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Sociology The Essentials 7th Edition Andersen Taylor Test Bank

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Sociology The Essentials 7th Edition Andersen Taylor Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111831561

ISBN-10: 1111831564

 

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Sociology The Essentials 7th Edition Andersen Taylor Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111831561

ISBN-10: 1111831564

 

 

 

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CHAPTER 11 GENDER

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of these statements about the differences between men and women, as discussed in the introduction to the chapter, is false?
a. Men earn 23 percent more than women.
b. Men are more likely than women to die a violent death.
c. Men interrupt others in conversation more often than women.
d. Men live longer than women.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   251-252         OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. What is the sociological term for the socially learned expectations and behaviors that are associated with being male and being female?
a. sexuality
b. role playing
c. gender
d. sex

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   253                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Sex refers to biological identity, male or female.
b. Gender refers to the socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with members of each sex.
c. Gender is a more important concept to sociologists than sex.
d. The key sociological question is whether biology or culture is more important

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   253                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Gender expectations begin to influence how children are treated
a. from the moment of birth.
b. after eighteen months of age.
c. at three years of age.
d. when they reach preschool age.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   252                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. Evidence that gender is socially constructed includes
a. the different gender roles found in different countries.
b. the lack of gender variability generally.
c. studies that find more difference within a gender than between genders on most traits.
d. the common gender expectations across all social classes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   252-253         OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. The example of the Navajo berdaches serves to illustrate what concept?
a. biological determinism
b. hermaphroditism.
c. social construction of gender
d. gender stratification

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   253                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Substantial differences in the construction of gender may exist in all of the following, except:
a. across social classes.
b. between subcultures within a single society.
c. among different racial and ethnic groups.
d. within a single individual.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   253                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. According to the concept of biological determinism
a. the physiology of any person may be manipulated in order to alter that person’s sex.
b. social behaviors are believed to be caused by physiological characteristics.
c. the creation of a male or female occurs as the egg and the sperm meet during human reproduction.
d. the interplay of culture and biology is what makes shapes human behavior.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   253                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Research on biological determinism has found that
a. a strong correlation exists between aggressive behavior and testosterone levels.
b. changes in testosterone levels predict changes in levels of men’s aggression.
c. there are minimal differences in the levels of sex hormones between boys and girls in early childhood.
d. children born with mixed biological sex characteristics are more aggressive than other children.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   254                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. In biological terms, the combination of an X and a Y chromosome establishes a person’s sex as _____.
a. female
b. male
c. hermaphrodite
d. transgender

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   254                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. The condition of having mixed biological sex characteristics is called _____.
a. intersexed
b. fetal sex differentiation
c. transgenderation
d. bisexual variation

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   254                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. The condition that has generally been called hermaphroditism is now often termed being _____.
a. transgendered
b. intersexed
c. transsexual
d. dichotomized

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   254                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. The term for people who deviate from the binary (i.e., either male or female) system of gender is _____.
a. transgendered
b. hermaphrodites
c. sexually differentiated
d. pansexuals

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   254                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Managing a transgendered identity may be stressful because of:
a. the expectation of others.
b. the strong role of biology.
c. the changing nature of gender.
d. socialization.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   254                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  NEW

 

 

  1. From a sociological perspective, what is the relationship between sex and gender?
a. Physical differences determine one’s gender.
b. Biology alone does not determine a person’s gender.
c. Gender is completely socially created.
d. There is no relationship between gender and biology.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   254                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. In general, men and women differ physically from each other in all of the following ways, except
a. men tend to have a lower resting heart rate.
b. women tend to have lower blood pressure.
c. men tend to have greater muscle density.
d. women have greater endurance than men.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   255                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Which of these statements regarding social and physical differences between men and women is true?
a. Gender differences are the same in every culture.
b. All perceived differences between men and women are natural and biological.
c. For any given trait there is as much or more difference within a given gender group as between groups.
d. Biological makeup is more important than social influences in creating differences between men and women.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   255                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Sociologists emphasize:
a. sex only.
b. gender only.
c. both sex and gender.
d. neither sex nor gender.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   255                OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The process of learning the expectations for behavior associated with each sex is called _____.
a. sexual differentiation
b. gender socialization
c. gender polarization
d. sexual norm internalization

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   255                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. Which of these statements about gender socialization is false?
a. Gender socialization impacts the self-concepts of both women and men.
b. Gender socialization influences the social and political attitudes of both men and women.
c. Gender socialization shapes the perceptions that men and women have about other people.
d. Gender socialization causes all members of society to conform to gender expectation of society.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   255                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Gender socialization
a. only affects men and women in their relationships with others.
b. is consistent and uniform for all men and women.
c. influences all aspects of society and daily life.
d. may be completely avoided if a person is conscious of it.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   255                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. One’s definition of oneself as a woman or a man is termed one’s _____.
a. gender identity
b. sexuality
c. sexual identity
d. gender attribution

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   256                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Gender identity has a strong impact on how one feels about one’s appearance. Studies of gender identity and body image have found that
a. among preschool children, girls have lower self-concept related to body image than boys do.
b. in early adolescence boys compare their bodies with others’ of the same sex more than girls do.
c. by early adolescence girls have lower self-esteem than boys do, due to concerns about their appearance.
d. once men and women reach the stage of being in college they are equally likely to be dissatisfied with their bodies.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   256                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. According to the text, _________ is/are one of the most important sources of gender socialization.
a. Parents
b. Peers
c. Teachers
d. Religion

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   256                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Research on the impact of peer relationships on socialization have found that
a. for boys and girls peers reinforce age and racial norms as well as gender expectations.
b. gender norms are applied more strictly to boys than to girls.
c. homophobia serves to reinforce gender norms.
d. All of these choices are true

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   257                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Research on socialization during childhood has found that
a. boys and men are featured in children’s books more often than girls and women.
b. toys for both boys and girls today tend to promote cooperation rather than aggression or competition.
c. girls are encouraged to play outdoors as much as boys are.
d. gender is likely not formed until adolescence.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   257                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. When teachers of either sex respond more to boys (positively and negatively) than to girls, they
a. heighten boys’ sense of importance.
b. are ignored.
c. create confusion among boys since they are rewarding both conformity and deviance.
d. have little, if any, effect on how boys or girls perceive themselves.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   257                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Applied

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Since the passage of Title IX in 1972
a. gender inequality in the schools has disappeared.
b. discrimination by schools on the basis of gender is illegal.
c. boys and girls receive the same treatment by teachers.
d. while treatment by teachers is still unequal, books now feature equal numbers of boys and girls.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   257                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. The major Judeo-Christian religions in the U.S. emphasize:
a. gender equality.
b. gender differences.
c. female dominance.
d. conservative sex differences.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   257                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. When it comes to the impact of religion on gender expectations,  all of the following are true, except:
a. any religion interpreted in a fundamentalist way may be oppressive to women.
b. the most devout believers of any faith tend to have the most traditional beliefs about the proper roles for men and women.
c. both Christian and Islamic women have organized to resist sexist practices.
d. Judaism encourages the most egalitarian roles in the U.S.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   257-258         OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of these statements about gender representations in the media is true?
a. Most stereotypical depictions of men and women have disappeared from television and film.
b. Men outnumber women on television.
c. Psychologists agree that the extensive sexualization of women on television has little impact on attitudes toward women.
d. Women are decreasingly depicted as sex objects.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   258                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Researchers on the influence of television has found that
a. both boys and girls rate aggressive toys seen in commercials as desirable.
b. viewing stereotypical images of women has no impact on attitudes toward traditional roles.
c. there is a link between viewing sexist images and holding stronger feminist attitudes.
d. watching television results in a rejection of popular culture stereotypes of both men and women.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   258                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. According to the text, there is a price of conformity to gender norms. Which of these is not a negative consequence for men the results from conformity to gender roles?
a. Gender norms discourage intimacy with other men, affecting friendships.
b. Conformity to gender norms increases risk-taking behavior that may result in death or injury.
c. Gender norms that demand thinness have resulted in men being as diagnosed with eating orders as often as women.
d. Traditional norms of aggressiveness can lead some men to act violently against women.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   258-259         OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Research on race, gender and eating disorders, by Meg Lovejoy, found that
a. Black women are less likely than White women to engage in excessive dieting and are less fearful of fat.
b. White women are much more satisfied with their bodies than originally thought.
c. Both Black and White women tend to overestimate their weight.
d. Black women do not suffer from eating disorders such as overeating.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   259                OBJ:   2 | 4                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Gender conformity is an issue for:
a. Only females.
b. Only males.
c. Both males and females.
d. Neither males nor females.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   259                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Research indicates that men and women of different races have different expectations regarding gender roles. Which of these statements regarding expectations of different groups is true?
a. Hispanic men have stronger beliefs than White men that men and women should have different characteristics.
b. African American men are more likely than African American women to support feminism and egalitarian views of men and women’s roles.
c. Asian American women are more likely than Asian American men to value egalitarian roles for men and women.
d. African American women are socialized to be more dependent on men than are White women.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   259                OBJ:   2 | 4                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. In what way is the gender socialization of African American and White women alike?
a. both are encouraged to be nurturing and other-oriented
b. both are equally likely to view work as an expected part of a women’s role
c. socialization for both places a strong emphasis on self-sufficiency and independence
d. gender conformity is strongly encouraged for both.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   259                OBJ:   2 | 4                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Machismo refers to:
a. reduced libido.
b. exaggerated masculinity.
c. male control over women.
d. racial oppression among Latino men.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   259                OBJ:   2 | 4                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. How is homophobia related to gender socialization?
a. Homophobia encourages conformity to gender expectations.
b. Homophobia illustrates the validity of biological determinism.
c. Sociologists find that the effect of homophobia on peer socialization has been overstated.
d. Research on homophobia indicates that the “social construction of gender” is a myth.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   259                OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Applied

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which of these statements regarding homophobia and gender expectations is false?
a. Fear of being perceived as gay drives greater conformity to male gender norms.
b. Homophobia has the affect of discouraging feminine traits, such as gentleness and empathy, in men.
c. Men who endorse the most traditional masculine roles tend to be the most homophobic.
d. While homophobia encourages gender norm conformity, it is not likely to promote hostility toward gays and lesbians.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   259-260         OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. In regards to homophobia and gender socialization, the text argues that
a. homophobia plays little role in gender socialization.
b. there is no connection between homophobia and gender norms.
c. homophobia may have serious negative consequences for both heterosexual and homosexual men and women.
d. while homophobia has an influence on male socialization it has not affect on the socialization of women.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   261                OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. In school, children learn knowledge and skills, as well as gender roles. Schools are:
a. gendered institutions.
b. gendered apartheid.
c. discriminatory institution.
d. patriarchal system.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   261                OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered one of the central aspects of a gendered institution?
a. the personal opinions and attitudes of the individual members of the institution
b. stereotypical role expectations for men and women
c. stratified of the positions within the institution based on sex
d. organizational structure that gives advantages to men

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   261-262         OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. What is the sociological term for the hierarchical distribution of social and economic resources according to gender?
a. gender apartheid
b. gender roles
c. gender stratification
d. gender assignation

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   261                OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Comparative research finds that women are more nearly equal to men in societies where
a. women perform a lot of the domestic labor.
b. women have responsibility for child care.
c. women have access to education.
d. work is highly segregated by sex.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   261                OBJ:   5 | 6                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. Which of these is not a trait found to correspond to relatively equal status for men and women within a society?
a. Work is highly segregated according to sex.
b. Women have access to education.
c. Women’s work is central to the economy.
d. Men made a contribution to household responsibilities.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   261                OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. The extreme exclusion of women from public life, practiced in Afghanistan under the Taliban regime, is termed _____.
a. religious sexism
b. theological patriarchy
c. economic segregation
d. gender apartheid

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   262                OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Gender stratification is supported by:
a. a belief that treats gender inequality as nature.
b. individual sexism, not institutional sexism
c. the matriarchal structure of our society.
d. norms and values encouraging gender equality.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   262                OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. According to the text, individual people do not need to be sexist in order for there to be sexism. How do sociologists explain this?
a. Sexism is a natural part of life and of being humanRemember, it doesn’t matter what the individual does.
b. Sexism has become embedded in the structure and ideology of social institutions.
c. Even when people are not consciously being sexist, it is part of their subconscious so it still comes out in different ways.
d. Sociologists do not agree that it is possible for there to be sexism without individuals being sexist.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   262                OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Professional women experience a significant loss of income if they leave and reenter the workforce after raising children. This has been termed ______.
a. the mommy tax
b. the double shift
c. double jeopardy
d. dual labor market

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   263                OBJ:   5 | 6                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which of these statements about patriarchy is false?
a. The term refers to a society in which men have power over women.
b. Patriarchy refers to interactions and ideology in the public sphere only.
c. Patriarchy is very common throughout the world.
d. Forms of patriarchy vary from society to society.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   263                OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. The Minangkabau society in Indonesia is one where women have power over men. The Minangkabau is an example of a/n _____ society.
a. patriarchal
b. matriarchal
c. sexist
d. apartheid

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   263                OBJ:   5 | 6                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Until recently matriarchal societies have not been widely noted or discussed in the social sciences. Why not?
a. Sociologists agree that matriarchal societies have never existed.
b. Matriarchal societies existed prior to Christianity, but there are not contemporary matriarchal societies.
c. The identification of matriarchal societies has been obscured by the application of Western ideas about power.
d. There is no interest in matriarchal power within the social sciences.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   263                OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. _____ percent of women are in the paid labor force; _____ percent of men are in the paid labor force.
a. 77; 40
b. 60; 72
c. 40; 90
d. 72; 60

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   263                OBJ:   6                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The labor force participation rate for White women
a. has only recently reached the rate for women of color.
b. has always been much higher than that of women of color.
c. has been stagnant for the past 50 years.
d. is significantly lower than that for women of color.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   263                OBJ:   6                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. The Equal Pay Act of 1963
a. required married fathers to be paid more than unmarried men.
b. requires that men and women receive equal pay for equal work.
c. required companies to pay men and women equally within the company.
d. required education and experience to be the only factors used to determine pay.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   263                OBJ:   6 | 11              TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following is not an explanation for the gender pay gap?
a. Men and women have different levels of prior experience and training.
b. Men and women tend to be employed in different types of occupations.
c. Women are discriminated against in employment and in wages.
d. Women and men have been affected differently by legislation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   264                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Human capital theory  explains gender differences in wages
a. as created by the different occupations men and women work in.
b. by taking into consideration women’s tendency to drop out of the workforce in order to have children.
c. as the result of individual characteristics of workers.
d. as being overstated.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   264                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which of these statements regarding the validity of the human capital theory as it applies to the pay gap is true?
a. There is no evidence that human capital theory explains the difference in men’s and women’s earnings.
b. While factors such as education and age do affect earnings, the earnings of men and women with the same levels of education and prior experience are still unequal.
c. Women earn less than men because they work fewer hours.
d. Research indicates that there is actually no difference in men’s and women’s wages when the type of work is taken into account.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   264                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. The _____ theory argues that gender differences in earnings exist because men and women tend to work in different segments of the paid work force.
a. human capital
b. dual labor market
c. differential association
d. power elite

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   264                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. In the primary labor market
a. there is a high turnover rate and low wages.
b. jobs are relatively stable, wages are good, and there are ample opportunities for advancement.
c. women and racial-ethnic minorities are more likely to be employed than in the secondary labor market.
d. jobs are short-lived and workers suffer poor work conditions.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   265                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a primary labor market job?
a. seasonal work
b. retail sales
c. a corporate management position
d. a waiter or waitress

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   265                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Applied

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. The _____ labor market is characterized by high job turnover, low wages, short or nonexistent promotion ladders, and few benefits.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. fringe

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   265                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which of these statements about the application of dual labor market theory to the gender pay gap is false?
a. It is hard to determine cause and effect in regards to the low pay for jobs in which women are more concentrated.
b. While equal pay for equal pay is applied in principle, men and women do not do equal work.
c. The informal labor market is exclusively female.
d. Women tend to be employed in the second tier of the primary labor market.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   265                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which of these theories explains wage inequality between men and women using the individual characteristics of workers?
a. human capital theory
b. dual labor market theory
c. both human capital theory and dual labor market theory
d. neither human capital theory or dual labor market theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   264-265         OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Today, women make up 97% of secretaries and 95% of child-care workers. This is evidence of:
a. overt discrimination.
b. sex stratification.
c. patriarchy.
d. occupational segregation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   265                OBJ:   6                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding gender segregation?
a. Most women work in occupations that have roughly equal number of male and female employees.
b. Men are concentrated in fewer occupations that women are.
c. The greater the concentration of women workers in an occupation, the lower the pay.
d. Legislation has had little effect on gender segregation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   265-266         OBJ:   6                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. In practice, sexual harassment in the workplace
a. is an example of overt discrimination.
b. has no real impact on women’s employment.
c. happens to men as often as it does to women.
d. is an inevitable product of men and women working together.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   266                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Sexual harassment is a form of overt discrimination that has a negative impact on women’s employment. Which of these statements about sexual harassment is false?
a. Sociologists see sexual harassment as a means that men use to protect their power in the workplace.
b. Cultural changes have resulted in men experiencing as much sexual harassment as women.
c. Women in traditional male-dominated jobs experience the most harassment.
d. Men’s preserving of their advantage in the workplace is evidence that women are viewed as sex objects.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   266                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Applied

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

 

  1. What does the text conclude about the causes of inequality in wages between men and women?
a. Human capital is the best explanation of the wage gap.
b. Wage inequality is the result of multiple factors that operate together to put women at a disadvantage.
c. Dual labor market theory offers the best explanation for unequal wages.
d. Overt discrimination is the best explanation for the gender wage gap.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   266                OBJ:   7                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Relatively few men work in jobs that are traditionally considered women’s work. When they do
a. they tend to be more upwardly mobile than women in historically male-dominated jobs.
b. they are subject to the same types and amounts of sexual harassment as women in male-dominated professions.
c. wages for those jobs start to fall.
d. they are accused of taking jobs away from women.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   266                OBJ:   6                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Gender segregation in occupations
a. is not very prevalent, although it does exist.
b. tends to disadvantage men who may want to work in traditionally female occupations.
c. reinforces the belief that there are significant differences between men and women.
d. advantages the most experienced women over men.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   266                OBJ:   6                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Studies have found that lesbian women are more likely to be open about their sexual identity at work when they
a. work in occupations traditionally defined as “men’s work.”
b. work predominantly with other women and have women as bosses.
c. become the targets of sexual harassment.
d. are stereotyped as lesbian and have their “true gender identity” questioned.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   267                OBJ:   6                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. Even when husbands and wives are both employed outside of the home, the bulk of the domestic responsibilities fall on women. The sociological term for this is ______.
a. the dual labor market
b. gender segregation
c. the second shift
d. familial inequity

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   267                OBJ:   5 | 8                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding work and family life?
a. Men, but not women, have increased the number of work hours over the past several decades.
b. The expectations of men in the home have decreased over time.
c. Men are more involved in family life than in the past.
d. Women are moving away from the  labor force for the first time in many years.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   267                OBJ:   5 | 8                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of these statements regarding the second shift is false?
a. A large number of men and women report that they find emotional gratification and social support at work.
b. The gender gap in the amount of domestic work done by men and women has virtually disappeared.
c. Women are more likely than men to be caring for aging parents.
d. Women report stress as one of their greatest concerns.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   267                OBJ:   5 | 8                TOP:   Applied

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Functionalists have been criticized for
a. ignoring gender roles.
b. emphasizing symbols in their approach to the study of gender.
c. failing to see the merits of a conflict approach to the study of gender.
d. interpreting gender as a fixed role in society.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   267                OBJ:   8                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. According to _____, men and women fill complementary gender roles and this arrangement benefits society.
a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interactionism
d. social control theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   267                OBJ:   8                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. How would a functionalist explain unequal wages between men and women?
a. Women experience overt discrimination.
b. Women are socialized into roles that lead them to make choices that might result in lower wages.
c. Women’s work is devalued in comparison with men’s.
d. Women have less power than do men.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   267                OBJ:   8                    TOP:   Applied

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Gender is something that is accomplished through ongoing interactions. This process is referred to as:
a. gender socialization.
b. overt gendering.
c. doing gender.
d. matriarchy.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   268                OBJ:   8                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. A significant difference between the functionalist and conflict theory perspectives on gender is that
a. functionalism is a macrosociological perspective and conflict theory is not.
b. conflict theory recognizes the role of gender within the social structure and functionalism does not.
c. conflict theory is more likely than functionalism to explore issues of race and social class as they relate to gender.
d. functionalism advocates for change more than conflict theory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   267-268         OBJ:   8                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. From a ______ perspective, men have historically had the power to benefit from women’s labor and devalue women’s work.
a. symbolic interactionist
b. conflict
c. functionalist
d. social exchange

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   268                OBJ:   8                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. The feminist understanding of “doing gender” is a type of ______ perspective within sociology.
a. conflict theory
b. structural functionalist
c. symbolic interactionist
d. macrosociological

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   268                OBJ:   8 | 9                TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Feminist theorists have focused on the ways in which gender is created and reinforced through social interaction. This is an ethnomethodological perspective termed ______.
a. gender orientation
b. feminist interpretivism
c. institutionalized gender
d. “doing gender”

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   268                OBJ:   9                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which of these is a criticism of the feminist perspective of “doing gender”?
a. It ignores that power and economic differences based on gender that exist in society.
b. It focuses too much on race and class-based gender differences.
c. It does not allow for social change.
d. It encourages radical changes within society.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   268                OBJ:   9                    TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. The perspective of ______ feminism has been used to support many legal changes to bring about greater equality for women in the United States.
a. liberal
b. socialist
c. radical
d. multiracial

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   268                OBJ:   9                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. _____ feminism is a more radical perspective that interprets the origins of women’s oppression in the system of capitalism.
a. Liberal
b. Socialist
c. Multiracial
d. Conservative

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   269                OBJ:   9                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Anita believes that the oppression of women is based on the capitalist economy. Anita is a:
a. liberal feminist
b. functionalist
c. conflict theorist
d. socialist feminist

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   269                OBJ:   9                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

 

  1. Which type of feminism is most likely to view rape, domestic violence, and sexual harassment as mechanisms that men use to assert their power within society?
a. liberal
b. multiracial
c. socialist
d. radical

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   269                OBJ:   9                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which type of feminism is most concerned with the interrelationship of race, class and gender?
a. socialist feminism
b. multiracial feminism
c. gendered institutions
d. “doing gender”

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   269                OBJ:   9                    TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Which of these statements is true about the global division of labor?
a. Women are less affected than men by the globalization of manufacturing.
b. Women and children are often the cheapest laborers.
c. The only corporations that do not exploit women’s labor are U.S.-based multinationals.
d. Women are not as much a part of the workforce as men.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   269                OBJ:   10                  TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Throughout the world, where women are increasingly working as paid laborers,
a. the division of household chores is usually equal between men and women.
b. they do not do as much unpaid labor as men.
c. they still do most of the work associated with home, children, and the elderly.
d. they still do not make a significant contribution to the global economy.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   269                OBJ:   10                  TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. The United Nations estimates that the value of women’s unpaid work amounts to at least _____.
a. $800 billion
b. $11 trillion
c. $50 billion
d. $140 trillion

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   269                OBJ:   10                  TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

 

  1. _____ is unusual in that there is far greater sharing of household responsibilities than in most other nations.
a. Japan
b. China
c. Britain
d. the United States

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   269                OBJ:   10                  TOP:   Factual

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of these statements about the status of women worldwide is true?
a. Although there have been few female heads of state, women’s representation in parliaments worldwide has reach almost 50 percent.
b. Recent trends toward the greater employment of women outside of the home has resulted in a decrease in the rates of violence against women globally.
c. Across the board, women’s status is higher in Western than in non-Western countries.
d. The global division of labor is gendered, with women providing cheap labor for manufacturing.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   270                OBJ:   10                  TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. According to the United Nations, violence against women worldwide
a. is an epidemic and one of the most pervasive violations of human rights.
b. is difficult to document accurately in terms of the incidence.
c. has been perpetrated by an intimate partner or family member against between 20 and 50 percent of all women.
d. All of these choices are true.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   270                OBJ:   10                  TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. The current generation has grown up taking many of the accomplishments of the women’s movement for granted. Which of the following is not one of these accomplishments?
a. laws against sexual harassment
b. access to birth control
c. equal pay between men and women
d. more participation in politics

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   270                OBJ:   11                  TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. Attitudes toward gender roles have changed so that today
a. only 10 percent of men think that one parent should stay at home while the other is working.
b. both men and women say it is not fair for men to be the sole decision maker in the household.
c. women no longer believe they will be discriminated against in employment.
d. men and women both agree that gender discrimination should be illegal.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   270-27           OBJ:   11                  TOP:   Factual

MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. _____ has radically altered the opportunities available to women athletes and laid the foundation for many of the coeducational programs that are now an ordinary part of college life.
a. Title IX
b. Affirmative action legislation
c. Comparable worth legislation
d. The Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   271                OBJ:   11                  TOP:   Factual

MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. The Equal Rights Amendment:
a. was passed in 1918.
b. was passed in 1963.
c. will be passed in 2012.
d. has not been passed.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   272                OBJ:   11                  TOP:   Conceptual

MSC:  NEW

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Cross cultural differences in gender roles demonstrate that gender is a social construction.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   253                OBJ:   1                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Gender expectations vary according to racial-ethnic groupRemember,cial class, and across cultures.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   253                OBJ:   2 | 4                MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Virtually everyone in society is affected by gender socialization.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   255                OBJ:   2                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Parents tend to be more tolerant of girls who do not conform to gender roles than they are of boys.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   256                OBJ:   2 | 3                MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. People’s attitudes about gender expectations often do not match their behavior.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   256                OBJ:   2                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Children’s books are the one area within which gender roles have become very equal or disappeared.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   257                OBJ:   2                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Research indicates that boys in school get more attention, even if it is sometimes negative attention.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   257                OBJ:   2                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Both Christian and Islamic women have organized to resist fundamentalist and sexist practices within their faiths.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   257-258         OBJ:   2                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Homophobia refers to a fear and hatred of homosexuals.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   259                OBJ:   4                    MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Men who endorse the most traditional male roles tend to be the most homophobic.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   260                OBJ:   3                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Most societies have some form of gender stratification.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   261                OBJ:   5                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Individuals need to be sexist in order for there to be sexism.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   263                OBJ:   5                    MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Human capital theory assumes that the economic system is fair and competitive, and that wage differences reflect the resources that individuals bring to the job.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   264                OBJ:   7                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Both human capital theory and dual labor market theory focus on the characteristics of the individual in order to explain the gender gap in wages.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   264                OBJ:   7                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Studies have found that lesbian women are more likely to be open about their sexual identity when they work predominantly with women and have women as their bosses.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   267                OBJ:   6                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

 

  1. Men are concentrated in smaller number of occupations that are women.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   265                OBJ:   6                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Few functionalists today would argue that fixed gender roles are functional for society.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   267                OBJ:   8                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Radical feminists think that change cannot come about through the existing system since it is controlled and dominated by men.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   269                OBJ:   9                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. All feminists share an interest in promoting a more just society for women.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   268-269         OBJ:   9                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Gender inequality in the U.S. is connected to gender inequality in other parts of the world.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   269                OBJ:   10                  MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Cultural norms may be a factor that put women at risk of being victims of violence.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   270                OBJ:   10                  MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. By most accounts, the gender revolution in the U.S. is over.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   270                OBJ:   11                  MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Younger generations desire more egalitarian gender roles than do older generations.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   271                OBJ:   4 | 11              MSC:  NEW

 

  1. According to the text, the implementation of Title IX legislation has finally established equity in women’s sports.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   271                OBJ:   11                  MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbids discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, or sex.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   271-272         OBJ:   11                  MSC:  PICKUP

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Explain the difference between sex and gender.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   253                OBJ:   1                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. What is biological determinism? What is the basic sociological response to biological determinism?

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   253-254         OBJ:   1                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Explain how peers serve as a source of gender socialization.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   257                OBJ:   2                    MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Give two examples of how gender role expectations differ for either men or women of different racial-ethnic groups.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   259                OBJ:   4                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. What is meant by the concept of a gendered institution? Describe an example.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   261                OBJ:   5                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Define gender stratification and provide two examples from your own life.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   261                OBJ:   5                    MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Define the labor force participation rate; describe current U.S. trends in labor force participation for women.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   263                OBJ:   6                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. What does the concept of the second shift in regards to women’s employment refer to?

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   267                OBJ:   5 | 6                MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Briefly describe the functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interaction perspectives on gender inequality. Provide examples.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   267-268         OBJ:   8                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. List and describe three of the types of feminist theory discussed in the text.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   268-269         OBJ:   9                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Explain how gender is socially constructed. Include in your answer the role of gender socialization.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   252-259         OBJ:   1 | 2                MSC:  MODIFIED

 

  1. Explain how homophobia influences or plays a role in gender socialization; include a comparison of the differential impact on girls and boys. What are the consequences of homophobia in gender role socialization?

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   259-260         OBJ:   3                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Explain how schools serve as a gendered institution.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   261                OBJ:   5                    MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Explain how human capital theory and dual labor market theory explain the gender gap in wages. Develop the significant differences between the two theories and the criticisms of each.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   264-265         OBJ:   7                    MSC:  PICKUP

 

  1. Propose a legislative change to solve a problem of sex/gender identified in the text. Be sure to clearly identify the problem, outline your solution, and explain how your solution would solve the problem.

 

ANS:

NOT GIVEN

 

REF:   271-272         OBJ:   6                    MSC:  NEW

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