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Systems Analysis and Design 10th Edition Rosenblatt Test Bank

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Systems Analysis and Design 10th Edition Rosenblatt Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1285724645

ISBN-10: 128572464X

 

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Systems Analysis and Design 10th Edition Rosenblatt Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1285724645

ISBN-10: 128572464X

 

 

 

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Chapter 7 – Development Strategies

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Although the traditional model of software acquisition still accounts for more software acquisition, a new model, called ____, is changing the picture dramatically.
a. Hardware as a Help c. Processing as a Product
b. Software as a Service d. Storage as a Solution

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. ____ is a model of software deployment where an application is hosted as a service provided to customers over the Internet.
a. Hardware as a Help c. Processing as a Product
b. Software as a Service d. Storage as a Solution

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. ____ reduces the customer’s need for software maintenance, operation, and support.
a. Hardware as a Help c. Processing as a Product
b. Software as a Service d. Storage as a Solution

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. ____ promotes a broader vision of Software + Services, which refers to the company’s strategy for cloud computing — integrating software applications, platforms, and infrastructure.
a. Oracle c. IBM
b. Hewlett-Packard d. Microsoft

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. Gartner, Inc. predicts that by 2015 SaaS revenue will grow to ____.
a. $7.1 billion c. $14.5 billion
b. $8.6 billion d. $22.1 billion

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   261

 

  1. Microsoft’s ____ is one of the major Web-based development environments.
a. WebSphere c. NetSphere
b. .NET d. .WEB

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   261

 

  1. Building an application in a ____ environment can offer greater benefits, and sometimes greater risks, compared to a traditional environment.
a. GUI c. cloud
b. Web-based d. multinational

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Web-based software usually requires additional layers, called ____, to communicate with existing software and legacy systems.
a. freeware c. middleware
b. shareware d. public domain software

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. When companies acquire Web-based software as a(n) ____, they can limit in-house involvement to a minimum.
a. product c. service
b. value-add d. outsource

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Some industry leaders predict that ____ computing will offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology.
a. interpolated c. outsourced
b. mainframe d. cloud

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. ____ is the transfer of information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside firm that provides these services, for a fee, on a temporary or long-term basis.
a. Outsourcing c. Subscription
b. Commission d. External provision

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. A firm that offers outsourcing solutions is called a ____ provider.
a. subscription c. service
b. software d. resource

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. Oracle Corporation offers a service called ____, which provides e-business applications on a fixed fee basis.
a. WebSphere c. Business Process Outsourcing
b. .NET d. Oracle On Demand

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. Outsourcing a basic business process is often called ____.
a. RFO c. BPO
b. TFO d. TCO

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. The ____ environment enhances interactive experiences, including wikis and blogs, and social networking applications.
a. outsourcing c. Web 2.0
b. SaaS d. Web 3.0

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. Some ____ providers concentrate on specific software applications; others offer resources like order processing and customer billing.
a. subscription c. service
b. software d. resource

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. A(n) ____ is a firm that delivers a software application, or access to an application, by charging a usage or subscription fee.
a. ASP c. ISP
b. OSP d. USP

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. Some firms offer ____, which provide powerful Web-based support for transactions such as order processing, billing, and customer relationship management.
a. ASP c. fixed usage
b. IBS d. fixed-fee transfer

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ uses a set fee based on a specified level of service and user support.
a. fixed fee model c. subscription model
b. usage model d. transaction model

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ has a variable fee based on the number of users or workstations that have access to the application.
a. fixed fee model c. subscription model
b. usage model d. transaction model

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264-265

 

  1. A(n) ____ model is an outsourcing fee model that charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application.
a. method c. transaction
b. administrative d. interpolated

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. The choice between developing versus purchasing software often is called a ____ decision.
a. build or make c. transactional
b. subscription d. build or buy

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   266

 

  1. The software that a company’s IT department makes, builds, and develops is called ____ software.
a. in-house c. external
b. internal d. indexed

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   266

 

  1. A software ____ is software that is obtained from a vendor or application service provider.
a. package c. subscription
b. cluster d. aggregate

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   266

 

  1. Companies that develop software for sale are called software ____.
a. VARs c. vendors
b. resellers d. packages

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. A firm that enhances a commercial package by adding custom features and configuring it for a particular industry is called a(n) ____.
a. BRE c. OSP
b. IRH d. VAR

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. Typically, companies choose in-house software development for all of the following reasons EXCEPT to ____.
a. minimize changes in business procedures and policies
b. meet constraints of existing systems and existing technology
c. develop internal resources and capabilities
d. obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   268

 

  1. Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
a. satisfaction of unique business requirements
b. lower costs and less time to implement
c. proven reliability and performance benchmarks
d. less technical development staff

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   268

 

  1. Buyers can customize a software package by ____.
a. negotiating directly with the software vendor to make enhancements to meet the buyer’s needs by paying for the changes
b. purchasing a basic package that vendors will customize to suit the buyer’s needs
c. purchasing the software and making their own modifications, if this is permissible under the terms of the software license
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   270

 

  1. A user ____ utilizes standard business software, such as Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel, which has been configured in a specific manner to enhance user productivity.
a. application c. interface
b. configuration d. interpolation

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   270

 

  1. In addition to configuring software, the IT staff can create a user ____, which includes screens, commands, controls, and features that enable users to interact more effectively with the application.
a. montage c. interface
b. index d. package

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. Some data files should be hidden totally from view, while others should have ____ so users can view, but not change, the data.
a. no-access properties c. full-access properties
b. read-only properties d. write-only properties

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. The ____ team must include users, who will participate in the selection process and feel a sense of ownership in the new system.
a. prototyping c. JAD
b. evaluation and selection d. assessment

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   273

 

  1. Nearly ____ percent of total costs occur after the purchase of hardware and software.
a. 15 c. 80
b. 45 d. 95

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   273

 

  1. A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifies the features required.
a. request for quotation (RFQ) c. request for proposal (RFP)
b. net present value (NPV) d. return on investment (ROI)

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   276

 

  1. When companies use a ____, they already know the specific products or service they want and need to obtain price quotations or bids from vendors.
a. request for quotation (RFQ) c. request for proposal (RFP)
b. net present value (NPV) d. return on investment (ROI)

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   277

 

  1. Many IT ____ offer specialized services that help companies select software packages.
a. proxies c. consultants
b. forums d. managers

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   278

 

  1. ____ is an example of a nonprofit organization that publishes standards and reports for its members and the general public.
a. IEEE c. The TPC
b. RFP d. Oracle

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. A ____ measures the time a package takes to process a certain number of transactions.
a. newsgroup c. benchmark
b. parameter d. default

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. When planning a slide presentation to management at the end of the systems analysis phase, systems analysts should keep all of the following suggestions in mind EXCEPT ____.
a. summarize the primary viable alternatives
b. ignore time for discussion and questions and answers
c. explain why the evaluation and selection team chose the recommended alternative
d. obtain a final decision or agree on a timetable for the next step in the process

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   282

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

Modified Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following is true of a traditional systems development environment?
a. systems design is influenced by compatibility issues
b. systems are designed to run on local and wide-area company networks
c. systems often utilize Internet links and resources
d. scalability is not affected by network limitations and constraints

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C           PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Which of the following is a path that development can follow?
a. in-house development
b. construct a legacy system
c. purchase of a software package with possible modification
d. use of outside consultants

 

 

ANS:  A, C, D           PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Web-based development?
a. Web-based systems are easily scalable.
b. Large firms tend to deploy Web-based systems as enterprise-wide software solutions for applications such as customer relationship management and order processing.
c. Internet-based development treats the Web as a communication channel, rather than as the platform.
d. Systems are developed and delivered in an Internet-based framework.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D           PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Web-based development?
a. Web-based software treats the software as a service that is more dependent on desktop computing powers and resources.
b. Web-based software usually requires middleware to communicate with existing software and legacy systems.
c. Web-based systems can run on multiple hardware environments.
d. When companies acquire Web-based software as a service rather than a product they purchase, they can limit in-house involvement to a minimum.

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D           PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Outsourcing can refer to ____.
a. relatively minor programming tasks
b. the rental of software from a service provider
c. the handling of a company’s entire IT function
d. BPO

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D       PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. An ASP provides more than a license to use the software; it rents an operational package to the customer. _________________________

 

ANS:  T                                                     PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. A software package that can be used by many different types of organizations is called a vertical application. _________________________

 

ANS:  F, horizontal

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. A software package developed to handle information requirements for a specific type of business is called a horizontal application. _________________________

 

ANS:  F, vertical

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. Net present value is a percentage rate that compares the total net benefits (the return) received from a project to the total costs (the investment) of the project. _________________________

 

ANS:  F

Return on investment

ROI

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   274

 

  1. The ROI of a project is the total value of the benefits minus the total value of the costs, with both costs and benefits adjusted to reflect the point at which they occur. _________________________

 

ANS:  F

net present value

NPV

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   274

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Typically, customers purchase licenses that give them the right to use the software under the terms of the license agreement.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. Building an application in a Web-based environment might involve greater risks and benefits, compared to a traditional environment.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. In a traditional systems development environment, security issues usually are less complex than with Web-based systems, because the system operates on a private company network, rather than the Internet.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Mission-critical IT systems should be outsourced only if the result is a cost-attractive, reliable, business solution that fits the company’s long-term business strategy.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. A subscription model charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. A company considering outsourcing must realize that the solution can be only as good as the outsourcing firm that provides the service.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. Mergers and acquisitions typically have no impact on clients and customers of large, financially healthy firms.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. The main reason for offshore outsourcing is the same as domestic outsourcing: lower bottom-line costs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   266

 

  1. By designing a system in-house, companies can develop and train an IT staff that understands the organization’s business functions and information support needs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Compared to software developed in-house, a software package almost always is more expensive, particularly in terms of initial investment.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Many firms feel that in-house IT resources and capabilities provide a competitive advantage because an in-house team can respond quickly when business problems or opportunities arise.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Companies that use commercial software packages always must increase the number of programmers and systems analysts on the IT staff.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Software vendors regularly upgrade software packages by adding improvements and enhancements to create a new version or release.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Empowerment makes an IT department less productive because it must spend more time responding to the daily concerns of users and less time on high-impact systems development projects that support strategic business goals.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. The decision to develop software in-house will require less participation from the systems analyst than outsourcing or choosing a commercial package.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. The primary objective of an evaluation and selection team is to eliminate system alternatives that will not work, rank the system alternatives that will work, and present the viable alternatives to management for a final decision.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   273

 

  1. A request for quotation (RFQ) is less specific than an RFP (request for proposal).

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   277

 

  1. A standard method exists for assigning the weight factors in the evaluation of responses to an RFP.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   277

 

  1. Some vendors limit their reference lists to satisfied clientsRemember, you can expect mostly positive feedback from those firms.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. Benchmark tests must precisely match the day-to-day situation at your company.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. For large-scale systems, license agreement terms can be negotiated.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   280

 

  1. For desktop applicationsRemember,ftware license terms and conditions usually can be modified.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   280

 

  1. If a purchased package will be used without modification, you can begin planning the systems implementation phase upon its purchase.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   282

 

  1. Whereas the logical design of an information system is concerned with how the system will meet requirements, physical design is concerned with what the system must accomplish.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   283

 

  1. In general, systems development is faster, more flexible, and more user-oriented than in the past.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   283

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. An ultimate form of SaaS would be ____________________ computing, which would deliver services and data to users who would need only an Internet connection and a browser.

 

ANS:  cloud

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. Traditionally, firms ____________________ IT tasks as a way of controlling costs and dealing with rapid technological change.

 

ANS:

outsourced

outsource

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. If a company uses a(n) ____________________ to supply a data management package, the company does not have to design, develop, implement, or maintain the package.

 

ANS:

application service provider

ASP

application service provider (ASP)

ASP (application service provider)

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. In ____________________ hosting, system operations are managed by an outside form, or host.

 

ANS:  managed

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. When a company considers outsourcing, it should estimate ____________________ characteristics to determine which fee structure would be most desirable, and then attempt to negotiate a service provider contract based on that model.

 

ANS:  usage

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. Offshore outsourcing is also called ____________________ outsourcing.

 

ANS:  global

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. Several years ago, Gartner predicted that ____________________ would evolve from labor-intensive maintenance and support to higher-level systems development and software design.

 

ANS:  outsourcing

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. An accounting package is a good example of a(n) ____________________ application because it can be utilized by many different businesses, for example.

 

ANS:  horizontal

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

 

  1. Both of the businesses shown in the accompanying figure need ____________________ applications to handle their unique business requirements.

 

ANS:  vertical

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. Some advantages of purchasing a standard software package disappear if the product must be ____________________.

 

ANS:  customized

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   270

 

  1. In most large and medium-sized companies, a(n) ____________________ within the IT department is responsible for providing user support.

 

ANS:

service desk

information center

IC

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. Some user applications have powerful ____________________ that allow users to design their own data entry forms and reports.

 

ANS:

report generators

screen generators

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. The evaluation and selection of alternatives is not a simple process; the objective is to obtain the product with the lowest ____________________, but actual cost and performance can be difficult to forecast.

 

ANS:

TCO

total cost of ownership

TCO (total cost of ownership)

total cost of ownership (TCO)

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   272

 

  1. When selecting hardware and software, systems analysts often work as a(n) ____________________, which ensures that critical factors are not overlooked and that a sound decision is made.

 

ANS:  evaluation and selection team

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   273

 

  1. ____________________ determines how long it takes an information system to pay for itself through reduced costs and increased benefits.

 

ANS:  Payback analysis

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   274

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is a technique that uses a common yardstick to measure and compare vendor ratings.

 

ANS:  evaluation model

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   276

 

  1. Based on a(n) ____________________, vendors can decide if they have a product that will meet your needs.

 

ANS:

RFP

request for proposal

request for proposal (RFP)

RFP (request for proposal)

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   276

 

 

  1. No matter what topics interest you, there are sure to be one or more ____________________, as shown in the accompanying figure, where people gather to meet, offer support, and exchange ideas.

 

ANS:

forums

newsgroups

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   278

 

  1. When users purchase software, what they are buying is a(n) ____________________ that gives them the right to use the software under certain terms and conditions.

 

ANS:  software license

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   280

 

  1. The ____________________ contains the requirements for a new system, describes the alternatives that were considered, and makes a specific recommendation to management.

 

ANS:

system requirements document

software requirements specification

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   281

 

MATCHING

 

Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.

a. cloud computing f. physical design
b. IBS g. logical design
c. managed hosting h. Web 2.0
d. WebSphere i. benchmarking
e. BPO j. systems requirement document

 

 

  1. Predicted by industry leaders to offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology.

 

  1. Describes a second generation of the Web that will enable people to collaborate, interact, and share information much more effectively.

 

  1. An example of a Web-based development environment.

 

  1. Attractive to customers because it offers online data center support, mainframe computing power for mission-critical functions, and universal access via the Internet.

 

  1. Another name for IBS.

 

  1. A good way to measure relative performance of two or more competing products in a standard environment.

 

  1. Like a contract that identifies what the system developers must deliver to users.

 

  1. The outsourcing of a basic business function.

 

  1. With an information system, a plan for the actual implementation of the system.

 

  1. With an information system, design that does not address the actual methods of implementation.

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. ANS:  H                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   261

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. ANS:  I                     PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. ANS:  J                     PTS:   1                    REF:   281

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   283

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1                    REF:   283

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss at length the concerns and issues related to outsourcing.

 

ANS:

When a company decides to outsource IT functions, it takes an important step that can affect the firm’s resources, operations, and profitability. Mission-critical IT systems should be outsourced only if the result is a cost-attractive, reliable, business solution that fits the company’s long-term business strategy and involves an acceptable level of risk. Moving IT work overseas raises even more issues, including potential concerns about control, culture, communication, and security.

 

In addition to long-term strategic consequences, outsourcing also can raise some concerns. For example, a company must turn over sensitive data to an external service provider and trust the provider to maintain security, confidentiality, and quality. Also, before outsourcing, a company must carefully review issues relating to insurance, potential liability, licensing and information ownership, warranties, and disaster recovery.

 

Most important, a company considering outsourcing must realize that the solution can be only as good as the outsourcing firm that provides the service. A dynamic economy can give rise to business failures and uncertainty about the future. In this climate, it is especially important to review the history and financial condition of an outsourcing firm before making a commitment.

 

Mergers and acquisitions also can affect outsourcing clients. For example, after their merger, Compaq and Hewlett-Packard restructured and streamlined the products and services offered by the new company. Even with large, financially healthy firms such as these, a merger or acquisition can have some impact on clients and customers. If stability is important, an outsourcing client should consider these issues.

 

Outsourcing can be especially attractive to a company whose volume fluctuates widely, such as a defense contractor. In other situations, a company might decide to outsource application development tasks to an IT consulting firm if the company lacks the time or expertise to handle the work on its own. Outsourcing relieves a company of the responsibility of adding IT staff in busy times and downsizing when the workload lightens. A major disadvantage of outsourcing is that it raises employee concerns about job security. Talented IT people usually prefer positions where the firm is committed to in-house IT development — if they do not feel secure, they might decide to work directly for the service provider.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   265                TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. What are the advantages of purchasing a software package?

 

ANS:

If a company decides not to outsource, a commercially available software package might be an attractive alternative to developing its own software. Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include lower costs, less time to implement a system, proven reliability and performance benchmarks, less technical development staff, future upgrades that are provided by the vendor, and the ability to obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software.

 

LOWER COSTS Because many companies use software packagesRemember,ftware vendors spread the development costs over many customers. Compared with software developed in-house, a software package almost always is less expensive, particularly in terms of initial investment. However, even though the initial cost is less, purchased software can involve expenses caused by business disruption, changing business processes, and retraining employees.

 

REQUIRES LESS TIME TO IMPLEMENT When you purchase a package, it already has been designed, programmed, tested, and documented. The in-house time normally spent on those tasks, therefore, is eliminated. Of course, you still must install the software and integrate it into your systems environment, which can take a significant amount of time. Also, even though implementation is quicker, TOC can be higher due to added training expenses and software modifications.

 

PROVEN RELIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE BENCHMARKS If the package has been on the market for any length of time, any major problems probably have been detected already and corrected by the vendor. If the product is popular, it almost certainly has been rated and evaluated by independent reviewers.

 

REQUIRES LESS TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT STAFF Companies that use commercial software packages often are able to reduce the number of programmers and systems analysts on the IT staff. Using commercial software also means that the IT staff can concentrate on systems whose requirements cannot be satisfied by software packages.

 

FUTURE UPGRADES PROVIDED BY THE VENDOR Software vendors regularly upgrade software packages by adding improvements and enhancements to create a new version or release. A new release of a software package, for example, can include drivers to support a new laser printer or a new type of data storage technology. In many cases, the vendor receives input and suggestions from current users when planning future upgrades.

 

INPUT FROM OTHER COMPANIES Using a commercial software package means that you can contact users in other companies to obtain their input and impressions. You might be able to try the package or make a site visit to observe the system in operation before making a final decision.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   269-270         TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. Contrast logical and physical design.

 

ANS:

A logical design defines what must take place, not how it will be accomplished. Logical designs do not address the actual methods of implementation. In contrast, a physical design is like a set of blueprints for the actual construction of a building. Typically, a physical design describes the actual processes of entering, verifying, and storing data; the physical layout of data files and sorting procedures, the format of reports, and so on. Because logical and physical designs are related so closely, good systems design is impossible without careful, accurate systems analysis. For example, you might return to fact-finding if you discover that you overlooked an important issue, if users have significant new needs, or if legal or governmental requirements change.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   283-284         TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

CASE

 

Critical Thinking Questions

Case 7-1

 

Now that they have joined the firm, Priscilla is providing the junior analysts on the team with some real-world illustrations to explain some of the recommendations that they must be prepared to make to clients, based on what they have studied in their coursework, in order to solidify their understanding.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason Priscilla would offer as a reason for in-house software development?
a. The client has unique business requirements that must be satisfied by this software application.
b. The client wants to be able to use fewer technical development staff members.
c. The client has a number of very distinctive security requirements.
d. The client has some existing technology in place whose requirements must be met by the new software.

 

 

ANS:

B

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   268                TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason Priscilla will share with the new analysts, with regard to a client that wants to purchase a software package?
a. The client wants to be able to develop internal resources and capabilities among the technical staff.
b. The client is looking for the lowest possible costs.
c. The client is looking to spend the least possible time in implementation.
d. The client wants to be able to rely on a vendor to provide future upgrades.

 

 

ANS:

A

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   268                TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

Critical Thinking Questions

Case 7-2

 

You have started the process of selecting a new system for the firm and you are weighing all of the various issues that need to be considered and the resources you have at your disposal as you make this important decision.

 

  1. As you prepare to winnow the field in your selection of a new system, you want a quick refresher on the difference between RFPs and RFQs. If you need an RFP, Simone will write it, and if you need an RFQ, Marny is responsible for writing that. Which of the following is true?
a. An RFP that Simone writes is more specific than an RFQ Marny will write.
b. When Simone is tasked with the job, you already know the specific product or service you want and you need to obtain price quotations or bids.
c. When Marny is tasked with the job, her output can involve outright purchase or a variety of leasing options.
d. RFPs and RFQs have very different objectives.

 

 

ANS:

C

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   277                TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. You have two candidates for the new system. Which one of the following is NOT a strategy you can pursue for making the final selection from among the two candidates?
a. For vertical applications, use a demo copy to enter a few sample transactions in both.
b. Contact existing users to obtain feedback for both of the contenders.
c. Perform a benchmark test to measure the time each of the two applications needs to perform a number of transactions.
d. Consult Web sites maintained by consultants and software publishers with product references and links to vendors.

 

 

ANS:

A

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   279                TOP:   Critical Thinking

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