.
  4. D) social desirability.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Applied

 

23) Which of the following operational definitions of a variable would suffer from an effective range problem?

  1. A) a standard IQ test administered to high school seniors in a study of the relationship of intelligence to dating patterns
  2. B) a very difficult mathematics reasoning test given to a group of college mathematics majors in a study to determine the effects of high anxiety on test performance
  3. C) a standard bathroom scale to measure the weight of chickens in a study to determine how chicken size affects pecking order
  4. D) a wristwatch with a second hand to measure the time it takes students to solve 10 anagram problems in a study of the effects of noise on problem-solving speed

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88-89 (SG)

Skill: Applied

 

24) The effective range of a measure helps in determining a measure’s

  1. A) length.
  2. B) cost.
  3. C) test-retest reliability.
  4. D) appropriateness for a particular group of participants.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88-89 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

25) Scale attenuation effects result from

  1. A) the range of a scale being too wide.
  2. B) participant scores bunching at the top end of a scale.
  3. C) participant scores bunching at the low end of a scale.
  4. D) the restricted range of a scale.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88-89 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

26) Suppose everyone taking this test received 100%. This would exemplify

  1. A) a minor miracle at least.
  2. B) a reliable test.
  3. C) scale attenuation effects.
  4. D) a floor effect.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88-89

Skill: Applied

 

27) Internal consistency reliability is used when scores for participants are based on

  1. A) several observations made by several observers.
  2. B) several observations.
  3. C) different measures over several times by several observers.
  4. D) one score only.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

28) The use of a measurement scale with a restricted range can result in

  1. A) statistical squeeze.
  2. B) truncated statistical measures.
  3. C) enhanced reliability.
  4. D) scale attenuation effects.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Interpretive

 

29) Scale attenuation effects are a problem that

  1. A) cannot generally be reduced in experimental research.
  2. B) occurs only when the dependent variable is a measure of a physical property.
  3. C) is related to the effective range of a measure.
  4. D) can be solved by increasing sample size.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Interpretive

 

30) Internal consistency reliability refers to

  1. A) the participant’s private versus public attitudes.
  2. B) a type of interrater reliability.
  3. C) the comparison of one test version with another.
  4. D) the extent to which multiple observations that form a single test score are intercorrelated.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Interpretive

 

31) In general, the more observations made to obtain a person’s score,

  1. A) the greater the reliability of that score.
  2. B) the more attenuated the score’s reliability.
  3. C) the more attenuated the validity of that score.
  4. D) the greater the construct validity of that score.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Interpretive

 

32) To enhance reliability in measuring a behavioral construct,

  1. A) it is better to have fewer observations of behavior.
  2. B) it is better to have several observations of behavior.
  3. C) it makes no difference how many observations are made.
  4. D) it makes no difference how precise the operational definition is.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Interpretive

 

33) Scale attenuation effects

  1. A) increase the range of scores.
  2. B) do not affect the range of scores.
  3. C) improve the validity of scores.
  4. D) restrict the range of possible scores.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88-89

Skill: Interpretive

 

34) In designing a questionnaire to measure attitudes toward education of recently arrived immigrants, an important measurement issue to take into account is

  1. A) interrater reliability.
  2. B) the effective range of the scale.
  3. C) the placebo effect.
  4. D) the religion of the immigrants.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88

Skill: Applied

 

35) A researcher is designing a study on the effects of TV on the IQs of 9-12 year old children. The IQ test he is using was designed to measure IQs in adults. This is an example of a(n) ________ problem.

  1. A) internal consistency reliability
  2. B) construct validity
  3. C) test-retest reliability
  4. D) effective range

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88-89

Skill: Applied

 

36) If a researcher was weighing white mice and used an ordinary bathroom scale, this measure would be expected to show

  1. A) floor effects.
  2. B) ceiling effects.
  3. C) both good reliability and good validity.
  4. D) good validity but poor reliability.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 88-89

Skill: Applied

 

37) Suppose that this exam was so difficult that everyone scored low. In this case, the exam would be showing

  1. A) a ceiling effect.
  2. B) a floor effect.
  3. C) high internal consistency reliability.
  4. D) None of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 89

Skill: Applied

 

38) A ceiling effect occurs when

  1. A) participants are very unmotivated during research.
  2. B) a measure does not have sufficient range on the high end.
  3. C) a measure does not have sufficient range on the low end.
  4. D) a measure has too much range on the high end.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 89

Skill: Interpretive

 

39) A floor effect occurs when a measure

  1. A) does not have sufficient range on the high end.
  2. B) does not have sufficient range on the low end.
  3. C) has too much range on the high end.
  4. D) has too much range on the low end.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 89

Skill: Interpretive

 

40) A professor makes an exam extremely easy. This exam would be susceptible to a(n)

  1. A) floor effect.
  2. B) social desirability effect.
  3. C) ceiling effect.
  4. D) acquiescence effect.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 89

Skill: Applied

 

41) Ceiling effects and floor effects are types of

  1. A) scale attenuation effects.
  2. B) measurement error.
  3. C) pretests and posttests.
  4. D) researcher bias.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 89

Skill: Interpretive

 

42) The validity of a measure refers to

  1. A) the consistency with which it measures a variable.
  2. B) whether it accurately reflects the true amount of the variable participants have.
  3. C) whether it accurately reflects the manipulated amount of the variable the participants have.
  4. D) All of the above

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 90

Skill: Factual

 

43) Validity is evaluated in terms of

  1. A) the repeatability of a measure.
  2. B) the ability of a measure to predict other variables.
  3. C) the number of times a variable is measured.
  4. D) the clarity of the measure.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 90

Skill: Interpretive

 

44) A measure CANNOT be ________ unless it is ________.

  1. A) valid; reliable
  2. B) reliable; valid
  3. C) famous; tested
  4. D) reliable; appropriate

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 90

Skill: Interpretive

 

45) A measure can be ________ without being ________.

  1. A) valid; reliable
  2. B) reliable; valid
  3. C) valid; replicable
  4. D) subjective; person-specific

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 90

Skill: Interpretive

 

46) What is the relationship between the reliability and the validity of a measure?

  1. A) A valid measure must have reliability.
  2. B) A reliable measure must have validity.
  3. C) There is no relationship between the reliability of a measure and the validity of the measure.
  4. D) Reliability and validity are different ways of looking at the same concept.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 90 (SG)

Skill: Interpretive

 

47) The relationship between reliability and validity is that

  1. A) validity affects reliability.
  2. B) reliability affects validity.
  3. C) reliability and validity equally affect each other.
  4. D) There is no relationship between the two.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 90

Skill: Interpretive

 

48) A researcher decides to measure IQ by the number of questions correct on the test you are now taking. This measure of IQ is

  1. A) acceptable.
  2. B) of questionable validity.
  3. C) of questionable reliability.
  4. D) unacceptable due to problems of effective range and scale attenuation effect.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 90 (PQ)

Skill: Applied

 

49) If a broken clock (i.e., stuck on the same time) is consulted every hour on the hour, it will

  1. A) yield a reading that is valid.
  2. B) yield a reading that is valid but not reliable.
  3. C) yield a highly reliable reading, but one that is not valid.
  4. D) help a Type-A personality to relax.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 90

Skill: Applied

 

50) Researchers strive to obtain ________ in research.

  1. A) objectivity
  2. B) subjectivity
  3. C) both objectivity and subjectivity
  4. D) interval or ratio scale data only

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 91

Skill: Interpretive

 

51) Scientist believe that

  1. A) all data are subjective.
  2. B) the laws of nature should hold no matter who tests them.
  3. C) the laws of nature are relative and thus change with each experiment.
  4. D) the only dependable data are score data.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 91

Skill: Interpretive

 

52) Good psychological research requires the use of ________ measures.

  1. A) subjective
  2. B) simplified
  3. C) objective
  4. D) cumbersome

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 91

Skill: Interpretive

 

53) Statistical procedures help to provide objectivity in the

  1. A) interpretation of data.
  2. B) measurement process.
  3. C) observation process.
  4. D) observation process and interpretation of data.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 91 (PQ)

Skill: Interpretive

 

4.5 Ethical Principles

1) The deliberate falsification of data in science is

  1. A) unfortunately all too common.
  2. B) unlikely to ever occur because of the built-in safeguards.
  3. C) an extremely serious ethical violation.
  4. D) would easily be caught in the peer review process.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 92-93

Skill: Factual

 

2) The scientific misconduct of falsifying data

  1. A) has occurred with individual researchers, but has never occurred with industry or government agencies.
  2. B) has occasionally been practiced by organizations, including government organizations.
  3. C) is a widely practiced behavior in scientists who are under “publish or perish” pressure.
  4. D) is a legal issue, but not an ethical issue.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 92-93

Skill: Interpretive

 

3) The deliberate falsification of data is an egregious ethical violation because

  1. A) there is no way that the misinformation introduced will ever be corrected.
  2. B) the scientist involved benefits financially through his or her fraud, thus making it a legal matter.
  3. C) the scientist involved will never experience consequences for his or her actions.
  4. D) it weakens the integrity of the entire scientific enterprise.

Answer: D

Type: MC

Page Ref: 92-93

Skill: Interpretive

 

4) Researchers have two ethical responsibilities:

  1. A) protecting the subjects and assuring honesty.
  2. B) getting the data and writing a report.
  3. C) using correct statistical analyses and writing the report.
  4. D) locating appropriate subjects and testing them.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 92-93

Skill: Interpretive

 

5) The deliberate distortion of facts

  1. A) is totally rejected by our society.
  2. B) is readily accepted by our society.
  3. C) never happens in research reports.
  4. D) is common in all science.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 92-93

Skill: Interpretive

 

6) When college students purchase term papers online and submit them as their own, they are

  1. A) guilty of plagiarism.
  2. B) being honest with their instructor.
  3. C) just following the course syllabus.
  4. D) probably helping to improve academic standards.

Answer: A

Type: MC

Page Ref: 92-93

Skill: Applied

 

7) When writing review papers and research reports,

  1. A) college students are exempted from ethical standards.
  2. B) professionals and college students are subject to ethical standards.
  3. C) it is acceptable to fudge data because it is only a term paper.
  4. D) students should cut-and-paste extensively from published papers.

Answer: B

Type: MC

Page Ref: 92-93

Skill: Applied

 

8) 8) Students need to be very careful when taking notes from published sources because

  1. A) you must never use someone else’s ideas.
  2. B) the ideas are almost always wrong
  3. C) even if it is “accidental” plagiarism, it is still plagiarism.
  4. D) you can get sued by the author.

Answer: C

Type: MC

Page Ref: 92-93

Skill: Interpretive

 

 

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