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Structure and Function of the Body 15th Edition Patton Thibodeau Test Bank

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Structure and Function of the Body 15th Edition Patton Thibodeau Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323341127

ISBN-10: 0323341128

 

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Structure and Function of the Body 15th Edition Patton Thibodeau Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323341127

ISBN-10: 0323341128

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

Chapter 19: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

Thibodeau & Patton: Structure & Function of the Body, 15th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The fluid inside the cell is called
a. plasma
b. intracellular fluid
c. interstitial fluid
d. both a and b above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. Extracellular fluid includes
a. plasma and intracellular fluid
b. interstitial and intracellular fluids
c. plasma and interstitial fluid
d. plasma, interstitial fluid, and intracellular fluid

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. The fluid that surrounds the cells is called
a. plasma
b. interstitial fluid
c. intracellular fluid
d. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. Which of the following statements is correct?
a. People with more body fat have more body water.
b. Infants have less water per pound than adults.
c. Females have less water per pound than men.
d. Both a and c above.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 430             OBJ:   1

TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. Which of the following statements is correct?
a. People with less body fat have more body water.
b. Infants have less water per pound than adults.
c. Females have more body water per pound than men.
d. All of the above.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 430             OBJ:   1

TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. The chief mechanism for maintaining fluid balance is to
a. adjust fluid intake so it equals fluid output
b. adjust fluid intake so it is slightly above fluid output
c. adjust fluid output so it equals fluid input
d. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 432

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. Sources of water intake include
a. the liquids we drink
b. water from the food we eat
c. water from metabolic processes
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 432

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. The organ that has the greatest effect on fluid output is the
a. kidney
b. lungs
c. skin
d. intestine

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 432

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. The hormone that reduces the amount of water in the body is
a. ADH
b. aldosterone
c. ANH
d. both a and b above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 433             OBJ:   3

TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. The hormone that increases the amount of water in the body is
a. ADH
b. aldosterone
c. ANH
d. both a and b above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 433             OBJ:   3

TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. When dehydration begins to occur
a. the body reduces fluid output to zero
b. the body increases the release of ANH
c. the salivary secretions decrease
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. Electrolytes
a. form when glucose is added to water
b. dissociate in water solutions
c. form ions in water solutions
d. both b and c above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The most abundant positive ion in blood plasma is
a. potassium
b. calcium
c. sodium
d. both potassium and sodium are in equal concentrations

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The most abundant negative ion in blood plasma is
a. bicarbonate
b. chloride
c. hydroxide
d. phosphate

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Which electrolyte is important in hemoglobin production?
a. Sodium
b. Iodine
c. Iron
d. Chloride

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Which electrolyte is important in the formation of the thyroid hormones?
a. Sodium
b. Iodine
c. Iron
d. Chloride

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. In blood plasma
a. the number of positive ions is greater than the number of negative ions
b. the number of positive ions is less than the number of negative ions
c. the number of positive and negative ions are equal
d. there are no electrolytes

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Common electrolytes found in blood plasma

 

  1. The most important regulator of the amount of sodium in the body is the
a. kidney
b. small intestine
c. large intestine
d. skin

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Aldosterone
a. is released by the pituitary gland
b. increases the urine volume
c. increases sodium reabsorption
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Aldosterone
a. increases sodium reabsorption by the kidney
b. increases water reabsorption
c. increases the water volume in extracellular fluid
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. An increase in capillary blood pressure would tend to
a. increase interstitial fluid volume
b. increase plasma volume
c. decrease interstitial fluid volume
d. both b and c above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. A decrease in blood protein concentration would tend to
a. increase interstitial fluid volume
b. decrease blood plasma volume
c. decrease interstitial fluid volume
d. both a and b above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. The main water-holding force in the blood capillaries is
a. capillary blood pressure
b. sodium in the blood plasma
c. protein in the blood plasma
d. chloride in the blood plasma

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. The main water-pushing force in the blood capillaries is
a. blood pressure
b. sodium in the blood plasma
c. sodium in the interstitial fluid
d. protein in the blood plasma

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. In dehydration
a. intercellular fluid volume drops first
b. plasma volume drops first
c. interstitial fluid drops first
d. neither interstitial nor intracellular fluid volume are affected

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. Dehydration can be caused by
a. prolonged vomiting
b. prolonged diarrhea
c. too little fluid intake
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. Overhydration
a. occurs about as often as dehydration
b. can put too heavy a burden on the kidneys
c. can be caused by giving intravenous fluids too rapidly
d. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   pp. 434-435

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered an extracellular fluid?
a. Cerebrospinal fluid
b. The humors of the eye
c. Lymph
d. All of the above are extracellular fluids

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. The largest volume of water in the body is
a. plasma
b. the fluid inside the cells
c. interstitial fluid
d. lymph

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. The person with the greatest percentage of body water would be
a. an obese male
b. a nonobese male
c. a nonobese female
d. a newborn

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. Under normal circumstances, the kidneys provide the greatest means of water loss. Which organ provides the second greatest?
a. Skin
b. Lungs
c. Intestines
d. Muscles

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Typical normal values for each portal of water entry and exit

 

  1. A newborn can have a percentage of body water as high as
a. 80%
b. 70%
c. 60%
d. 90%

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. Which of the following organs does not contribute to fluid output from the body?
a. Lungs
b. Skin
c. Intestine
d. All of the above organs contribute to fluid output from the body

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 432

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. The most common positive ion in intracellular fluid is
a. calcium
b. potassium
c. sodium
d. magnesium

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The most important negative ion in intracellular fluid is
a. phosphate ions
b. protein molecules
c. chlorine
d. both a and b above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The term used to describe a blood sodium level of more than 145 mEq/L is
a. hyponatremia
b. hyperkalemia
c. hypernatremia
d. hypercalcemia

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 437

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Electrolyte imbalances

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The largest volume of fluid in the body is in the plasma.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. Three main fluid compartments of the body are intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, and plasma.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. Two fluid compartments make up the interstitial fluid compartment: the extracellular fluid and the plasma.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. Infants have less water per pound of body weight than do adults.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. Obese people tend to have more water per pound of body weight than do slender people.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. Adults have less water per pound of body weight than do infants.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. Men tend to have less water per pound of body weight than do women.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. Slender people tend to have more water per pound of body weight than do obese people.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. The most important mechanism in regulating fluid balance is to adjust fluid intake.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. The three main sources of fluid intake are the fluids we drink, the liquid in the foods we eat, and the water formed by metabolic processes.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 432

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. Fluid loss can occur from the kidneys, lungs, skin, or intestines.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 432

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. The fluid output that changes most is the amount of sweat lost from the skin.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 432

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. The body regulates the amount of fluid lost by increasing or decreasing the amount of urine produced.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 431             OBJ:   3

TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. ADH tends to increase the amount of urine produced.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 433             OBJ:   3

TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. ADH tends to increase the amount of water reabsorbed by the body.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 433             OBJ:   3

TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. ANH is made by the heart.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. Aldosterone is released by the pituitary gland.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. ADH is released by the adrenal glands.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. In cases of dehydration, the body can reduce its fluid output to zero.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. The compound glucose is an electrolyte.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The compound sodium chloride is an electrolyte.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. When electrolytes are dissolved in water they produce ions.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Potassium, calcium, and magnesium are examples of positive ions found in the body.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphate are examples of negative ions found in the body.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The electrolyte iron is important in the production of thyroid hormones.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The electrolyte iodine is important in the production of thyroid hormones.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The electrolyte iron is important in the production of hemoglobin.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Where sodium goes, water follows.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 436

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The most abundant positive ion in the blood is calcium.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The most abundant negative ion in the blood is chloride.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. In the blood, the total number of negative ions equals the total number of positive ions.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Figure 19-9 Electrolytes found in fluid compartments of the body

 

  1. Increased arterial blood pressure causes the baroreceptors to stimulate the release of aldosterone.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 433             OBJ:   4

TOP:   Figure 19-5—Aldosterone mechanism

 

  1. As the sodium content in the blood increases, the volume of urine increases.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 433             OBJ:   4

TOP:   Figure 19-5—Aldosterone mechanism

 

  1. The effect of aldosterone is to increase the volume of the extracellular fluid.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 433             OBJ:   4

TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The main regulators of sodium in the body are the sweat glands of the skin and the intestines.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   pp. 435-436

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Electrolyte function

 

  1. The kidney is the main regulator of sodium in the body.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 436

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Electrolyte function

 

  1. Plasma proteins are the main water-pushing force in the blood capillaries.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. Plasma proteins are the main water-pulling force in the blood capillaries.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. Capillary blood pressure is the main water-pushing force in the blood capillaries.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. Capillary blood pressure is the main water-pulling force in the blood capillaries.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. A reduction in capillary blood pressure would allow more blood to be pushed into the interstitial fluid.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. A reduction in the protein concentration in the plasma would allow more blood to remain in the interstitial fluid.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. An increase in the protein concentration in the plasma would allow more blood to remain in the interstitial fluid.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. A decrease in capillary blood pressure or an increase in the plasma protein concentration would have about the same effect on the interstitial fluid.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Synthesis       REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. An increase in capillary blood pressure or a decrease in the plasma protein concentration would have about the same effect on the interstitial fluid.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Synthesis       REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. Capillary blood pressure and plasma protein concentration have the opposite effects on interstitial fluid.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. If plasma volume drops drastically, adequate circulation cannot be maintained.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. Dehydration and overhydration occur in about equal frequency.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. Prolonged vomiting can result in dehydration.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. Middle-aged adults are at the greatest risk for dehydration caused by diarrhea.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. Loss of skin elasticity is a clinical sign of overhydration.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. In dehydration, interstitial fluid volume decreases first.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. One of the results of overhydration is to put too heavy a burden on the kidneys.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. Fluid balance implies that both total volume and distribution of water remain normal.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 429

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Introduction

 

  1. The most abundant substance in the body is water.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. Fluid makes up about 25% of the body weight of the average adult.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. The percentage of body water increases slightly over the first 10 years of life.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. No matter how dehydrated the body gets, it will continue to lose water through the lungs and skin.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Regulation of fluid intake

 

  1. One of the first signs of dehydration is the reduction in the production of saliva.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Regulation of fluid intake

 

  1. Proteins are considered negative ions.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The large intestine assists in the regulation of sodium in the body.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 436

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. The water-pushing forces in the capillary are highest at the venous end of the capillary.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. In newborns, water may account for as much as 80% of the total body weight.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 430

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. One reason the amount of water per pound increases in the elderly is that the muscle mass decreases and body fat increases.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 430             OBJ:   1

TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. With slight variation, the amount of extracellular fluid equals the amount of intracellular fluid.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. The second greatest source of water for the body is the water produced by the catabolism of food.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 432

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Typical normal values for each portal of water entry and exit

 

  1. Potassium is the most common cation in intracellular fluid.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Lymph and cerebrospinal fluid are considered interstitial fluid.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. Lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, and the humors in the eye are all considered transcellular fluid.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. Ions that carry a positive charge are called anions.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. A milliequivalent (mEq) is a unit used to describe the relative atomic mass of various ions in the body.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 436

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Electrolyte function

 

  1. Water intoxication may result from rapidly drinking large volumes of water or giving hypotonic solutions to persons unable to dilute and excrete urine normally.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

MATCHING

 

Match each of the terms with its definition or description.

a. Intracellular fluid
b. Interstitial fluid
c. Plasma
d. ADH
e. ANH
f. Electrolyte
g. Capillary blood pressure
h. Plasma proteins
i. Dehydration
j. Overhydration
k. Anions
l. Aldosterone
m. Extracellular fluid
n. Edema
o. Fluid compartments
p. Cations

 

 

  1. Dissociates into ions in a water solution

 

  1. Fluid that is in spaces between the cells

 

  1. A hormone that is made in the pituitary gland and increases water absorption in the kidney

 

  1. Can be the result of prolonged vomiting or diarrhea

 

  1. A hormone that is made in the heart and can increase the amount of water lost in the urine

 

  1. Liquid fraction of whole blood

 

  1. Main water-pushing force moving fluid out of the capillaries

 

  1. Can result if intravenous fluid is administered too rapidly

 

  1. Fluid inside the cells

 

  1. Force pulling water back into the capillaries

 

  1. Consists of plasma, transcellular fluid, and interstitial fluid

 

  1. The two examples of these are extracellular and intracellular

 

  1. Term given to negatively changed ions

 

  1. Term given to positively charged ions

 

  1. Tissue swelling as a result of too much interstitial fluid

 

  1. Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases sodium reabsorption from the kidneys

 

  1. ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. ANS:  B                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. ANS:  I                     DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. ANS:  E                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. ANS:  G                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. ANS:  J                     DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   pp. 434-435

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. ANS:  A                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. ANS:  H                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. ANS:  M                   DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. ANS:  O                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. ANS:  K                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. ANS:  P                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. ANS:  N                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 436

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. ANS:  L                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 433

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Fluid volume variations

 

Match the term with its correct definition.

a. Hyperkalemia
b. Hyponatremia
c. Hypocalcemia
d. Hypernatremia
e. Hypercalcemia
f. Hypokalemia

 

 

  1. Dietary calcium deficiency

 

  1. Low blood potassium level

 

  1. Blood sodium level of more than 145 mEq/L

 

  1. Blood potassium levels of more than 5.1 mEq/L

 

  1. Blood sodium level below 136 mEq/L

 

  1. Blood calcium levels rise above normal limits

 

  1. ANS:  C                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 438

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Electrolyte imbalances

 

  1. ANS:  F                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 437

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Electrolyte imbalances

 

  1. ANS:  D                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 437

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Electrolyte imbalances

 

  1. ANS:  A                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 437

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Electrolyte imbalances

 

  1. ANS:  B                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 437

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Electrolyte imbalances

 

  1. ANS:  E                    DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 438

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   Electrolyte imbalances

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Name and describe the fluid compartments of the body.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 431             OBJ:   1

TOP:   Body fluid compartments

 

  1. Explain the impact of body fat, gender, and age on the amount of water per pound in the body.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 430            OBJ:   1                    TOP:   Body fluids

 

  1. What is the impact of ADH, aldosterone, and ANH on the amount of fluid reabsorbed into the body from the kidneys?

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 433            OBJ:   3

TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. Explain the mechanism of fluid intake regulation. Why can fluid output in the body never reach zero?

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   pp. 433-435    TOP:   Regulation of fluid intake

 

  1. What is an electrolyte? Name several positive and negative ions found in the body and give their functions.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 435             OBJ:   4

TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Explain the mechanism by which aldosterone can help maintain fluid homeostasis.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 433            OBJ:   4

TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

  1. Explain the mechanism by which ADH can help maintain fluid homeostasis.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   p. 433            OBJ:   3

TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance

 

  1. Explain the effect that very low capillary blood pressure would have on the plasma–interstitial fluid balance.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 434            OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. Explain the effect that a very low plasma protein concentration would have on the plasma–interstitial fluid balance.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 434            OBJ:   2

TOP:   Capillary blood pressure and blood proteins

 

  1. What are some causes of dehydration? Which age group is particularly at risk?

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   p. 434             OBJ:   5

TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. What is a cause of overhydration? What organ is particularly at risk of being overburdened?

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Memorization                                 REF:   pp. 434-435    OBJ:   5

TOP:   Fluid imbalances

 

  1. If a person were dehydrated, what fluid regulating hormone(s) would be in high concentration in the blood? Explain your answer.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   p. 434            OBJ:   4

TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance | Electrolyte function

 

  1. If a person were overhydrated, what fluid-regulating hormone(s) would be in high concentration in the blood?

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   pp. 434-435    OBJ:   4

TOP:   Mechanisms that maintain fluid balance | Electrolyte function

 

  1. Why does it make sense to have people with high blood pressure restrict their intake of salt?

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:    Synthesis        REF:   p. 435            OBJ:   4

TOP:   Importance of electrolytes in body fluids

 

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