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Society The Basics 10th Edition Macionis Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0135018828

ISBN-10: 013501882X

 

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Society The Basics 10th Edition Macionis Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0135018828

ISBN-10: 013501882X

 

 

 

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Quick Quiz: Chapter 7

Deviance

 

Multiple Choice

  1. “Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crime:
  2. is always more serious. c. is a violation of norms enacted into law.
  3. is always less serious. d. involves a larger share of the population.

 

  1. Emile Durkheim’s basic insight is that deviance is:
  2. a normal element of social organization. c. less common in modern societies.
  3. a dysfunctional element of social organization. d. defined by the rich and used against the poor.

 

  1. The basic idea behind labeling theory is that:
  2. deviance arises not so much from what people c. power has much to do with how a society

do as how others respond to what they do.                   defines deviance.

  1. deviance is actually useful in a number of ways. d. All of the above are correct.

 

  1. Which of the following illustrate the “medicalization of deviance”?
  2. promiscuity being redefined as a “sexual c. theft being redefined as a “compulsive

addiction”                                                                    disorder”

  1. drinking too much being redefined as “alcoholism” d. All of the above are correct.

 

  1. A hate crime is defined as:
  2. a criminal act motivated by racial or other bias. c. any crime against a minority individual.
  3. any crime involving powerful emotions. d. any violation of anti-discrimination laws.

 

  1. Research suggests that, with regard to social class, arrest for serious crime:
  2. is about the same for people of all class levels. c. is higher for people in lower class levels.
  3. is higher for people in higher class levels. d. almost always involves middle-class people.

 

  1. In recent years, crime rates have declined in the United States due to:
  2. a reduction in the youth population. c. building more prisons.
  3. an increasing number of police. d. All of the above are correct.

 

 

True/False

 

_________ 8. The stigma of deviance can encourage further deviance in an individual.

 

_________ 9. “Crimes against property” greatly outnumber “crimes against persons.”

 

 

Short Answer

  1. Explain the difference between primary and secondary deviance.

 

TEST QUESTIONS: CHAPTER 7

Deviance

 

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. What does the opening chapter story say about Bruce Glover’s release from prison after serving twenty-six years?
  2. Glover was wrongly convicted of a crime.
  3. Long cut off from the outside world, Glover had few resources with which to begin a new life.
  4. Glover immediately was arrested for a new crime.
  5. Glover immediately became a celebrity and soon was making a high income.

 

(Factual; answer: b; page 176)

 

  1. Which of the following sociological terms refers to “the recognized violation of cultural norms”?

 

  1. deviance
  2. crime
  3. unsuccessful socialization
  4. juvenile delinquency

 

(Conceptual; answer: a; page 176)

 

  1. “Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crime:

 

  1. is always more serious.
  2. is always less serious.
  3. is a violation of norms enacted into law.
  4. involves a larger share of the population.

 

(Conceptual; answer: c; page 176)

 

  1. Every society regulates the thoughts and behavior of individuals. This process of regulation is called:

 

  1. neighborhood watch.
  2. childhood socialization.
  3. social control.
  4. the legal system.

 

(Conceptual; answer: c; page 176)

 

 

 

  1. What concept refers to the formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police, courts, and prison officials?

 

  1. the normative system
  2. socialization
  3. civil law
  4. the criminal justice system

 

(Conceptual; answer: d; page 176)

 

  1. Biological approaches offer:

 

  1. a very limited understanding of crime.
  2. a good explanation of all crimes.
  3. a good explanation of only violent crime.
  4. a good explanation of only property crime.

 

(Factual; answer: a; page 177)

 

  1. Which of the following statements comes closest to the correct view of the role of biology in causing people to commit crimes?

 

  1. Males with certain body types commit most serious crimes.
  2. Lombroso proved a century ago that biological factors are a major cause of crime.
  3. Biological factors may have a real but small effect in causing some people to commit crimes.
  4. Genetics research has succeeded in explaining most criminality.

 

(Applied; answer: c; page 177)

 

  1. Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz claimed that “good boys” have the ability to control deviant impulses. They called their approach:

 

  1. differential opportunity theory.
  2. containment theory.
  3. personality theory.
  4. differential association theory.

 

(Conceptual; answer: b; pages 177-178)

 

  1. The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because:

 

  1. very few people experience an “unsuccessful socialization.”
  2. there has been very little research of this kind.
  3. there is no way to distinguish “normal” from “abnormal” people in psychological terms.
  4. most people who commit crimes have normal personalities.

 

(Applied; answer: d; page 178)

 

  1. Read the following four assertions about the social foundation of deviance. Then select the one that is FALSE.

 

  1. Deviance exists only in relation to cultural norms.
  2. Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere.
  3. People become deviant as others define them that way.
  4. Norms and the way people define rule breaking involve differences in social power.

 

(Factual; answer: b; page 178)

 

  1. Emile Durkheim’s basic insight is that deviance is:

 

  1. a normal element of social organization.
  2. linked to flaws in our human nature.
  3. less common in modern societies than in traditional societies.
  4. defined by the rich and used against the poor.

 

(Factual; answer: a; pages 179-180)

 

  1. Which of the following is a function of deviance noted by Emile Durkheim?

 

  1. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms.
  2. Responding to deviance promotes social unity.
  3. Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries.
  4. All of the above are correct.

 

(Factual; answer: d; pages 179-180)

 

  1. Which of the following concepts is used in Robert Merton’s strain theory of deviance to refer to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting conventional means to get there.

 

  1. innovation
  2. ritualism
  3. retreatism
  4. rebellion

 

(Conceptual; answer: a; page 180)

 

 

  1. In his strain theory, Robert Merton would use which of the following concepts to describe people, including alcoholics and drug addicts, who “drop out.”

 

  1. innovator
  2. ritualist
  3. retreatist
  4. rebel

 

(Applied; answer: c; page 180)

 

  1. In Robert Merton’s strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes a person who gets rich by committing fraud while working at a bank?

 

  1. innovation
  2. ritualism
  3. retreatism
  4. rebellion

 

(Applied; answer: a; page 180)

 

  1. In his strain theory, Robert Merton uses which of the following concepts to describe the behavior of a radical who rejects cultural goals and means in favor of some alternative system?

 

  1. innovation
  2. ritualism
  3. retreatism
  4. rebellion

 

(Applied; answer: d; page 180)

 

  1. Using Robert Merton’s strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes the behavior of a low-paid, yet rigidly conforming bank teller?

 

  1. innovation
  2. ritualism
  3. retreatism
  4. rebellion

 

(Applied; answer: b; page 180)

 

 

  1. Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin extend Merton’s theory of deviance stating that crime:

 

  1. reflects not only limited legitimate opportunity but also accessible illegitimate opportunity.
  2. is more common among the rich who have more resources.
  3. is defined in such a way as to overly criminalize the poor.
  4. is typically a result of drug dependence or other substance addiction.

 

(Factual; answer: a; page 180)

 

  1. In his subcultural theory of deviance, Walter Miller claimed that street criminality is most common among:

 

  1. high-income males.
  2. middle-class men and women.
  3. low-income youths.
  4. women at all class levels.

 

(Factual; answer: c; page 181)

 

  1. Elijah Anderson describes the subculture of poor neighborhoods that encourages violence and trouble with the law as:

 

  1. innovation.
  2. secondary deviance.
  3. a retreatist subculture.
  4. the code of the streets.

 

(Conceptual; answer: d; page 181)

 

  1. The basic idea behind labeling theory is that:

 

  1. deviance is actually useful in a number of ways.
  2. deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do.
  3. power has much to do with how a society defines deviance.
  4. All of the above are correct.

 

(Conceptual; answer: b; page 182)

 

  1. Edwin Lemert described “primary deviance” as:

 

  1. the most serious episodes of deviance.
  2. actions that parents or other family members define as deviant.
  3. a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person’s self-concept.
  4. the experience of deviance early in life.

 

(Conceptual; answer: c; pages 182-183)

 

 

  1. When friends began to criticize Juan as a “boozer,” pushing him out of their social circle, he began to drink even more and became bitter. Juan ended up joining a new group of friends, all of whom are all heavy drinkers. According to Edwin Lemert, this situation illustrates:

 

  1. the onset of primary deviance.
  2. the onset of secondary deviance.
  3. the formation of a deviant subculture.
  4. the process of retreatism.

 

(Conceptual; answer: b; page 183)

 

  1. Which of the following is Erving Goffman’s concept that refers to a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity?

 

  1. deviant ritual
  2. degradation ceremony
  3. secondary identity
  4. stigma

 

(Conceptual; answer: d; page183)

 

  1. The concept “retrospective labeling” refers to the process of:

 

  1. interpreting someone’s past as consistent with present deviance.
  2. defining someone as deviant for things done long before.
  3. delinquent children growing into criminal adults.
  4. All of the above are correct.

 

(Conceptual; answer: a; page 183)

 

  1. Thomas Szasz made the controversial assertion that:

 

  1. deviance is only what people label as deviant.
  2. most people in the United States have been or will become insane for some period of time.
  3. mental illness is a myth: “insanity” amounts to differences that bother others.
  4. our society does far too little to treat mentally ill people.

 

(Factual; answer: c; page 183)

 

  1. Which of the following illustrates the “medicalization of deviance”?

 

  1. theft being redefined as a “compulsive disorder”
  2. drinking too much being redefined as “alcoholism”
  3. promiscuity being redefined as a “sexual addiction”
  4. All of the above are correct.

 

(Applied; answer: d; page 183)

 

  1. Whether people respond to deviance as a moral or medical matter affects which of the following?

 

  1. who responds—police or medical personnel
  2. whether the person is subject to punishment or treatment
  3. whether or not others assume the person is competent
  4. All of the above are correct.

 

(Factual; answer: d; page 183)

 

  1. Edwin Sutherland’s differential association theory links deviance to:

 

  1. how others respond to a person’s behavior.
  2. the amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage the behavior in question.
  3. how able a person is to contain deviant impulses.
  4. how others respond to the race, class, or gender of some individuals.

 

(Conceptual; answer: b; page 184)

 

  1. Travis Hirschi’s control theory suggests which of the following categories of people would be most likely to engage in deviance?

 

  1. students enrolled in college
  2. teenage athletes with after-school jobs
  3. youngsters who “hang out” waiting for something to happen
  4. young people who respect their parents

 

(Applied; answer: c; pages 184-185)

 

  1. According to the social-conflict approach, what a society labels as deviant is based mostly on:

 

  1. how often certain acts occur.
  2. the moral foundation of the culture.
  3. how harmful the act is to the public as a whole.
  4. patterns of inequality and who has more power.

 

(Factual; answer: d; page 185)

 

  1. Alexander Liazos speaks for the social-conflict approach when he states that:

 

  1. powerless people are at the highest risk of being defined as deviant.
  2. deviance has both functions and dysfunctions.
  3. deviance exists only in the eye of the beholder.
  4. society should ignore victimless crime.

 

(Factual; answer: a; pages 185-186)

 

  1. Using a Marxist approach, Steven Spitzer claims that a capitalist society is likely to label which of the following categories of people as deviant?
  2. someone who threatens to take the property of others
  3. people who are not very productive
  4. radicals who call for basic change in society itself
  5. All of the above are correct.

 

(Factual; answer: d; page 186)

 

  1. What is the term for crime committed by persons of high social position in the course of doing their jobs?

 

  1. victimless crime
  2. white-collar crime
  3. organized crime
  4. street crime

 

(Conceptual; answer: b; page 186)

 

  1. Edwin Sutherland stated that white-collar crime:

 

  1. almost always leads to a criminal conviction.
  2. provokes a strong response from the community.
  3. is more likely to be resolved in a civil rather than a criminal court.
  4. rarely involves serious harm to the public as a whole.

 

(Conceptual; answer: c; page 186)

 

  1. Which of the following concepts refers to the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf?
  2. corporate crime
  3. organized crime
  4. embezzlement
  5. capitalist crime

 

(Conceptual; answer: a; page 187)

 

 

  1. The recent scandals involving Enron and other U.S. corporations are examples of which of the following?

 

  1. corporate crime
  2. organized crime
  3. primary deviance
  4. secondary deviance

 

(Conceptual; answer: a; page 187)

 

  1. Organized crime refers to:

 

  1. illegal actions by people with white-collar jobs.
  2. illegal actions on the part of a corporation or large business.
  3. crime involving cooperation between two or more large businesses.
  4. any business that supplies illegal goods or services.

 

(Conceptual; answer: d; page 187)

 

  1. A hate crime is defined as:

 

  1. any crime targeting a member of a minority.
  2. any crime involving powerful emotions.
  3. a criminal act motivated by racial or other bias.
  4. any violation of state or local anti-discrimination laws.

 

(Conceptual; answer: c; pages 187-188)

 

  1. Gender figures into the study of deviance because:

 

  1. most of the people arrested for serious crimes in the United States are women.
  2. every society in the world applies stronger normative controls to females than to males.
  3. most researchers in this area are women.
  4. All of the above are correct.

 

(Factual; answer: b; page 188)

 

  1. Which of the following is a legal term meaning “guilty mind” that refers to criminal intent?

 

  1. mea culpa
  2. mens rea
  3. homo sapiens
  4. habeas corpus

 

(Conceptual; answer: b; pages 189-190)

 

 

  1. In legal terms, a crime is composed of which two elements?

 

  1. the act and criminal intent
  2. a criminal and a victim
  3. the act and the social harm
  4. the law and the violation

 

(Conceptual; answer: a; pages 189-190)

 

  1. The category “crimes against persons” includes ALL BUT ONE of the following. Which one is NOT included?

 

  1. murder
  2. aggravated assault
  3. burglary
  4. forcible rape

 

(Conceptual; answer: c; page 190)

 

  1. Monica steals a bicycle from a front yard of a neighbor’s home. This act is an example of which criminal offense?

 

  1. burglary
  2. larceny-theft
  3. robbery
  4. auto-theft

 

(Applied; answer: b; page 190)

 

  1. Prostitution is widely regarded as one example of:

 

  1. crime against the person.
  2. crime against property.
  3. victimless crime.
  4. corporate crime.

 

(Applied; answer: c; page 190)

 

  1. Of all the serious crimes discussed in the text chapter, one occurs far more than all the others. Which one occurs the most often?

 

  1. motor-vehicle theft
  2. larceny-theft
  3. robbery
  4. forcible rape

 

(Factual; answer: b; page 191)

  1. Criminal statistics gathered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation reflect:
  2. all crimes that take place.
  3. offenses cleared by arrest.
  4. offenses resulting in a criminal conviction.
  5. offenses known to the police.

 

(Factual; answer: d; pages 190-191)

 

  1. Victimization surveys show that the actual amount of crime in the United States is about __________ what official reports indicate.

 

  1. half of
  2. the same as
  3. three times greater than
  4. ten times greater than

 

(Factual; answer: c; page 191)

 

  1. The likelihood a person will be arrested for a street crime rises sharply:

 

  1. during the late teenage years.
  2. in the late twenties.
  3. during the middle thirties.
  4. at about age forty.

 

(Factual; answer: a; page 191)

 

  1. Men, who represent about half the U.S. population, account for about __________ of all arrests for property crime.
  2. 29 percent
  3. 49 percent
  4. 69 percent
  5. 89 percent

 

(Factual; answer: c; page 192)

 

  1. In the United States, men account for about what share of all arrests for violent crime?

 

  1. 22 percent
  2. 42 percent
  3. 62 percent
  4. 82 percent

 

(Factual; answer: d; page 192)

 

  1. Research suggests that, with regard to social class, arrest for

serious crime:

 

  1. is about the same for people of all class levels.
  2. is higher for people in higher class levels.
  3. is higher for people in lower class levels.
  4. almost always involves middle-class people.

 

(Factual; answer: c; page 192)

 

  1. In terms of race and ethnicity, most people arrested for a violent crime in the United States are:

 

  1. white.
  2. African American.
  3. people of mixed race.
  4. Latino.

 

(Factual; answer: a; page 192)

 

  1. According to Elliot Currie, factors that explain why the United States has a high crime rate by world standards include:
  2. our cultural homogeneity.
  3. a lack of public interest in punishing offenders.
  4. having too few police officers.
  5. our emphasis on individual economic success, which often weakens families and neighborhoods.

 

(Factual; answer: d; page 193)

 

  1. Surveys suggest that about what share of all U.S. households have at least one gun?

 

  1. one-in-ten
  2. one-in-five
  3. one-in-three
  4. almost all

 

(Factual; answer: c; page 193)

 

  1. The only Western, high-income nation that routinely executes offenders convicted of serious crimes is:

 

  1. the United Kingdom.
  2. Canada.
  3. the United States.
  4. All of the above are correct.

 

(Factual; answer: c page 194)

 

  1. Because there are several hundred people in the United States for every police officer, police:

 

  1. ignore most crimes they learn about.
  2. work, on average, far more hours than other workers.
  3. cannot take time to ensure due process for suspects.
  4. use personal judgment in deciding which situations warrant their attention.

 

(Factual; answer: d; page 195)

 

  1. Most criminal cases that reach the courts in the United States are resolved:

 

  1. through plea bargaining.
  2. with a jury trial.
  3. with a judge deciding the case.
  4. through a pre-sentence investigation.

 

(Factual; answer: a; page 196)

 

  1. In historical perspective, the oldest justification for punishing an offender is:

 

  1. deterrence
  2. retribution
  3. social protection
  4. rehabilitation

 

(Factual; answer: b; page 197)

 

  1. Which justification of punishing criminals rests on using the threat of punishment to discourage further criminality?

 

  1. deterrence
  2. retribution
  3. social protection
  4. rehabilitation

 

(Conceptual; answer: a; page 197)

 

 

  1. Joe Adams was sent to prison by a judge who claimed that jail time would make him think twice before repeating his crime. The judge was expressing which of the following reasons to punish an offender?

 

  1. retribution
  2. deterrence
  3. social protection
  4. rehabilitation

 

(Applied; answer: b; page 197)

 

  1. The concept “criminal recidivism” refers to:

 

  1. young people growing up in a “criminal” environment.
  2. efforts by police to enlist help from a local community.
  3. subsequent offenses by people previously convicted of crimes.
  4. the idea that crime really does “pay.”

 

(Conceptual; answer: c; page 198)

 

  1. The Seeing Sociology in the News article explains that:

 

  1. the U.S. prison population has been increasing.
  2. more than 1 in 100 U.S. adults are in prison.
  3. Hispanic and black men are more likely than white men to be in prison.
  4. All of the above are correct.

 

(Factual; answer: d; pages 198-199)

 

  1. The death penalty:

 

  1. is legal in all of the fifty states.
  2. is being carried out more as time goes on.
  3. is legal in most states, but is actually carried out only in a few states.
  4. was ruled unconstitutional in the United States in 2005.

 

(Factual; answer: c; page 199)

 

  1. About what share of U.S. adults support the death penalty as a punishment for murder?

 

  1. 13 percent
  2. 23 percent
  3. 43 percent
  4. 63 percent

 

(Factual; answer: d; page 199)

 

  1. Community-based corrections are correctional programs that:

 

  1. operate within society as a whole rather than behind prison walls.
  2. are run by local people rather than judges and other officials.
  3. are applied only to youthful offenders.
  4. All of the above are correct.

 

(Factual; answer: a; page 200)

 

 

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Crime is only one type of deviance.

 

(Conceptual; answer: T; page 176)

 

  1. Caesare Lombroso, an Italian physician and early criminologist, claimed that most criminals were people who had been mistreated by society.

 

(Factual; answer: F; page 177)

 

  1. Biological factors, including genetics, explain most criminal behavior.

 

(Factual; answer: F; page 177)

 

  1. Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz developed “containment theory,” which claims that a strong conscience (or superego) helps boys stay out of trouble.

 

(Conceptual; answer: T; pages 177-178)

 

  1. If you were to understand what is normal or deviant in the United States, you would find that the same things were normal or deviant in other nations of the world.

 

(Applied; answer: F; page 178)

 

  1. Emile Durkheim claimed that it would be impossible for any society to ever completely eliminate deviance.

 

(Factual; answer: T; page 179)

 

  1. Robert Merton claimed that the “strains of masculinity” are one important cause of crime.

 

(Conceptual; answer: F; page 180)

 

 

  1. According to Robert Merton’s model, a drug dealer would be a good example of a deviant “innovator.”

 

(Applied; answer: T; page 180)

 

  1. Albert Cohen suggested that lower class youths join delinquent subcultures to gain the self-respect that the larger society so often denies them.

 

(Factual; answer: T; page 181)

 

  1. Labeling theory states that some actions are always deviant while others never are defined this way.

 

(Conceptual; Answer: F; page 182)

 

  1. “Primary deviance” refers to the most serious offenses.

 

(Conceptual; answer: F; pages 182-183)

 

  1. The stigma of deviance can encourage an individual to engage in further deviance.

 

(Conceptual; answer: T; page 183)

 

  1. Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz charges that the label of insanity is widely applied to what is actually only “difference.”

 

(Factual; answer: T; page 183)

 

  1. The “medicalization of deviance” idea points to the fact that most crimes are committed by people under the influence of an illegal drug.

 

(Conceptual; answer: F; page 183)

 

  1. Travis Hirschi’s “control theory” would lead us to expect that people who commit crimes have little concern about the consequences of their behavior.

 

(Applied; answer: T; pages 184-185)

 

  1. According to the social-conflict approach, deviance has a number of functions for the operation of society as a whole.

 

(Conceptual; answer: F; pages 185-186)

 

  1. Corporate crime refers to stealing or other crimes committed against a corporation or large businesses.

 

(Conceptual; answer: F; page 187)

 

  1. “Crimes against property” are much more common than “crimes against persons.”

 

(Factual; answer: T; page 191)

 

  1. In the United States today, one sign of increasing gender equality is the fact that women are arrested for serious street crime as often as men are.

 

(Applied; answer: F; page 192)

 

  1. In general, people of higher social class position are less likely to be arrested for street crimes than people of lower class position.

 

(Factual; answer: T; page 192)

 

  1. The rate of violent crime in the United States is higher than it is in most other high-income nations.

 

(Factual; answer: T; page 193)

 

  1. Our constitution requires that every person charged with a crime in the United States receive a trial by jury.

 

(Conceptual; answer: F; page 195)

 

  1. The old saying “An eye for an eye” expresses the essence of rehabilitation.

 

(Conceptual; answer: F; page 197)

 

  1. Although a majority of states do permit capital punishment, only a few states are likely to carry out executions.

 

(Factual; answer: T; page 199)

 

  1. Probation is one example of “community-based corrections.”

 

(Conceptual; answer: T; page 200)

 

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. State four ways in which, according to Emile Durkheim, deviance is functional for society as a whole.

 

(Conceptual; page 179)

 

  1. Explain the difference between primary and secondary deviance. Give an example of each.

 

(Applied; pages 182-183)

 

  1. What is the “medicalization of deviance”?

 

(Conceptual; page 183)

 

  1. Define each of the following concepts: white-collar crime, corporate crime, organized crime, and hate crime.

 

(Conceptual; pages 186-187)

 

  1. According to the feminist perspective, how does gender play an important part in patterns of deviance? Illustrate your response.

 

(Applied; pages 188-189)

 

  1. Define “crimes against the person” and “crimes against property” and give examples of each

 

(Conceptual; page 190)

 

  1. How are age, class, and race linked to crime rates in the United States?

 

(Applied; pages 191-193)

 

  1. Identify four justifications for punishment.

 

(Conceptual; pages 196-198)

 

  1. What is “criminal recidivism”?

 

(Conceptual; page 198)

 

  1. Why are judges, criminal prosecutors, and members of juries less and less likely to call for the death penalty even where it is legal?

 

(Applied;  page 199)

 

  1. What are “community-based corrections”? What are the advantages and limitations of this approach to controlling crime?

 

(Conceptual; page 200)

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS/TOPICS FOR SHORT PAPERS

 

  1. Explain the limitations of biological and psychological explanations of crime. Expand the essay by explaining the strengths of a sociological approach to understanding crime.

 

(Applied)

 

  1. Emile Durkheim made the surprising statement that crime is actually useful for any society. Write an essay in which you explain Durkheim’s approach and point to a number of specific ways in which crime (or, more broadly, deviance) is functional for society as a whole.

 

(Conceptual)

 

  1. Describe the labeling theory of deviance. What basic insight about deviance is offered by this approach? What is the importance of distinguishing between primary deviance and secondary deviance? What is the importance of stigma in labeling analysis?

 

(Conceptual)

 

  1. Many researchers agree that, in the United States, most arrests for “street crime” involve people of lower class position. Why, according to Robert Merton, Albert Cohen, Walter Miller, and Elijah Anderson, would this be the case? How would a broader definition of “crime” (to include more white-collar and corporate offenses) change the profile of the “typical criminal”?

 

(Applied)

 

  1. What important contributions to our understanding of deviance come from the feminist perspective? Explain why gender is an important element in analyzing deviance.

 

(Conceptual)

 

  1. The U.S. government provides a great deal of data about crime in the United States. Drawing on FBI data, what can we say about the “typical street criminal” in terms of age, genderRemember,cial class, and race and ethnicity? In each case, what can you say to explain the pattern? Finally, point to several reasons that we must treat criminal statistics with caution.

 

(Factual)

 

  1. Every society punishes offenders. Write an essay in which you explain four justifications for punishment. Point out how each has come to the forefront at different times in history, and explain this pattern as best you can. What evidence is there that punishment actually accomplishes what we say it does?

 

(Conceptual)

 

  1. What are recent trends in the United States regarding use of the death penalty? Explain why, although most adults support the death penalty as punishment for serious crimes such as murder, the death penalty is less likely to be used.

 

(Applied)

 

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