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SOC3 3rd Edition Benokraitis Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1133592129

ISBN-10: 1133592120

 

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SOC3 3rd Edition Benokraitis Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1133592129

ISBN-10: 1133592120

 

 

 

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CHAPTER 2 – EXAMINING OUR SOCIAL WORLD

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Social research examines
a. historical behavior.
b. individual behavior.
c. group behavior.
d. human behavior.
e. collective behavior.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   21                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding social research being value free?
a. Social researchers must be value free from topic selection through the interpretation of data.
b. Social researchers always aim for being value free, but if they fail to meet that standard it is not such a big deal.
c. Although the topic selection may be subjective, the research must maintain objectivity when collecting, analyzing and interpreting data.
d. All of the above are true about social research.
e. None of the above is true about social research.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   21                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. In her research project, Megan is measuring age, gender, GPA, and study habits. Age, gender, GPA and study habits are examples of
a. social inequality.
b. variables.
c. characteristics.
d. assets.
e. social issues.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Which of the following is the correct order of the stages of the scientific method?
a. Literature review, topic selection, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results
b. Topic selection, collect data, analyze results, literature review, analyze results
c. Literature review, collect data, formulate hypothesis, analyze results
d. Topic selection, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results, present findings
e. Topic selection, literature review, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   26                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Which is typically the first stage in the research process?
a. literature review
b. topic selection
c. hypothesis formulation
d. data collection
e. present findings

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. Joanna is conducting a research project that examines whether parent’s income impacts a child’s choice of college. Joanna thinks that parents who make a lot of money will have children who will attend private schools and parents who make little money will have children who will attend public schools. “Parent’s income” is the _____ in Joanna’s project.
a. validity
b. reliability
c. hypothesis
d. independent variable
e. dependent variable

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Joanna is conducting a research project that examines whether parent’s income impacts a child’s choice of college. Joanna thinks that parents who make a lot of money will have children who will attend private schools and parents who make little money will have children who will attend public schools. “child’s choice of college” is the _____ in Joanna’s project.
a. validity
b. reliability
c. hypothesis
d. independent variable
e. dependent variable

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Joanna is conducting a research project that examines whether parent’s income impacts a child’s choice of college. Joanna thinks that parents who make a lot of money will have children who will attend private schools and parents who make little money will have children who will attend public schools. The previous statement is the _____ in Joanna’s project.
a. validity
b. reliability
c. hypothesis
d. independent variable
e. dependent variable

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Markus hypothesizes that unemployment increases the risk of poverty among women. In his project, _____ is the independent variable and _____ is the dependent variable.
a. unemployment; poverty
b. poverty; unemployment
c. gender, unemployment
d. gender; poverty
e. poverty; gender

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. _____ is a statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables.
a. Induction reasoning
b. A hypothesis
c. A correlation
d. An association
e. The scientific method

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. In Ohio, a researcher found that as ice cream sales increaseRemember, do the incidences of murder. In this example, _____ is the independent variable and _____ is the dependent variable.
a. ice cream sales; incidences of murder
b. incidences of murder; ice cream sales
c. Ohio; ice cream sales
d. Ohio; incidences of murder
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Robert and Kendra are studying the effects of alcohol on car accidents

among teenagers. In this example, _____ is the independent variable and _____ is

the dependent variable.

a. age; car accidents
b. alcohol; age
c. alcohol; car accidents
d. car accidents; alcohol
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Gretchen is conducting a research project and is interviewing respondents about their fertility history. On the first day her respondent says that she has had three children. However, the next day, the respondent reports that she has only two children. This is an example of a problem with
a. validity.
b. reliability.
c. hypotheses.
d. variables.
e. methods.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. If a measure is _____, it produces similar results each time it is used.
a. common
b. universal
c. value-free
d. reliable
e. inductive

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. _____ is the degree to which a measure actually measures what you intended it to measure.
a. Reliability
b. Hypothesis
c. Deduction
d. Induction
e. Validity

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. If the researcher and the respondent interpret a research question differently, there is a problem with
a. reliability.
b. validity.
c. deduction.
d. accuracy.
e. objectivity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. One approach to examining the relationship between variables begins with theory and is tested through data collection. This approach is called
a. qualitative.
b. quantitative.
c. inductive reasoning.
d. deductive reasoning.
e. value-free research.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. One approach to examining the relationship between variables begins with observations and ends with theory. This approach is called
a. validity
b. reliability
c. inductive reasoning
d. deductive reasoning
e. hypothesis testing

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Sandy noticed that of all of her classmates, those who used laptops scored higher on exams. Which research approach is Sandy using?
a. inductive reasoning
b. deductive reasoning
c. valid reasoning
d. reliable reasoning
e. observational reasoning

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. To be included in a probability sample, respondents must
a. select themselves.
b. be selected according to whether the researcher considers them appropriate subjects.
c. know something about a specific topic.
d. have an unknown and zero chance of being selected.
e. have an equal chance of being selected.

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. A/n _____ is any well-defined group of people about whom researchers want to know something.
a. social group
b. neighborhood
c. population
d. aggregate
e. collective

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Because it is typically too expensive and too time consuming, researchers often select a/n _____, a group of people that are representative of the larger population.
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. hypothesis
d. section
e. sample

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. When people call into TV contest shows to vote, such as American Idol or Dancing with the Stars, they are an example of
a. a population.
b. a probability sample.
c. a nonprobability sample.
d. a representative sample.
e. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Matthew, a researcher, decided to conduct research on domestic violence. He further narrowed his topic to focus on social class and domestic violence. Matthew is engaging in which stage of research?
a. reviewing the literature
b. selecting a topic
c. formulating a hypothesis
d. choosing a research design
e. presenting the findings

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. When a sociological researcher interviews workers about their opinions of their work conditions, the researcher is engaging in what stage of research?
a. collecting data
b. selecting a topic
c. formulating a hypothesis
d. choosing a research design
e. presenting the findings

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Gail, a sociologist, is reading the available literature on welfare policies for her research project. In which stage of the research process is Gail engaging?
a. selecting the topic
b. collecting data
c. analyzing results
d. reviewing the literature
e. choosing a research design

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Murray describes his sampling technique, the sample size, and the characteristics of the respondents in his study. Murray is engaging in which stage of the research process?
a. presenting the results
b. collecting data
c. analyzing results
d. reviewing the literature
e. describing the data collection methods

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Which of the following is not a stage in the research process?
a. selecting the topic
b. collecting data
c. analyzing results
d. manipulating the data
e. choosing a research design

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   25-26             OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Michelle is presenting her research at a local conference. She has concluded that the program she reviewed is very effective in its mission. Michelle is engaging in which stage of the research process?
a. selecting the topic
b. collecting data
c. analyzing and explaining results
d. reviewing the literature
e. choosing a research design

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   26                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Ryan is examining children’s books as part of a research project on gender images in the media. Ryan is using which of the following research approaches?
a. quantitative research
b. qualitative research
c. deductive research
d. inductive research
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   26                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Dr. Worthington is analyzing recorded interviews in a research project on stress in the workplace. Dr. Worthington is using which of the following research approaches?
a. quantitative research
b. qualitative research
c. value-free research
d. verstehen research
e. experimental research

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   26                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Steve’s research project is aimed at understanding the relationship between after-school employment and GPA. Steve is collecting data from students on the number of hours they work outside of school and their grades. Steve is using which of the following research approaches?
a. quantitative research
b. qualitative research
c. deductive research
d. inductive research
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   26                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding correlation and causation in social research?
a. The terms “correlation” and “causation” can be used interchangeably.
b. Correlation and causation are mutually exclusive terms.
c. Social research does not address issues of causation.
d. Social research does not address issues of correlation.
e. Sociologists can only predict death with relative certainty.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. Gregory has found that premarital cohabitation and subsequent divorce are related. Can Gregory conclude that premarital cohabitation causes subsequent divorce?
a. Yes, as long as he followed all ethical standards.
b. Yes, as long as he used a probability sample.
c. No, he can only conclude that there is a correlation.
d. No, he can only conclude that his sampling was flawed.
e. A conclusion cannot be drawn without more information.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. If Marta is conducting a social research project on levels of education and self-esteem, which of the following statements could she make?
a. “Increasing one’s education causes self-esteem to improve.”
b. “The lower one’s education, the more likely one has low self-esteem.”
c. “Education causes poor self-esteem.”
d. “Marta has low self-esteem.”
e. “Marta is uneducated and lacks self-esteem.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Peter is sending out surveys via e-mail to 7000 students on campus to gather data about their eating habits. Peter is using which of the following data collection methods?
a. survey
b. field research
c. experiment
d. evaluation research
e. secondary analysis

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Every ten years, the U.S. Census Bureau mails forms to every home in the United States to collect federally mandated data. The Census Bureau is using which of the following data collection methods?
a. secondary analysis
b. field research
c. experiment
d. survey
e. evaluation research

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. A common way for telephone interviews to be conducted is with the help of
a. many volunteers.
b. computer-assisted telephone interviewing.
c. digital voices.
d. computer-interviewer manipulation.
e. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the major strengths of survey research?
a. Surveys are inexpensive.
b. Surveys are often anonymous.
c. Surveys are simple to administer.
d. Surveys have very high response rates.
e. Surveys are fast.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   27-28             OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following survey methods has the higher response rate?
a. mailed questionnaires
b. face-to-face interviews
c. telephone interviews
d. internet questionnaires
e. text message questionnaires

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. A _____________ is a sample for which there is little or no attempts to get a representative cross section of the population.
a. probability sample
b. evaluation sample
c. nonprobability sample
d. experimental sample
e. field sample

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following is a common criticism of survey research?
a. They are usually expensive.
b. They usually have a slow turnaround.
c. Respondents’ answers are never anonymous or confidential.
d. Interviewers can record a respondent’s body language and facial expressions.
e. Mailed questionnaires usually have a low response rate.

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. In 1998, the University of Wisconsin collected data on means of transportation to work. In 2008, Betsy (a University of Minnesota student) used the data for her own project. Betsy is using which data collection method?
a. secondary analysis
b. evaluation research
c. survey
d. experiment
e. field research

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   29                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Connor is reviewing birth and death certificates for persons living in Jefferson County. Connor is using which data collection method?
a. survey
b. evaluation research
c. secondary analysis
d. experiment
e. field research

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   29                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Which of the following is a strength of secondary analysis?
a. The data are always longitudinal.
b. Usually inexpensive and convenient.
c. Usually not available to biased researchers.
d. Valuable to real-life situations.
e. Permits comparisons of specific groups over decades.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   29                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. Secondary data can be either __________ or cross-sectional.
a. expensive
b. derivative
c. longitudinal
d. primary
e. copied

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   29                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Barney, a junior, was interested in studying the study habits of college freshman. To better understand this issue, Barney joined a number of study groups designed for freshman-level courses at his college. Barney is using which data collection method?
a. secondary analysis
b. evaluation research
c. survey
d. experiment
e. field research

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   29-30             OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Molly is conducting research on the homeless. For six weeks she has lived among the homeless “24/7,” sleeping on the street or at a shelter, and engaging in the same activities as the population she is studying. By doing so, Molly has been able to gather a broad understanding of the homeless, their needs, and characteristics. Molly is using _____ as a method of gathering data.
a. questionnaires
b. experiments
c. participant observation
d. nonparticipant observation
e. content analysis

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   29-30             OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Nina is studying rituals among professional athletes. She has access to team locker rooms before and after games for three major league baseball teams. Nina is using _____ as a method of gathering data.
a. questionnaires
b. experiments
c. participant observation
d. nonparticipant observation
e. content analysis

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   30                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. According to the , journalist Barbara Ehrenreich used _____ in her study of gangs and low-income neighborhoods.
a. questionnaires
b. experiments
c. participant observation
d. secondary analysis
e. content analysis

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   30                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. ______________ is the examination of data that have been collected by someone else.
a. field research
b. validation
c. survey
d. experiment
e. secondary analysis

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   29-30             OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. ___________ is data collected by systematically observing people in their natural surroundings.
a. content analysis
b. field research
c. statistical analysis
d. survey
e. experiment

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   29                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following is a common weakness of field research?
a. It has a low response rate.
b. It may be dangerous.
c. It is complex and rigid.
d. It relies on volunteers.
e. It is often political and requires legal approval.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   30                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. _____________ is a data collection method that systematically examines some form of communication.
a. Newspapers
b. Substantive analysis
c. Cognitive analysis
d. Content analysis
e. Intent analysis

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   31                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Lindsey and Tobias decided to study how children’s books present diverse family structures. Lindsey and Tobias read and coded 25 children’s books and noted what type of family structure was illustrated in the text and pictures. Lindsey and Tobias were using which method of data collection?
a. secondary analysis
b. evaluation research
c. survey
d. content analysis
e. field research

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   31                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. In the _______group, participants are exposed to the independent variable.
a. ethnic group
b. probability group
c. experimental group
d. population group
e. control group

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. A carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers to manipulate variables and measure their effects is called a/n
a. random sample.
b. survey.
c. experiment.
d. field research.
e. content analysis.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. In the classic experimental design, there are two groups: the _____ group and the _____ group.
a. sociological; psychological
b. independent; dependent
c. control; experimental
d. pretest; posttest
e. human; subject

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. In the classic experimental design, the _____ is exposed to the independent variable (treatment), while the control group is not.
a. independent group
b. subject group
c. pretest group
d. dependent group
e. experimental group

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. In the classic experimental design, the researcher measures the dependent variable both before the introduction of the independent variable, the _____, and again after the experimental group is exposed to the independent variable, the _____.
a. pretest; posttest
b. prior test; after test
c. control test; experimental test
d. validity test; reliability test
e. reliability test; validity test

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Abbey was interested in researching the effects of physical environment on the behavior of studying. She observed two groups – one group where students were studying outside on the campus quad, and another group who studied in the library. Abbey is using which method of data collection?
a. survey
b. secondary analysis
c. content analysis
d. experiments
e. evaluation

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Aaron was interested in whether students with a tutor were more successful in class than students without a tutor. Aaron likely used which method of data collection?
a. telephone interviews
b. content analysis
c. experiment
d. nonparticipant observation
e. evaluation research

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Dr. Porter was interested in determining whether her new teaching techniques were effectively improving student engagement.  Dr. Porter will likely use which method of data collection?
a. telephone interviews
b. content analysis
c. participant observation
d. nonparticipant observation
e. evaluation research

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. To measure the effectiveness of their new public programs, ________ is used in both public and private sectors.
a. participant observation
b. evaluation research
c. mailed questionnaires
d. content analysis
e. experiments

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Unlike most other research methods, evaluation research is
a. expensive.
b. simple.
c. applied.
d. fatalistic.
e. assessment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. By using _____Remember,cial scientists found that the programmatic effects of the

DARE program were insignificant (i.e., students who completed the DARE

program were no less likely to use drugs than students who did not complete the

program).

a. experimentation
b. evaluation research
c. mailed questionnaires
d. participant observation
e. content analysis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true?
a. While surveys are inexpensive and simple to administer, mailed questionnaires have low response rates.
b. Secondary data are often longitudinal, which allows an examination of trend data.
c. Experiments can be replicated but are rarely representative of a population.
d. Content analysis is expensive, but very useful for historical data.
e. Evaluation research is most useful for real-life applications.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of experiments?
a. Subjects aren’t representative of a larger population.
b. The laboratory setting is artificial.
c. Conclusions may be inaccurate.
d. Conclusions may be contradictory.
e. Subjects are representative of a larger population.

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the ethical standards recommended by the

American Sociological Association?

a. Researchers must describe the limitations of their work
b. Researchers must acknowledge their research assistants.
c. Researchers must protect the anonymity of their subjects.
d. Researchers must tell their subjects everything about the research.
e. Researchers must not harm to their subjects.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following would likely not put “pressure” on social researchers?
a. policy makers
b. religious organizations
c. local school officials
d. research universities
e. community members

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. A __________ is a characteristic that can change in value or magnitude under different conditions.
a. scientific method
b. population
c. variable
d. hypothesis
e. sample

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. _____ask people to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or interview.
a. Surveys
b. Secondary analysis
c. Field research
d. Content analysis
e. Experiments

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. According to the , two common sources of knowledge are
a. schools and family.
b. science and religion.
c. tradition and authority.
d. politics and government.
e. peers and parents.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   21                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Sociological research is important in our everyday lives because it
a. creates new knowledge.
b. negates existing knowledge.
c. condemns existing knowledge.
d. exposes new knowledge.
e. informs new knowledge.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   22                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Marcus used a deductive approach to examine the relationship between two variables. Which of the following best represents a deductive approach?
a. theory à hypothesis à observation à confirmation or rejection of hypothesis
b. theory à observation à hypothesis à confirmation or rejection of hypothesis
c. observation à theory à hypothesis à confirmation or rejection of hypothesis
d. hypothesis à confirmation or rejection of hypothesis à theory à observation
e. hypothesis à confirmation or rejection of hypothesis à observation à theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. ____________ research examines nonnumeric material and interprets it.
a. qualitative
b. quantitative
c. contemplative
d. expletive
e. probability

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   26                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Nonprobability samples are particularly useful when a researcher
a. wants to explore a new topic.
b. has a limited time frame.
c. has limited financial resources.
d. is working with a large sample.
e. is not interested in doing research.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Dr. Turner administers course evaluations on the last day of class. What type of questionnaire is she using?
a. interview
b. nonprobability
c. random
d. self-administered
e. CATI

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Marilyn uses a computer to randomly select telephone numbers, reads the questions to the respondent from a computer screen, and then enters data into precoded spaces. Marilyn is using
a. random-digit dialing.
b. telephone-computer interviewing.
c. sampling.
d. self-administered interviewing.
e. computer-assisted telephone interviewing.

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   27                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. _____ is a type of field research that requires a considerable amount of time in the field.
a. Interviews
b. Participant observation
c. Content analysis
d. Demographics
e. Ethnologies

 

 

ANS:  E                    REF:   30                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. In a recent experimental study, researchers found that
a. Students who viewed comedy clips had lower scores and final grades than students who did not view the comedy clips.
b. Students who viewed comedy clips had higher scores and final grades than students who did not view the comedy clips.
c. Students who viewed comedy clips had the same scores and final grades as students who did not view the comedy clips.
d. There was no significant difference found between students who viewed comedy clips and students who did not view the comedy clips.
e. Students who viewed comedy clips had lower scores, but higher final grades than students who did not view the comedy clips.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following represent the golden rules of ethical research?
a. do no harm, cure, treat
b. informed consent, anonymity, accuracy
c. confidentiality, anonymity, privacy
d. do no harm, informed consent, confidentiality
e. acknowledge, identity, describe

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which of the following data collection methods are most susceptible to ethical violations?
a. surveys
b. secondary analysis
c. content analysis
d. field research
e. experiments

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Which research approach is most common among sociologists?
a. qualitative
b. quantitative
c. a combination of qualitative and quantitative
d. They are equally common.
e. Sociologists don’t use qualitative or quantitative methods.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   26                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. According to recent research, the Facebook is the cause of 20% of divorces.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   22                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Recent research suggests that workplace diversity leads to higher company profits.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   22                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. The terms “correlation” and “causation” can be used interchangeably.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   22                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. If Nora observes interactions from a distance, she is using nonparticipant observation.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   30                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. Experiments are commonly cited as one of the most useful research methods for sociological research.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Evaluation research is commonly cited as being useful in real life applications.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. If Jacob is collecting data by asking people questions, he is using secondary analysis.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   29                  OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. If Marianne is observing children at the school playground, she is using field research.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   29-30             OBJ:   APPLIED

 

  1. A hypothesis is a relationship between two or more variables that the researcher knows already exists.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   23                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Most social science research involves both inductive and deductive reasoning.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Sociological research influences social policy.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   22                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. An inductive approach starts with a theory and ends with the confirmation/rejection of a hypothesis.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   CONCEPTUAL

 

  1. American Idol voters represent a nonprobability sample.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   25                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. According to the , inductive reasoning begins with specific observations.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   24                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. The results of Internet surveys are representative of the general population.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   28                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

  1. Cross-sectional data are collected at one point in time.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   29                  OBJ:   FACTUAL

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Consider a social problem. Which research method would be most useful in understanding and explaining the problem? Be sure to provide support for your answer.

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   27-35

 

  1. Explain why Internet polls are not representative of the U.S. population.

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   24/25

 

  1. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative research.

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   26

 

  1. Why is the scientific method crucial in sociological research?

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   23-27

 

  1. Why are cause-effect relationships difficult to demonstrate when studying human behavior?

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   27

 

  1. Why is sociological research important in our everyday lives?

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   21-23

 

  1. What is the difference between validity and reliability?

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   24

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Consider the following research topic: prescription drug abuse on college campuses. Identify which research method you would use to study such an issue. Be sure to justify your decision.

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   27-35

 

  1. Describe at least three of the research methods most commonly used in conducting sociological research.

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   27-35

 

  1. Identify a research topic of your choice. Write a hypothesis for your topic. Identify the dependent and independent variables for your topic.

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   23

 

  1. List the stages of the research process and describe each stage.

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   25-26

 

  1. Differentiate between quantitative and qualitative research and give two examples of each.

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   26

 

  1. Why do American Idol voters represent nonprobability samples? Is it possible to design a study where these voters would represent a probability sample?

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   24-25

 

  1. Visit the Stanford Prison Experiment website (www.prisonexp.org). Identify and describe why this experiment is cited as “raising ethical questions.”

 

ANS:

Will vary

 

REF:   35-37

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