Sale!

The Economy of Nature 6th Edition Ricklefs Test Bank

$80.00 $12.99

The Economy of Nature 6th Edition Ricklefs Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0716786979

ISBN-10: 0716786974

Description

The Economy of Nature 6th Edition Ricklefs Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0716786979

ISBN-10: 0716786974

 

 

Be the best nurse you can be:

Nursing test banks are legit and very helpful. This test bank on this page can be downloaded immediately after you checkout today.

Here is the definition of nursing

Its true that you will receive the entire legit test bank for this book and it can happen today regardless if its day or night. We have made the process automatic for you so that you don’t have to wait.

We encourage you to purchase from only a trustworthy provider:

Our site is one of the most confidential websites on the internet. We maintain no logs and guarantee it. Our website is also encrypted with an SSL on the entire website which will show on your browser with a lock symbol. This means not a single person can view any information.

Have any comments or suggestions?

When you get your file today you will be able to open it on your device and start studying for your class right now.

Remember, this is a digital download that is automatically given to you after you checkout today.

Free Nursing Test Questions:

Name
Test Bank Chapter 21

Description

Instructions Although your invention of the time machine will probably win you a Nobel Prize,
you see the machine as simply a means to an end. That end is the ability to
travel to various times in the pastRemember, you can better study evolution of the
biosphere. As you prepare for your time travels, please answer the following
questions. Your correct answers will ensure that your travels will be both safe
and productive!

Question 1
Essay

Question One of your goals is to travel to the early earth to study life forms that existed 2-3
billion years ago, long before the evolution of the first eukaryotic cell. What special
equipment would you take along on this trip to ensure your personal survival? Why?

Answer At the very least, you would need to bring along an oxygen supply. The
atmosphere of the early earth had very little oxygen; life forms, all microbes,
depended entirely on anaerobic metabolism.

Question 2
Essay

Question You hope to investigate first-hand the extinction of South American marsupials
recorded in the fossil record. How far back in time would you travel and what event would
be of particular interest to you?

Answer You would want to travel back in time about 3 million years, to the Pliocene epoch.
At that time you could observe the consequences of the reconnection of North and
South America by a land bridge, the Isthmus of Panama. You could then observe
the southward movement of placental mammals from North America, a likely
contributor to mass extinctions of the endemic South American fauna of marsupial
mammals.

Question 3
Essay

Question You are planning an extended trip to middle latitudes of the early Cenozoic era,
from about 65 to 35 million years ago (Mya) . What kind of clothing should you pack to be
comfortable in the prevailing climate? Why?

Answer You can leave the winter clothes at home. During the Paleocene and Eocene
epochs, mid-latitude regions were much warmer than they are today, with tropical
conditions prevailing as far north as present-day Washington state and Canada.
These conditions resulted from freer circulation of warm tropical waters to the
poles, distributing heat more evenly across the earth’s surface than is the case
today.

Question 4
Essay

Question Time travel can be hazardous to your health. Why would it be especially
important to plan a journey to the very end of the Cretaceous era with extreme caution?

Answer Evidence points to a massive global catastrophe at the end of the Cretaceous. The
impact with earth of an asteroid in a shallow sea off the Yucatán Peninsula led to
catastrophic tidal waves, fires, and subsequent cooling of the earth’s atmosphere
for years afterward. Among the consequences of this impact were greatly
diminished plant production and mass extinctions, eliminating, for example, all the
dinosaurs. The wise time traveler would avoid direct observation of this event.

Question 5
Essay

Question

The fossil record
of Europe includes many more genera of trees than that of eastern North America, although
today the North American tree flora is richer than the European one. What events and what
times in the past would be of particular interest to you as you attempt to study this
phenomenon? (Hint: Refer to Figure 21.16.)
Answer The modern eastern North American flora contains more genera than represented
in its fossil record; the opposite is true for Europe. You would thus be particularly
interested in events that led to massive extinctions of European flora. Study of the
Pleistocene glaciations would lead to insights in this regard. In particular, you
would be interested in studying the roles of various barriers to southward migration
(such as the Alps and the Mediterranean Sea) that limited access of the European
flora to refuges of warmer conditions as glaciers advanced.

Question 6
Essay

Question What is a phylogenetic effect? Provide an example of such an effect.
Answer A phylogenetic effect is the sharing of characteristics of a lineage irrespective of
environmental factors. The abundance of marsupial mammals in Australia is not
the result of particular environmental conditions unique to Australia. Rather,
marsupials are abundant there because of a unique history, including their
diversification in the absence of intense competition from placental mammals.

Question 7
Essay

Question Vicariance is the breaking up of a widely distributed ancestral population by
continental drift or another barrier to dispersal. Cite an example of vicariance from the
animal kingdom related to continental drift, and briefly describe its origin.

Answer The flightless birds (ratites) of Australia and New Guinea (emus and cassowaries),
South America (rheas), Africa (ostriches), and New Zealand (moas) are examples
of vicariance. These birds are descended from a common ancestor found in
Gondwanaland before its breakup during the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic
era.

Question 8
Essay

Question

Starting at the end of the most recent glaciation, about 18,000 years ago, many North
American tree species underwent substantial migrations and expansions from southern
refuges to their present ranges (refer to Figure 21.8). What are the implications of these
migrations for the kinds of communities that have existed over this time period and the
similarity of these communities to present-day assemblages?
Answer Plant species have behaved individualistically in response to glacial retreat and
climatic amelioration. A variety of species assemblages have coalesced and then
broken up during this period of climatic change and migration of species. Thus,
combinations of species existed during this period that cannot be found today.
Similarly, combinations of species found today may not have existed in the past.

Question 9
Essay

Question Convergence of unrelated species living under similar conditions is one of the
most important and widespread observations made by ecologists and evolutionary
biologists. However, non-convergent examples occur where convergence might have been

expected. How may these non-convergent situations have come about?
Answer In some cases, lack of convergence may exist because the environments being
compared are in fact different. There is, for exampleRemember,me lack of convergence
between the lizard fauna of Australia and North America. The Australian fauna is
richer in species and differentiation of their niches. However, this difference may
have an environmental cause; poorer soils on the Australian continent may have
led, through a cascade of food-chain effects, to an impoverished bird fauna. This,
in turn, has led to a proliferation of the lizard fauna not possible in North America.
In other cases, lack of convergence may be the result of unique evolutionary
histories of the organisms being compared.

Question 10

Question What is the relationship between local and regional levels of diversity? What
does this imply about the “openness” of communities to invasion by new species?

Answer Many studies reveal a trend of local diversity reflecting regional diversity. For
example, the number of fish species in short stretches of river (local level) in
northern South America and West Africa is directly proportional to the number of
species in the river drainage (regional level). These findings imply that
communities are relatively open to invasion by species from the region and do not
reach a level of saturation that is independent of the regional species pool.

Question 11

Question Contraction of tropical regions in response to changing patterns of global climate
during periods of glacial expansion may have had opposing effects on biological diversity.
Please explain.

Answer Although rain forests now occupy much of the Amazon basin, such forests were
most likely restricted to much smaller refugial areas during periods of drier and
cooler climate associated with periods of glacial expansion. During glacial maxima
the contraction of such tropical habitats may have resulted in extinction of species,
the result of reduction in area of suitable habitat and fragmentation of remaining
suitable areas. However, habitat fragmentation may have also set the stage for
subsequent speciation, resulting from isolation of populations.

Question 12

Question Recent research on the varying extent of major climate zones (tropical,
temperate, boreal) throughout the Tertiary history of the earth sheds new light on the old
question of why there are so many species in the tropics. Please explain.

Answer Tropical climates were much more extensive during much of the Tertiary than they
are today. Boreal climates developed more recently, during the Miocene. The
species richness of forests occupying these major climate zones at present is
much better predicted by the area of these zones during the mid- to late-Tertiary
than by their present-day area. In other words, the great diversity of tropical
species on earth today may be the legacy of an earlier time when tropical areas
were of much greater extent.

Question 13

Question If most species on earth evolved from tropical lineages, how might this fact also
help us understand the much greater diversity of tropical species on earth today? (Hint:

Focus your answer on evolutionary conservatism and diversification.)
Answer Adaptive shifts to challenging new environments are less likely than diversification
in the environment within which a lineage originated. Given the tropical origin of
most lineages, including those occupying temperate and boreal environments
today, it is not surprising that relatively few of these lineages have been able to
adapt to challenges of more stressful environments. Freezing conditions, in
particular, present many challenges that some tropical lineages have never
overcome.

Question 14

Question Offer some examples of how the fossil record can help us understand modern
patterns of biological diversity. In particular, comment on the hypothesis that biological
diversity grows steadily with the passage of time.

Answer The work of Jaramillo and colleagues shows that biological diversity in the tropics
(indexed by the diversity of pollen morphotypes) has increased and decreased
through time, paralleling increases and decreases in temperature. However,
diversity in the late Tertiary was no greater than that during the early Tertiary,
suggesting that species do not accumulate appreciably over time. Other work by
Van Valkenburgh and Janis (on fossil mammal assemblages in western North
America) has also shown that, although species diversity can vary considerably
over time, there is little evidence for accumulation of species.

Question 15

Question Select from the following list the individual who wrote: “The equatorial zone, in
short, exhibits to us the result of a comparatively continuous and unchecked development
of organic forms; while in the temperate regions there have been a series of periodical
checks and extinctions of a more or less disastrous nature, necessitating the
commencement of the work of development in certain lines over and over again. In the one,
evolution has had a fair chance; in the other, it has had countless difficulties thrown in its
way.”

Answer

Henry Chandler Cowles
Frederic Edward Clements

Alfred Russel Wallace
Henry Allen Gleason
Charles Darwin

Question 16

Question During periods of glacial expansion during the Pleistocene epoch, tropical
regions experienced:
Answer

increased rainfall and higher temperatures.
increased rainfall and lower temperatures.
decreased rainfall and higher temperatures.

decreased rainfall and lower temperatures.

Question 17

Question Contraction and fragmentation of tropical rain forest habitat during periods of
glacial expansion could have had which of the following effects on biological diversity?
Answer

extinction of existing species
formation of new species

Both A and B are possible.

Question 18

Question The oxygen in our present-day atmosphere was largely produced by:
Answer evaporation of oxygen-rich comets entering earth’s upper atmosphere.
volcanic eruptions.

photosynthetic microbes active during the early part of earth’s history.
the proliferation of flowering plants during the Cretaceous period.

Question 19

Question Which of the following is the basic building block of all modern complex
organisms?
Answer
the prokaryotic cell

the eukaryotic cell

the archaebacteria
the eubacteria

Incorrect Feedback

Question 20

Question Approximately 540 million years ago, most modern phyla of invertebrates
appeared rather suddenly in the fossil record. This first appearance of life in modern form
establishes the beginning of __________.
Answer

the Cenozoic era
the Mesozoic era

the Paleozoic era
the Modern era

Question 21

Question Which of the following eras refers to “middle animals” and is also known as the
age of reptiles?
Answer
the Cenozoic era

the Mesozoic era

the Paleozoic era
the Modern era

Question 22

Question Which of the following eras refers to “recent animals” and is also known as the
age of mammals?
Answer

the Cenozoic era

the Mesozoic era
the Paleozoic era
the Modern era

Question 23

Question Students of ecology and evolution are interested in continental drift because:
Answer continental drift creates and breaks down barriers to dispersal.
the positions of the drifting continents affect global climatic patterns.

both of the above.

Question 24

Question Alfred Russel Wallace recognized six major biogeographic regions based on the
distributions of animals he observed. Today we understand that these regions are
distinctive:
Answer
because each biogeographic region has unique climates not found in any of
the other regions.

because the plants and animals in each region do not occur in any of the
other regions.

because they correspond to landmasses isolated millions of years ago by
continental drift.
as reflections of the political map of Wallace’s time, but have little biological
meaning.

Question 25

Question Which of the following pairs of biogeographic regions has the greatest affinity of
flora and fauna, the result of a long history of land connection?
Answer
temperate North America (Nearctic) and tropical South America
(Neotropical)

temperate Asia (Palearctic) and tropical Asia (Indomalayan)
tropical Africa (Afrotropical) and Australia/New Guinea (Australasian)

Question 26

Question Which of the following pairs of biogeographic regions has the most recent land
connection?
Answer

temperate North America (Nearctic) and tropical South America (Neotropical)

temperate Asia (Palearctic) and tropical Asia (Indomalayan)
tropical Africa (Afrotropical) and Australia/New Guinea (Australasian)

Question 27

Question The temperate forests of Asia (Palearctic region) contain a high percentage of
tree species derived primarily from tropical forests of which of the following biogeographic
regions?
Answer

Neotropical
Afrotropical

Indomalayan
Australasian

Question 28

Question Under which of the following conditions is a polar region likely to have the
warmest climate?
Answer

when it is occupied by a continent
when it is occupied by a landlocked sea

when it is occupied by an ocean that extends to tropical areas

Question 29

Question Many forest trees of eastern North America migrated northward from southern
refuges following the retreat of glaciers after the last glacial maximum (about 18,000 years
ago). We know much about these migrations because:
Answer

we have historical records maintained by Native American peoples.
all of these species retain populations in areas that served as refuges.

pollen grains deposited in lakes and bogs provide a record of past
distributions of these species.
all of the above

Question 30

Question Native American peoples living in eastern North America and south of the glacial
limit around 18,000 years ago would have been part of:
Answer
an arctic tundra biome dominated by low shrubs and grasses.

a boreal forest biome dominated by spruce.

a deciduous forest biome dominated by temperate species such as elm and
oak.

a tropical rainforest biome dominated by diverse broadleaved evergreen
trees.
a subtropical desert biome dominated by cacti and microphyllous shrubs.

Question 31

Question As glaciers retreated northward in Europe following the last glacial advance,
various tree species also expanded their ranges northward into areas of suitable climate.
However, Svenning and Skog have shown that not all species have fully exploited suitable
habitat. Of the two groups of species below, which has less fully exploited suitable habitat?

Answer
light-seeded species like silver birch and common hornbeam

heavy-seeded species like sweet chestnut and Pyrenean oak

Question 32

Question Plants and animals of North and South American deserts resemble each other
morphologically. What process is responsible for this similarity?
Answer
descent from common ancestors

convergence

repeated migrations of plants and animals from one region to the
other

all of the above

Incorrect Feedback

Question 33

Question When University of Minnesota ecologist Jeannine Cavender-Bares and
colleagues examined the distributions of oak species along an environmental moisture
gradient in Florida, what did they find when they examined species belonging to the same
evolutionary lineage (e.g., red oaks)?

Answer
These species tended to be present in the same habitat.

These species tended not to be present in the same habitat.

Question 34

Question When University of Minnesota ecologist Jeannine Cavender-Bares and
colleagues examined the distributions of oak species along an environmental moisture
gradient in Florida, under what circumstance did they find the greater amount of overlap in
species distributions?

Answer

when these species belonged to the same evolutionary lineage
when these species belonged to different evolutionary lineages

Question 35

Question In experimental soil communities consisting of eight mycorrhizal fungi, Maherali
and Klironomos found that communities that retained the greatest number of species over
time were those comprised of fungi from __________ fungal families.
Answer

one
two

three
any number of

Question 36

Question Comparisons among temperate forests on different continents, among other
examples, have led ecologists to which of the following conclusions?

Answer
Communities in similar environments often have the same numbers of
species.

Communities in similar environments often have different numbers of
species.

Question 37

Question Considering the history of earth’s biota, it is clear that regional species pools
have varied considerably in size through time. Given some degree of dependence of local
species diversity on the regional species pool, this finding would lead one to conclude that:

Answer
ecological systems easily attain equilibrium.

ecological systems rarely, if ever, attain equilibrium.

Question 38

Question Considering the past history of the flora of European temperate deciduous
forests, what would you predict about the temperature tolerance of species present in the
Pliocene fossil record that are now extinct in the region?

Answer
These species are typically cold-tolerant.

These species are typically cold-intolerant.

Question 39

Question The greater diversity of mangrove forests in the Indo-West Pacific region
compared to similar forests in the Atlantic-Caribbean region may be attributable to:
Answer

plant taxa invading mangrove habitats more frequently, possibly due to
greater isolation of mangrove habitats.

a much larger area of suitable mangrove habitat in the Indo-West Pacific
region.

Question 40

Question Which of the following takes place on the longest temporal scale?
Answer

formation of new species after prolonged isolation of subpopulations

selective replacement of genotypes within populations (evolution)
interactions between populations (competitive exclusion)
death and replacement of individuals in populations (demography and
population regulation)
individual movements (behavior)

Question 41

Question The diversity of marsupial mammals in Australia is not a reflection of some
special environmental condition that favors such animals, but rather the legacy of past
history, a so-called ________.

Answer
phylogenetic effect
Incorrect
Feedback
The diversity of marsupial mammals in Australia is not a reflection of some
special environmental condition that favors such animals, but rather the
legacy of past history, a so-called phylogenetic effect.

Question 42

Question The splitting of a widely distributed ancestral population by continental drift (as
seen in the large flightless birds of the ratite lineage), or some other barrier to dispersal, is
called ________.
Answer
vicariance

Incorrect
Feedback
The splitting of a widely distributed ancestral population by continental drift
(as seen in the large flightless birds of the ratite lineage), or some other
barrier to dispersal, is called vicariance.

Question 43

Question Movement of landmasses on the surface of the earth is called ________.
Answer
continental drift

Incorrect
Feedback
Movement of landmasses on the surface of the earth is called
continental drift.

Question 44

Question The breakup of Pangaea near the beginning of the Cretaceous period resulted in
two megacontinents; the more northern of these has been named ________.
Answer
Laurasia

Incorrect
Feedback
The breakup of Pangaea near the beginning of the Cretaceous period
resulted in two megacontinents; the more northern of these has been
named Laurasia.

Question 45

Question Wallace’s ________ biogeographic region corresponds closely to the North
American continent.
Answer
Nearctic

Incorrect
Feedback
Wallace’s Nearctic biogeographic region corresponds closely to the
North American continent.

Question 46

Question The ________ biogeographic region is the only one of Wallace’s six
biogeographic regions that presently lacks a direct land connection to at least one of the
other regions.
Answer
Australasian

Incorrect
Feedback
The Australasian biogeographic region is the only one of Wallace’s six
biogeographic regions that presently lacks a direct land connection to at
least one of the other regions.

Question 47

Question Although adrift until its collision 45 Mya with Asia, the Indian subcontinent is now
part of the ________ biogeographic region.
Answer
Indomalayan

Incorrect
Feedback
Although adrift until its collision 45 Mya with Asia, the Indian subcontinent
is now part of the Indomalayan biogeographic region.

Question 48

Question Svenning and Skog used ________ to determine areas of suitable habitat for
comparison with current distributions of European tree species.
Answer
ecological niche modeling

Incorrect
Feedback
Svenning and Skog used ecological niche modeling to determine areas of
suitable habitat for comparison with current distributions of European tree
species.

Question 49

Question When a large proportion of species and higher taxa have been eliminated from
earth by a catastrophic event, the episode is referred to as a(n) ________.

Answer mass extinction
Incorrect
Feedback
When a large proportion of species and higher taxa have been eliminated
from earth by a catastrophic event, the episode is referred to as a(n) mass
extinction.

Question 50

Question During periods of glacial advance and climatic deterioration, it is thought that
warm-temperate flora and fauna of eastern North America migrated southward to areas
bordering the ________.

Answer Gulf of Mexico (or to Florida or the Bahamas, etc.)
Incorrect
Feedback
During periods of glacial advance and climatic deterioration, it is thought that
warm-temperate flora and fauna of eastern North America migrated
southward to areas bordering the Gulf of Mexico (or to Florida or the
Bahamas, etc.).

Question 51

Question Pairs of unrelated African and South American rain forest mammals with similar
lifestyles and adaptations are an example of ________.
Answer
convergence

Incorrect
Feedback
Pairs of unrelated African and South American rain forest mammals with
similar lifestyles and adaptations are an example of convergence.

Question 52

Question Dolphins and penguins, although similar in form to fast-swimming fish such as
tuna, are actually descended from ________ ancestors.
Answer
terrestrial

Incorrect
Feedback
Dolphins and penguins, although similar in form to fast-swimming fish such
as tuna, are actually descended from terrestrial ancestors.

Question 53

Question Evolution tends to be conservative; that is, small evolutionary changes are more
likely than more substantial ________ that allow organisms to occupy different types of
habitat.
Answer
adaptive shifts

Incorrect
Feedback
Evolution tends to be conservative; that is, small evolutionary changes are
more likely than more substantial adaptive shifts that allow organisms to
occupy different types of habitat.

Question 54

Question To determine the course of species richness over long periods of time,
researchers like Smithsonian scientist Carlos Jaramillo have turned to analysis of the
________.
Answer
fossil record

Incorrect
Feedback
To determine the course of species richness over long periods of time,
researchers like Smithsonian scientist Carlos Jaramillo have turned to
analysis of the fossil record.

Question 55

Question Although ecology has traditionally focused on local and contemporary systems, it
is now expanding its scope to consider the parallel and larger-scale effects of ________
and historical processes, respectively.
Answer
biogeographic

Incorrect
Feedback
Although ecology has traditionally focused on local and contemporary
systems, it is now expanding its scope to consider the parallel and largerscale
effects
of
biogeographic
and
historical
processes,
respectively.

The Economy of Nature 6th Edition Ricklefs Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0716786979

ISBN-10: 0716786974

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “The Economy of Nature 6th Edition Ricklefs Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *