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Sociology A Global Perspective 8th Edition Ferrante Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111833909

ISBN-10: 1111833907

 

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Sociology A Global Perspective 8th Edition Ferrante Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111833909

ISBN-10: 1111833907

 

 

 

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Chapter 7

 

Deviance, Conformity, and Social Control

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

 

  1. We pay special attention to the People’s Republic of China in Chapter 7 because changes in views about _________ illustrate the contextual nature of deviance.
    1. profit-making activities
    2. the role of preschool
    3. individuality
    4. guilt and innocence

 

ANS: A           SEC: Why Focus On?                         TYP: knowledge

 

 

  1. The sociological contribution to understanding deviant behavior is the emphasis on
    1. the individual as a deviant.
    2. unchanging and universal definitions of deviance.
    3. the context under which deviant behavior occurs.
    4. a person’s character or motives.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Why Focus On?                         TYP: comprehension SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. The People’s Republic of China represents an interesting case for studying issues of deviance, conformity, and social control because
    1. since July 1, 1997, Hong Kong has imposed its system of social control on China.
    2. many of the behaviors that constituted deviance during the Cultural Revolution no longer apply today.
    3. China is attempting to model its system of social control after the S. system.
    4. China has a model system of social control.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Why Focus On?                         TYP: knowledge

 

 

  • During the Cultural Revolution, any person who held a position of authority, worked to earn a profit, showed interest in foreign ways, or expressed academic interests was
    1. praised for their ingenuity.
    2. promoted the highest levels of government.
    3. sent into exile.
    4. subject to interrogation, arrest, and punishment.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Why Focus On?                          TYP: knowledge        SOURCE: new: study guide

 

 

  1. _______ is any behavior or appearance that is socially challenged because it departs from the norms and expectations of the group.
    1. Deviance
    2. Conformity
    3. Social control
    4. Corporate power

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. __________________ is any behavior or appearance that follows and maintains the standards of a group.
    1. Deviance
    2. Conformity
    3. Social control
    4. Power

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. _________________ includes the methods used to teach, persuade, or force people to comply with norms and expectations.
    1. Social control
    2. Deviance
    3. Conformity
    4. Context

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: knowledge

 

  1. The only characteristic common to all forms of deviance is the fact that
    1. they invoke formal sanctions.
    2. everyone in the society is offended by the behavior.
    3. the behaviors are considered deviant across time and place.
    4. some social audience regards the act or appearance as deviant.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. It is difficult to generate a precise list of deviant behaviors and appearances for all but which one of the following reasons?
    1. Very few things can be classified as “deviant.”
    2. Deviance exists only in relation to norms in effect at a particular time and place.
    3. Something that some group considers deviant may not be considered deviant by another.
    4. Something considered deviant at one time and place may not be considered deviant at another.

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. People who violate ______ are usually punished severely; they are ostracized, institutionalized in prisons or mental hospitals, and sometimes even executed.
    1. folkways
    2. mores
    3. rituals
    4. mechanisms of social control

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Which one of the following characteristics applies to the concept of mores?
    1. essential to the well-being of a group
    2. one of many ways to do things
    3. routine matters
    4. details of life

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. Which one of the following words does not apply to the concept of a folkway?
    1. essential
    2. customary
    3. routine
    4. superficial

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. When guests depart in the People’s Republic of China, the Chinese host walks them out to their vehicle and then stands and waves until the visitors are out of sight. This behavior is an example of a
    1. mechanism of social control.

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application

 

 

  1. People that violate _________ experience reactions on the order of frowns or remarks or disapproval.
    1. folkways
    2. mores
    3. sanctions
    4. norms

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Which of the following does not apply to mores?
    1. They are considered unchangeable and regarded as “the only way” or “the truth.”
    2. They are customary ways of handling the routine matters of everyday life.
    3. They are essential to the well-being of the group.
    4. They are violations result in severe punishments.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. During the Cultural Revolution, the dominant ________ rejected special social status and the accumulation of worldly possessions.
    1. folkways
    2. sanctions
    3. mores
    4. innovators

 

ANS: C           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. In general, Chinese preschoolers are taught to
    1. downplay interpersonal conflicts and play cooperatively.
    2. play competitively with other children.
    3. be independent.
    4. assume flexible roles in the classroom.

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. According to the Chinese Governmental Guidelines for Preschool Education, teachers should teach students “how to get along with each other, ‘to be friendly to people,’ to love parents, teacher, and peers and to love their hometown, and their motherland.” This best represents which means of social control?
    1. sanctions
    2. socialization
    3. censorship
    4. surveillance

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new: study guide

 

 

  1. With regards to children’s conflicts, Chinese preschool teachers tend to
    1. downplay conflict.
    2. diffuse angry feelings by finding out who is “right.”
    3. find out how the children feel about the conflict.
    4. determine what ‘really happened’ and pinpoint blame.

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: knowledge         SOURCE: new

 

  1. American preschoolers are not encouraged to critique each other’s work, while Chinese preschoolers are taught to give and accept critiques and incorporate it into future assignments. From a sociological point of view
    1. Chinese preschoolers are unemotional.
    2. American preschoolers are more creative than Chinese preschoolers.
    3. peer criticism is the correct method for developing self-esteem in preschoolers.
    4. both the American and Chinese approaches are intended to help preschoolers learn rules for behavior and fit into the existing system.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application         SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. When researchers showed American teachers films portraying Chinese preschoolersRemember,me American teachers were bothered by the
    1. lack of toys.
    2. practice of allowing children to critique one another.
    3. drabness of the classroom.
    4. rough treatment accorded Chinese preschoolers.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application         SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. Ideally, conformity should be
    1. established through informal negative sanctions.
    2. established through a formal reward system.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension

 

  1. A Chinese man recalls “As a boy, I did not know what a god looked like, but I knew that Mao was the god of our lives. When I was six, I accidentally broke a large porcelain Mao badge. Fear gripped me. In my life until that moment, the breaking of the badge seemed the worst thing I had ever done. Desperate to hide my crime, I took the pieces and threw them down a public toilet. For months I felt guilty.” This guilt is a sign that
    1. the Chinese punish their children harshly.
    2. he had successfully hidden his crime.
    3. Mao is a true god.
    4. he had internalized the expectations of the larger society.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application         SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. If conformity with social expectations cannot be achieved voluntarily, people may employ ________________ to teach, persuade, or force others to conform.
    1. shock and awe tactics
    2. mechanisms of social control
    3. internalization
    4. severe punishments

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. ____________________ is a reaction or response of approval or disapproval to another’s behavior or appearance.
    1. Deviance
    2. Conformity
    3. Retreatism
    4. A sanction

 

ANS: D           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Ridicule, imprisonment, and withdrawal of affection are examples of _______ sanctions.
    1. informal
    2. positive
    3. negative
    4. formal

 

ANS: C           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application

 

 

  1. Six-year-old Martha picks up her toys and puts them away. Her father smiles and pats her on the back. The smile and pat represent a ____________ sanction.
    1. positive formal
    2. negative formal
    3. negative informal
    4. positive informal

 

ANS: D           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application         SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. Which one of the following is an informal sanction?
    1. medals
    2. diplomas
    3. a frown
    4. the death penalty

 

ANS: C           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application

 

 

  1. Informal sanctions are
    1. backed by the force of law.
    2. spontaneous and unofficial expressions of approval or disapproval.
    3. group-generated expressions of approval or disapproval.
    4. systematic laws, rules, and regulations.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application

 

 

  1. Adolescents at a middle school tease a girl because she has yet to shave her legs. The teasing represents an example of a ______ sanction.
    1. positive formal
    2. negative formal
    3. negative informal
    4. positive informal

 

ANS: C           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application

 

 

  1. Jeremy wore barrettes to nursery school. One day, a boy repeatedly told Jeremy that “only girls wear barrettes.” The incident shows how __________ work as mechanisms of social control.
    1. formal positive sanctions
    2. informal positive sanctions
    3. formal negative sanctions
    4. informal negative sanctions

 

ANS: D           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application

 

 

  1. Which on the following countries has the highest incarceration rate?
    1. the United States
    2. Nigeria
    3. Sudan
    4. India

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: knowledge

 

 

  1. ___________________ is a method employed to prevent information from reaching some audience.
    1. Censorship
    2. Surveillance
    3. A negative sanction
    4. A positive sanction

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. A Harvard Law School study identified ____________ as the country with the most extensive internet censorship in the world.
    1. South Korea
    2. the United States
    3. China
    4. Romania

 

ANS: C           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: knowledge

 

 

  1. A Harvard Law School study found that the Chinese government blocked Internet users’ access to Web sites containing material related to topics such as “Tiananmen Square, “Falun Gong,” “Tibet,” “Taiwan,” and “democracy”. This mechanism of social control is known as

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application         SOURCE: new: study guide

 

 

  1. Telephone tapping, interception of letters, observations via closed circuit television, and electronic monitoring are examples of

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application

 

  1. The U.S. Department of Justice asked meter readers, cable installers, and telephone repair people to report suspicious activities they might notice while serving customers. This qualifies as a form of

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: application         SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. A ______________________ is a social arrangement by which punishment for crimes—torture, disfigurement, dismemberment, and execution—is delivered in public settings for all to see.
    1. culture of spectacle
    2. carceral culture
    3. barbaric culture
    4. disciplinary society

 

ANS: A           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

  1. A social arrangement under which the society largely abandons physical and public punishment and replaces it with surveillance to control people’s activities and thoughts is known as a
    1. culture of spectacle.
    2. carceral culture.
    3. prison industrial complex.
    4. Orwellian culture.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new: study guide

 

 

  1. A social arrangement that normalizes surveillance, making it expected and routine is known as a
    1. culture of spectacle.
    2. carceral culture.
    3. prison industrial complex.
    4. disciplinary society.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. The Panopticon is a metaphor for what Foucault calls
    1. a culture of spectacle.
    2. a carceral culture.
    3. a prison industrial complex.
    4. the disciplinary society.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Deviance                                    TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. Durkheim argued that deviance would be present, even in a “community of saints in an exemplary and perfect monastery.” This statement suggests that
    1. deviance and crime are distinct concepts.
    2. those in power define what is deviant.
    3. there are some societies in which deviance does not exist.
    4. deviance is present in all societies.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Functionalist                              TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Durkheim argued that, even among the exemplaryRemember,me seemingly insignificant act or appearance will be greeted as deviant, even criminal, because “it is impossible for everyone to be alike if only because each of us cannot stand in the same spot.” This argument explains why Durkheim believed that
    1. deviance and crime are distinct concepts.
    2. those in power define what is deviant.
    3. there are some societies in which deviance does not exist.
    4. deviance is present in all societies.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Functionalist                              TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Which one of the following statements best corresponds with Durkheim’s perspective on deviance?
    1. It is impossible for any society to be entirely free of deviance.
    2. Behavior that is unthinkable when an individual is acting on his or her own may be executed without hesitation when carried out under orders.
    3. When people become criminals, they do so because of contacts with criminal patterns and because of isolation from non-criminal patterns.
    4. Deviance is a consequence not of a particular behavior but of the application of rules and sanctions.

 

ANS: A           SEC: Functionalist                              TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Durkheim’s theory of deviance (crime) is written from a __________ perspective.
    1. functionalist
    2. conflict
    3. symbolic interactionist
    4. social action

 

ANS: A           SEC: Functionalist                              TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. Durkheim’s theory of deviance (crime) does not address which one of the following questions?
    1. Why is deviance present in every society?
    2. How can almost any behavior qualify as deviant?
    3. Who decides that a particular activity or appearance is deviant?
    4. How is deviance functional for society?

 

ANS: C           SEC: Functionalist                             TYP: application         SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. Kai Erikson wrote, “The critical variable in the study of deviance, then, is the social audience rather than the individual actor since the social audience decides whether or not a behavior is deviant.” This statement best corresponds with which theory of deviance?
    1. functionalist
    2. labeling theory
    3. differential association
    4. structural strain theory

 

ANS:  B    SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: application

 

 

  1. Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the labeling theory?
    1. Definitions of deviance are consistent across cultural settings.
    2. Rules are enforced uniformly and consistently.
    3. Deviants are those whose behavior people have noticed, labeled as such, and applied sanctions.
    4. Deviant behavior is learned in the same way conforming behavior is learned.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. __________ are people that have broken the rules and are caught, punished, and labeled as outsiders.
    1. Conformists
    2. Secret deviants
    3. The falsely accused
    4. Pure deviants

 

ANS: D           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. A student writes, “I used to sell drugs. I was very careful. I watched who I sold to and didn’t take any new customers. I was never caught.” This student can be classified as
    1. a conformist.
    2. a secret deviant.
    3. falsely accused.
    4. a pure deviant.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: application

 

 

  1. __________ are people that have not violated rules of a group and are treated accordingly.
    1. Conformists
    2. Secret deviants
    3. The falsely accused
    4. Pure deviants

 

ANS: A           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Labeling theorists suggest that for every rule a social group creates, four categories of people exist. Which one of the following is not one of those categories?
    1. conformist
    2. pure deviants
    3. falsely accused
    4. defendants

 

ANS: D           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension

 

  1. To call AIDS a moral problem is to locate its cause in the goodness or badness of human action and to suggest that a solution depends on changing evil ways. To call it a medical problem is to locate its cause in the biological workings of the mind or body and to suggest that a solution rests with a drug, a vaccine, or surgery. This contrast in perspective shows
    1. labels, examples, and orientation are important because they tend to evoke a particular cause and a particular solution.
    2. the harm that results when AIDS is defined as a medical problem.
    3. that there is no right way to talk about AIDS.
    4. that it is difficult to generate profiles describing why people have AIDS.

 

ANS: A           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: application

 

 

  1. A U.S. Bureau of Justice survey of crime victims documented that almost 58 percent of crime victims do not report the crime to police. This suggests that there are large numbers of __________ in S. society.
    1. conformists
    2. pure deviants
    3. secret deviants
    4. falsely accused

 

ANS: C           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: application         SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. _______ are people who have not broken the rules but are treated as if they have.
    1. The falsely accused
    2. Innovators
    3. Secret deviants
    4. Conformists

 

ANS: A           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Prison populations include pure deviants and
    1. the falsely accused.
    2. secret deviants.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: application

 

 

  1. Reseachers Michael L. Radelet and Adam Bedau reviewed more than 800 cases of innocent people being convicted of capital crimes, and they found that 56 had
    1. made false confessions.
    2. had received early parole.
    3. admitted guilt.
    4. no jury trial.

 

ANS: A     SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: knowledge

 

 

  1. __________ are likely to be accused of a crime when the well-being of a country or group is threatened.
    1. Pure deviants
    2. The falsely accused
    3. Secret deviants
    4. Conformists

 

ANS: B           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. __________________ are people who have broken the rules but whose violation goes unnoticed.
    1. Pure deviants
    2. The falsely accused
    3. Secret deviants
    4. Conformists

 

ANS: C           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension

 

  1. A campaign to identify, investigate, and correct behavior that is believed to undermine a group or a country is known as
    1. a moral event.
    2. ethnic cleansing.
    3. a witch hunt.
    4. target practice.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. After September 11, 2001, Muslims and Arab Americans have been caught up in a criminal investigation of historical proportions. From a sociological point of view, this criminal investigation qualifies as
    1. a moral event.
    2. ethnic cleansing.
    3. a witch hunt.
    4. target practice.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: application

 

 

  1. People whose rule breaking is viewed as understandable, incidental, or insignificant are known as
    1. pure deviants.
    2. primary deviants.
    3. the falsely accused.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new: study guide

 

 

  1. People whose rule breaking is treated as something so significant that it cannot be overlooked or explained away are known as
    1. pure deviants.
    2. primary deviants.
    3. the falsely accused.
    4. secondary deviants.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. A person takes on a(n) _______________ when his or her deviant status becomes more important than any other status he or she occupies.
    1. label of secret deviant
    2. master status of deviant
    3. informal status
    4. label of confederate

 

ANS: B           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Which type of deviants are likely to assume a master status of deviant?
    1. secret deviants
    2. primary deviants
    3. secondary deviants
    4. conformists

 

ANS: C           SEC: Labeling Theory                        TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. __________ recommended that researchers pay particular attention to rule makers and rule enforcers.
    1. Functionalists
    2. Labeling theorists
    3. Conflict theorists
    4. Constructionists

 

ANS: B     SEC: Labeling Theory                              TYP: knowledge         SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. In January 2000, Republican Governor George Ryan placed a moratorium on executions in the state of Illinois. He did this because he believed that
    1. the state had no right to take a life.
    2. the legal process was so flawed that it must be shut down until repaired.
    3. the death penalty was immoral.
    4. the voters in his state supported a moratorium.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Working for Change                  TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Former Governor George Ryan argued that “our capital system is haunted by the demon of error—error in determining guilt and error in determining who among the guilty deserve to die.” Ryan focuses our attention on which one of the following parties?
    1. the criminal
    2. rule makers and rule enforcers
    3. the guilty
    4. the innocent

 

ANS: B           SEC: Working for Change                  TYP: application         SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. By placing a moratorium on executions in Illinois and commuting the death sentences to life without parole for 167 inmates, Republican Governor George Ryan has forced many to ask which of the following questions?
    1. Does the state have the right to take a person’s life?
    2. Is life in prison a better option than execution?
    3. How many of the 3,557 persons on death row are falsely accused?
    4. Should the S. government abolish the death penalty?

 

ANS: C           SEC: Working for Change                  TYP: comprehension

 

  1. Stanley Milgram wrote, “The person who, with inner conviction, loathes stealing, killing, and assault may find himself committing these acts with relative ease.” Under what conditions does Milgram believe this happens?
    1. when no one is watching
    2. when under the influence of alcohol
    3. when the person’s life is threatened
    4. when commanded by an authority

 

ANS: D           SEC: Obedience to Authority TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. In Stanley Milgram’s classic experiment, Obedience to Authority, he discovered that obedience was founded on
    1. the firm command of a person with a status that gave minimal authority over a subject recruited to participate in the study.
    2. the subject’s fear of being punished physically if he or she disobeyed.
    3. the subject’s dislike of the learner’s physical characteristics.
    4. the subject’s firm belief that learning is enhanced when failure is punished.

 

ANS: A           SEC: Obedience to Authority TYP: knowledge

 

 

  1. Staff Sergeant Ivan Frederick testified that when at the Abu Ghraib Prison “I questioned some of the things that I saw….such as leaving inmates in their cells with no clothes or in female underpants—and the answer I got was ‘This is how military intelligence wants it done.’” The dynamics Frederick described best correspond with
    1. Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority.
    2. Howard Becker’s master status of deviant.
    3. Robert K. Merton’s theory of structural strain.
    4. Edward Sutherland’s theory of differential association.

 

ANS: A           SEC: Sociological Imagination          TYP: application

 

 

  1. When constructionists study the process by which a group or behavior is defined as a problem to society, they focus on
    1. the valued goals and the means to achieve those goals.
    2. the rule breaker, rule maker, and rule enforcers.
    3. responses to structural strain.
    4. who makes the claims, whose claims are heard, and how audiences respond.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Constructionist Approach         TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. The Chinese government issued the report “The Human Rights Record of the United States” because
    1. it believes that the United States is a model with regard to human rights.
    2. the S. asked for an independent evaluation of its human rights record.
    3. it wanted to show that its human rights record is better than the U.S record.
    4. the S. issues Country Reports on Human Rights Practices each year for 190 countries but does not critique its own record.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Constructionist Approach         TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. The U.S. Department of State publishes the Human Rights Report on the People’s Republic of China. The report critiques the Chinese government for confining its “citizens for reasons related to politics and religion.” Constructionist theorists would call this report
    1. a product of rule-makers.
    2. a structural strain.
    3. a claims-making activity.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Constructionist Approach         TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. Structural strain occurs when
    1. the valued goals have clear boundaries.
    2. the legitimate opportunities to achieve valued goals are open to everyone.
    3. the means to achieve goals are unclear.
    4. a large segment of the population is young.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Structural Strain             TYP: comprehension

 

 

 

  1. According to Robert K. Merton, structural strain exists in the United States because
    1. opportunities are open to all.
    2. people must go to college in order to become successful.
    3. American culture places a high value on social advancement for all its members, regardless of the circumstances into which they are born.
    4. the legitimate means to achieve the culturally-valued goals are clearly defined.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Structural Strain             TYP: knowledge

 

 

  1. Which of the following phrases best summarizes “innovation”?
    1. Win by the rules of the game.
    2. I don’t like the game or the rules.
    3. Change the rules to win the game.
    4. Follow the rules even if you don’t win.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Structural Strain             TYP: application

 

 

  1. Retreatism is a response to structural strain that involves
    1. creating new goals and the means to achieving them.
    2. accepting both cultural goals and legitimate means to achieving them.
    3. accepting cultural goals but rejecting the means to achieving them.
    4. rejecting cultural goals and the legitimate means to achieving them.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Structural Strain             TYP: comprehension

 

  1. According to Merton’s typology of responses associated with structural strain, a college graduate who takes a job bagging groceries would be classified as a
    1. secret deviant.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Structural Strain             TYP: application

 

  1. For couples planning to have children, one major source of structural strain in China rests with
    1. culturally-valued goals that favor girls over boys.
    2. limited access to birth control technology.
    3. the number of legitimate opportunities to have children, especially a son.
    4. an overemphasis on economic success.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Structural Strain             TYP: application         SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. According to Merton’s typology of responses associated with structural strain, couples in China would be classified as retreatists if they
    1. decided to abort a baby because it was a girl.
    2. disagreed with the one-child policy.
    3. claimed ethnic minority status in order to have more than one child.
    4. hid the birth of baby girls from party officials.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Structural Strain             TYP: application

 

 

  1. In China, those most likely to be innovators are those
    1. whose first child is a son.
    2. who have no preferences as to the sex of their child.
    3. who are firmly committed to upholding laws related to birth control.
    4. who prefer a male child over a female one.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Structural Strain             TYP: application

 

 

  1. Which one of the following responses to childbearing would constitute a ritualist in China?
    1. Upon the birth of a girl baby, the parents arrange to have a midwife kill the infant.
    2. A couple decides to have children until they have a boy.
    3. A couple claims minority status.
    4. A couple disagrees with government policies on family size, but they limit their family to one child anyway.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Structural Strain             TYP: application

 

 

  1. The theory of differential association focuses on
    1. how a person comes to learn the norms of a deviant subculture.
    2. how an act comes to be labeled as deviant.
    3. the function of deviance.
    4. obedience to authority.

 

ANS: A           SEC: Differential Association     TYP: comprehension  SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. “When persons become criminals, they do so because of contacts with criminal patterns and also because of isolation from anticriminal influences.” This statement represents an essential assumption that underlies ______________ theories.
    1. structural strain
    2. differential association
    3. labeling
    4. constructionist

 

ANS: B           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: application

 

 

  1. Which one of the following statements is most closely associated with differential association theory?
    1. It is impossible for any society to be entirely free of deviance.
    2. Behavior that is unthinkable in an individual who is acting on his or her own may be executed without hesitation when carried out under orders.
    3. When people become criminals, they do so because of contacts with criminal patterns and because of isolation from anticriminal influences.
    4. Deviance is a consequence not of a particular behavior but of the application of rules and sanctions.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: comprehension

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not associated with differential association theory?
    1. Criminals constitute a special type of conformist in that they conform to the norms of the group with which they associate.
    2. Contact with deviant subcultures alone is responsible for turning people into criminals.
    3. Exposure to criminal patterns and isolation from anticriminal influences put people at risk of turning criminal.
    4. People learn criminal behavior from closely interacting with those who engage in and approve of law-breaking activities.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: comprehension      SOURCE: new

 

  1. “A deviant individual, whether a thief or revisionist, becomes deviant because of ‘bad’ education or association with ‘bad’ influences.” This statement represents the essential assumptions underlying
    1. structural strain theory.
    2. differential association theory.
    3. labeling theory.
    4. constructionist theory.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: application

 

 

  1. Criminal behavior is not simply the result of association with criminal ways—other factors such as social settings that offer people the opportunity to commit particular types of crime also play a role. These factors are known as
    1. differential associations.
    2. juvenile delinquency.
    3. illegitimate opportunity structures.
    4. corporate crimes.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: comprehension    SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. “Crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupations” are called
    1. corporate crime.
    2. white-collar crime.
    3. the falsely accused.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Differential Association             TYP: comprehension   SOURCE: study guide

 

  1. Janice Tucker, who works for Lab, Inc., pleaded guilty to submitting false lab analyses of contamination at “clean up” sites. Lab, Inc. charged companies $6,000 for these analyses. Tucker submitted false results because she wanted return business. She committed a(n)
    1. corporate crime.
    2. act of retreatism.
    3. white-collar crime.
    4. act of rebellion.

 

ANS: C           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: application

 

 

  1. USX corporation, the nation’s largest steelmaker, illegally discharged waste water from its Gary, Indiana, plant into the Great Calumet River. This is an example of
    1. secret deviance.
    2. white-collar crime.
    3. corporate crime.

 

ANS: D           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: application

 

 

  1. A university professor in the People’s Republic of China states that “it is a very challenging job here on campus to learn about advanced technologies and the very interesting ideas and value systems from the outside world and, at the same time, to keep our own traditions.” The professor is expressing concern about
    1. differential association.
    2. structural strain.
    3. obedience to authority.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: application

 

 

  1. Sociologist Terry Williams finds that to become a successful drug dealer, a youth must learn a number of skills: pleasing the boss, meeting goals, and getting along with associates. These specific findings support
    1. labeling theory.
    2. differential association.
    3. structural strain.
    4. the constructionist approach.

 

ANS: B           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: application

 

  1. “Deviance, especially the ritual of identifying and exposing wrongdoing, determining a punishment, and carrying out a punishment, is an emotional experience that binds together members of groups and establishes a sense of community.” This statement is most closely associated with which theory of deviance?  
    1. Functionalist perspective (as represented by Emile Durkheim)
    2. Labeling theory
    3. Differential association
    4. Constructionist approach

 

ANS: A           SEC: Functionalist                              TYP: application         SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. “Claims makers play important roles in defining deviance and responses to it.” This statement is most closely associated with which theory of deviance?  
    1. Functionalist perspective (as represented by Emile Durkheim)
    2. Labeling theory
    3. Constructionist approach
    4. Structural strain

 

ANS: C           SEC: Constructionist Approach         TYP: application         SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. “Deviance is likely to be high when the legitimate opportunities for meeting the culturally-valued goals are closed to a significant portion of people.” This statement is most closely associated with which theory of deviance?  
    1. Labeling theory
    2. Differential association
    3. Constructionist approach
    4. Structural strain

 

ANS: D           SEC: Structural Strain                        TYP: application         SOURCE: new: study guide

 

 

  1. “Criminal behavior is learned.” This statement is most closely associated with which theory of deviance?  
  2. Functionalist perspective (as represented by Emile Durkheim)
  3. Labeling theory
  4. Differential association
  5. Structural strain

 

ANS: C           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: application         SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. “Deviance depends on whether people notice it.” This statement is most closely associated with which theory of deviance?  
  2. Functionalist perspective (as represented by Emile Durkheim)
  3. Labeling theory
  4. Constructionist approach
  5. Structural strain

 

ANS: B           SEC: Differential Association            TYP: application         SOURCE: new

 

 

True-False Questions

 

 

  1. The sociological contribution to deviance is that it focuses on the deviant individual.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Why Focus On?                         SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. Almost any behavior or appearance can qualify as deviant under the right circumstances.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Deviance

 

 

  1. During the Chinese Cultural Revolution, wearing eyeglasses was considered deviant because it indicated a physical defect.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Functionalist                              SOURCE: new: study guide

 

 

  1. We acknowledge the previous legality of cocaine in the United States whenever we ask for a “coke.”

 

ANS: True       SEC: Deviance                                    SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. In the United States, cocaine has always been an illegal substance.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Deviance

 

 

  1. Conceptions of what is deviant vary across time and place.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Deviance                                    SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. Although mores are considered unchangeable and absolute, they do change.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Deviance                                    SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. In China, preschoolers are taught to expect praise for their work.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Deviance                                    SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. Ridicule is a formal sanction.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Deviance                                    SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. Sanctions can be positive or negative.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Deviance

 

 

  1. China has one of the highest incarceration rates in the world.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Global Comparisons

 

 

  1. Censorship and surveillance are methods of social control.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Deviance

 

 

  1. The Panopticon is a metaphor for what Foucault calls the prison industrial complex.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Deviance                                    SOURCE: new: study guide

 

 

  1. According to Emile Durkheim, deviance is normal as long as it is not excessive.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Functionalist                              SOURCE: new: study guide

 

 

  1. According to Emile Durkheim, deviance has important functions in society.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Functionalist                              SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. Labeling theorists maintain that a rule breaker is deviant even if no one notices the violation.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Labeling Theory

 

 

  1. Secret deviants have broken no rules but are treated as if they have.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Labeling Theory

 

 

  1. In the S., about 90 percent of crime victims report the crime to police.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Labeling Theory                        SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. People are likely to be falsely accused of a crime when the well-being of a country or a group is threatened.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Labeling Theory

 

 

  1. Sociologists are just as concerned with those who make and enforce laws as they are with those who violate them.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Labeling Theory

 

 

  1. Primary deviants include those people whose rule breaking is treated as something so significant it cannot be overlooked or explained away.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Labeling Theory                        SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. Stanley Milgram’s study Obedience to Authority is relevant to understanding the Cultural Revolution and Abu Ghraib.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Obedience to Authority             SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. Stanley Milgram’s study Obedience to Authority revealed that people will conform to an authority figures’ orders only if they are in physical danger.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Obedience to Authority            SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. The U.S. State Department classifies China’s human rights record as poor.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Constructionist                          SOURCE: study guide

 

 

  1. Setting up picket lines or calling for a boycott are examples of claims-making activities.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Constructionist

 

 

  1. Structural strain does not exist in the United States.

 

ANS: False      SEC: Structural Strain

 

 

  1. According to Merton, the lowest social classes clearly face the greatest pressure to engage in

“innovation.”

 

ANS: True       SEC: Structural Strain

 

 

  1. One source of structural strain in China relates to the number of legitimate opportunities open to married couples to have children.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Structural Strain

 

 

  1. According to differential association theorists, criminals are a special type of conformist subculture.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Differential Association            SOURCE: new

 

 

  1. The concept of an illegitimate opportunity structure challenges the belief that the uneducated and those classified as minorities are more prone to criminal behavior than are those in advantaged groups.

 

ANS: True       SEC: Differential Association            SOURCE: new

 

 

 

Concept Application (also in study guide)

 

Consider the concepts listed below. Match one of more of the concepts with each scenario. Explain your choices.

 

  1. Claims makers
  2. Falsely accused
  3. Surveillance
  4. Secret deviants
  5. White-collar crimes

 

 

Scenario 1

“The Tobacco Institute was founded in 1958, even before the first Surgeon General’s report on the health risks of smoking, to represent the interests of tobacco companies to lawmakers. Once financed by a dozen companies, it now works for only five—Philip Morris, R. J. Reynolds, Lorillard, Liggett, and American Brands—but its twofold mission remains the same: to persuade federal, state, and local authorities to lay off and to sell the virtues of the industry to the American public. A staff of lobbyists handles the first task and Ms. Dawson, at 32, the second. The job description is fairly typical for a trade organization—to develop and articulate the industry position on any given issue, then make sure the message reaches the public. But this is no typical industry” (Janofsky 1994:8F).

 

ANS: A

 

 

Scenario 2

“Boesky told the government about his insider trading activities, not only with me but with at least one other well-known investment banker. Beyond that, he detailed various schemes, concocted with those in the highest circles of power, to circumvent SEC regulations and tax laws. Said Carroll, ‘He has played fast and loose with the rules that govern our markets, with the effect of manipulating the outcome of financial transactions measured in the hundreds of millions of dollars’” (Levine and Hoffer 1991:346).

 

ANS: E

 

Scenario 3

“The small-time criminals are everywhere. Maybe they’re sneaking into more than one theater in the local Cineplex or grabbing a handful of yogurt peanuts from the grocery store bin and eating all the evidence before getting to the check-out stand or making personal long-distance calls from work” (Tomashoff 1993:E1).

 

ANS: D

 

Scenario 4

“Death sentences for people who later prove to be innocent are less unusual than is commonly supposed. Just in the last five months, four once-condemned prisoners have been released after spending years on death row. Two of them, in Alabama and Texas, turned out to have been convicted on fabricated evidence and perjured testimony; the third, in Texas, was convicted because of evidence that was withheld; the fourth, in Maryland, was exonerated by DNA analysis, a technology that was unavailable at the time of his trial” (The New Yorker 1993:14).

 

ANS: B

 

 

Scenario 5

“A community college student who says he’s never done anything that should attract the interest of federal law enforcement officials filed a lawsuit Wednesday against the FBI for secretly putting a GPS tracking device on his car. Yasir Afifi, 20, says a mechanic doing an oil change on his car in October discovered the device stuck with magnets between his right rear wheel and exhaust. They weren’t sure what it was, but Afifi had the mechanic remove it and a friend posted photos of it online to see whether anyone could identify it. Two days later, Afifi says, agents wearing bullet-proof vests pulled him over as he drove away from his apartment in San Jose, Calif., and demanded their property back.

Afifi’s lawsuit, filed by the Council on American-Islamic Relations, claims the FBI violated his civil rights by putting the device on his car without a warrant. His lawyers say Afifi, who was born in the United States, was targeted because of his extensive ties to the Middle East _ he travels there frequently, helps support two brothers who live in Egypt, and his father was a well-known Islamic-American community leader who died last year in Egypt.” (Pickler 2011)

 

 

ANS: C                       SOURCE: new

 

 

Short Answer Questions

 

 

  1. Why focus on China in conjunction with concepts of deviance, conformity, and social control?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What is deviance? How is it related to conformity and social control?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Is it possible to generate a list of deviant behaviors? Why or why not?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Distinguish between folkways and mores. Give examples of each concept.

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What important cultural lessons are incorporated into the daily activities of Chinese and American preschoolers?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What are the major mechanisms of social control? Give examples of each.

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Distinguish between a culture of spectacle and a carceral culture. What factors explain the shift from a culture of spectacle to a carceral culture?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What is the disciplinary society? What metaphor does Foucault use to describe how disciplinary society works?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. According to Durkheim, why is crime a “normal” and necessary phenomenon?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What are the major assumptions that guide labeling theory? How do these assumptions relate to the following categories: conformists, pure deviant, secret deviant, and falsely accused?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Under which circumstances are people most likely to be falsely accused of a crime?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What are witch hunts? Why do they occur? Give an example of witch hunt.

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Define white-collar crime and corporate crime. Why are white-collar and corporate criminals less likely to be caught than so-called common criminals?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. In Milgram’s classic experiment Obedience to Authority, why did a significant number of volunteers come to accept an authority’s definition of deviance and administer shocks even though these shocks caused obvious harm to confederates?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Who are claims makers? What factors determine a claim maker’s success?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Describe the constructionist approach to analyzing claims makers and claims making activities.

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What is structural strain? What are the sources of structural strain in the United States?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What are the responses to structural strain?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Identify one source of structural strain in China. Use Merton’s typology of responses to consider how people in China respond to this strain.

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Summarize the major assumptions underlying the theory of differential association. How does this assumption relate to the mechanisms of social control in China?

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What are illegitimate opportunity structures? How do they relate to white collar and corporate crimes?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Distinguish between primary and secondary deviance. To which term does master status of deviant relate?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. What larger historical and geographical factors shape China’s one-child policy?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

 

Essay Questions

 

 

  1. Explain the following statement: “Almost any behavior or appearance can qualify as deviant under the right circumstances.”

 

ANS: Will vary

 

  1. Identify a deviant behavior in the news. Which sociological theories help to explain that behavior?

 

ANS: Will vary

 

 

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