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The Science of Psychology 2nd Edition King Test Bank

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The Science of Psychology 2nd Edition King Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0077470913

ISBN-10: 0077470915

 

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The Science of Psychology 2nd Edition King Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0077470913

ISBN-10: 0077470915

 

 

 

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Chapter 11

Social Psychology

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 401)_____ is the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.
    A. Social Darwinism
    B. Social analytics
    C. Socialism
    D. Social psychology

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 401)_____ refers to the processes by which we use social stimuli to form impressions of others.
    A. Form perception
    B. Person perception
    C. Visual perception
    D. Amodal perception

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 401)Which of the following statements about research on the “beautiful is good” stereotype is false?
    A. Infants as young as 3 to 6 months of age prefer attractive faces over unattractive faces.
    B. Attractive people are assumed to have a variety of positive characteristics, including being better adjustedRemember,cially skilled, friendly, likeable, extraverted, and likely to achieve superior job performance.
    C. There is little truth to the “beautiful is good stereotype.” Attractive people do not really possess the positive characteristics of the stereotype.
    D. The “beautiful is good stereotype” can influence how we treat others, as in the concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 402)A _____ is a generalization about a group’s characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another.
    A. stereotype
    B. hypothesis
    C. proposition
    D. classification

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 402)Parents warn a new babysitter that their son, Dennis, is very aggressive and mischievous. As a result of this initial expectation, the babysitter starts calling Dennis “Dennis the Menace,” and he behaves in ways that elicit aggressive and mischievous behaviors from Dennis. This example best demonstrates the phenomenon called _____.
    A. the self-fulfilling prophecy
    B. the self-serving bias
    C. the fundamental attribution error
    D. social conditioning

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 402)Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobsen conducted a study in 1968. The researchers told grade-school teachers that five students were likely to be “late bloomers”—that these students had high levels of ability that would likely emerge over time. In reality, the students had been randomly selected by the researchers. Nonetheless, a year later, the researchers found that teachers’ expectations for the “late bloomers” were reflected in student performance—the academic performance of the “late bloomers” was beyond that of other students. The results from this study demonstrate which of the following concepts?
    A. Cognitive dissonance theory
    B. The butterfly effect
    C. The self-fulfilling prophecy
    D. The self-serving bias

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 402)Self-fulfilling prophecy _____.
    A. effects show the potential power of stereotypes and other sources of expectations on human behavior
    B. shows that aspects of the environment may prime us to behave aggressively
    C. examines the characteristics of cultures that are associated with the emergence of altruism and with the belief that everyone deserves fair treatment
    D. is the solidification and further strengthening of an individual’s position as a consequence of a group discussion or interaction

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 402-403)The process by which we come to understand the causes of others’ behavior and form an impression of them as individuals is known as _____.
    A. deindividuation
    B. validation
    C. perception
    D. attribution

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 403)Attribution theory _____.
    A. is an explanation of how behaviors influence attitudes
    B. views people as motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior
    C. suggests that we feel uneasy when we notice an inconsistency between what we believe and what we do
    D. is a theory of social comparison which posits that when individuals lack objective means to evaluate their opinions and abilities, they compare themselves with others

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 403)According to attribution theory, attributions vary along which of the following dimensions?
    A. Internal/external causes
    B. Known/unknown causes
    C. Regular/irregular causes
    D. Consistent/inconsistent causes

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 403)Jack and John were recently dumped by their girlfriends. Jack believes that his girlfriend broke up with him because she is a selfish and unhappy person, whereas John believes that his girlfriend broke up with him because she had to attend to a family emergency and could not make commitment right now. Jack is making a(n) _____ about his girlfriend’s behavior, whereas John is making a(n) _____.
    A. internal attribution/external attribution
    B. external attribution/internal attribution
    C. downward social comparison/upward social comparison
    D. upward social comparison/downward social comparison

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 403)The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of inner dispositions upon another’s behavior is called _____.
    A. the self-serving bias
    B. the fundamental attribution error
    C. the false consensus bias
    D. cognitive dissonance

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 403)When many people first learn of the classic conformity and obedience studies, they often believe that the participants in these studies are weak-minded people and they tend to underestimate the power of the social situation. This is an example of _____.
    A. self-perception theory
    B. the fundamental attribution error
    C. the false-consensus effect
    D. a positive illusion

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 403)You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error if you assumed that _____.
    A. he has an angry and volatile personality
    B. he just missed a putt
    C. he was thrown off by the flash of a camera
    D. he was in a tough situation

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 403)You ignore the fact that she is currently taking finals and working 40 hours per week. You are demonstrating the _____.
    A. fundamental attribution error
    B. universality mistake
    C. self-serving bias
    D. availability heuristic

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 403)You watch as another student stumbles and drops her books in the hall. According to the fundamental attribution error, how would you explain the student’s behavior?
    A. She must have tripped over something.
    B. She is a clumsy person.
    C. She couldn’t help it; there were too many books to carry.
    D. She was trying to get out of someone else’s way.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 404)The _____ is the overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do.
    A. fundamental attribution error
    B. self-serving bias
    C. stereotype threat
    D. false consensus effect

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 404)Although Jeff frequently exceeds the speed limit by at least 10 mph, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other drivers do the same. This belief best illustrates _____.
    A. the false consensus effect
    B. the self-serving bias
    C. deindividuation
    D. social loafing

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 404)Lily does not approve of abortion. She is shocked when she finds out how many people in her state hold pro-choice attitudes. This is an example of _____.
    A. the self-fulfilling prophecy
    B. cognitive dissonance
    C. the false consensus effect
    D. groupthink

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 404)_____ are favorable views of the self that are not necessarily rooted in reality.
    A. Fundamental attribution errors
    B. Self-serving biases
    C. Self-deceptions
    D. Positive illusions

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 404)Despite evidence to the contrary, Denise thinks she is smarter than most of the people in her class. Denise’s unfounded attitude about herself is an example of a(n) _____.
    A. positive illusion
    B. hallucination
    C. reactive illusion
    D. an ideal self

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 405)Individuals who have positive illusions about the self _____.
    A. are judged less positively by others
    B. are psychologically less healthy
    C. tend to show high levels of psychological well-being
    D. display self views that are rooted in reality

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 405)_____ refers to the tendency to take credit for one’s own successes and to deny responsibility for one’s own failures.
    A. Positive illusion
    B. Learned helplessness
    C. Self-serving bias
    D. Stereotyping

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 405)Whenever Claudia gets an A on her psychology exam, she believes it was due to the fact that she is an intelligent, hard-working student. However, when she receives a C on an exam, she blames the instructor’s ineffective teaching style and poor choice of test questions. Claudia’s behavior is an example of _____.
    A. learned helplessness
    B. the self-serving bias
    C. the false uniqueness effect
    D. the false consensus effect

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 405)Cindy recently played in a softball game in which she misplayed a ground ball for an error. Later in the same game, she made a great catch on a very difficult play. According to the self-serving bias, she would attribute her error to _____ and her good catch to her _____.
    A. bad fielding skills/luck
    B. bad fielding skills/good fielding skills
    C. a bad bounce/luck
    D. a bad bounce/good fielding skills

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 405)_____ is an individual’s fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear of being judged based on a negative idea about his or her group.
    A. Stereotype threat
    B. The self-serving bias
    C. The false uniqueness effect
    D. Stereotype consensus effect

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 405)Based on Claude Steele and Eliot Aronson’s research on stereotype threat, we should be especially concerned about instructions for standardized tests if they _____.
    A. ask for race/ethnic information before the test starts
    B. ask for names before the test starts
    C. are administered by men and women from different racial/ethnic backgrounds
    D. are culturally/racially sensitive

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 405)The process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to others is known as _____.
    A. peer-review
    B. peripheral attribution
    C. social comparison
    D. peer recognition

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 405)“Am I as popular as Cathy?” This question is an example of gaining self-knowledge through the process of _____.
    A. peer-review
    B. peripheral evaluation
    C. peer recognition
    D. social comparison

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 405-506)Festinger’s social comparison theory _____.
    A. proposes that when individuals lack objective means to evaluate their opinions and abilities, they compare themselves with others
    B. identifies two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route
    C. examines potentially altruistic behavior
    D. suggests that aspects of the environment may prime us to behave aggressively

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 406-407)_____ is the tension that arises when people realize that their behavior is inconsistent with their attitudes.
    A. Consensual validation
    B. Cognitive dissonance
    C. Risky shift
    D. Deindividuation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 406-407)When people try to confront Alfred about drinking too much alcohol, he replies, “Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I’ll die having a good time.” This statement, which is an example of self-justification, illustrates Alan’s attempt to reduce _____.
    A. stereotype threat
    B. cognitive dissonance
    C. the self-serving bias
    D. the fundamental attribution error

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 407)Cognitive dissonance theory states that in order to reduce dissonance, individuals _____.
    A. change attitudes in order to be more popular
    B. change behavior in order to be more popular
    C. do not perceive a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior
    D. try to align their attitudes and behavior

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 407)Hugh bought a new calculator at Staples for $125. One week later, he saw an ad from Wal-Mart showing the same calculator on sale for $65. Hugh said to himself, “I’m glad I got my calculator at Staples; the ones at Wal-Mart are probably defective. I don’t mind having paid more for mine.” Hugh’s statement reflects _____.
    A. cognitive dissonance reduction
    B. self-perception bias
    C. informational influence
    D. peripheral-route processing

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 407)_____ theory is an explanation of how behaviors influence attitudes.
    A. Self-perception
    B. Social identity
    C. Self-serving
    D. Social comparison

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 407)According to self-perception theory, if you’re not sure how you feel about something, how can you find out?
    A. Compare yourself to others
    B. Look to your emotions
    C. Ask a friend
    D. Look at your behavior

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 407)Juanita returned home after being away for several years. When she saw her father, whom she thought she disliked, she hugged him and cried. Based on her crying when she saw him, she determined that she must like him more than she thought. This is most consistent with the _____ of attitudes.
    A. evolutionary theory
    B. social learning theory
    C. self-perception theory
    D. social identity theory

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 408)Which of the following statements about research on persuasion is true?
    A. Older people are more likely than younger people to change their attitude.
    B. Television is a more powerful medium for persuasion than a printed newspaper.
    C. People who have initially strong attitudes on an issue are more likely to be persuaded than those with initially weak attitudes.
    D. Emotional appeals are usually not very powerful means of persuasion.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 408)The elaboration likelihood model _____.
    A. views people as motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior
    B. explains the effects of deindividuation
    C. refers to the processes by which we use social stimuli to form impressions of others
    D. identifies two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 408)When people pay close attention to the facts, the _____ is (are) the most persuasive, but when subjects are not paying full attention, such as during a television commercial, the _____ may work better.
    A. peripheral route/attractiveness of the source
    B. emotional factors/attractiveness of the source
    C. source’s credibility/emotional appeals
    D. emotional factors/credibility of the source

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 408)Allison is at a workshop where a presenter is attempting to persuade people to make a rather risky but potentially profitable financial investment. The arguments for investing appeal to logic and rationality. After slowly and carefully considering the presenter’s arguments, Alison finds this person’s idea sounds compelling and decides to invest. This example best demonstrates the _____.
    A. peripheral route to persuasion
    B. norm of reciprocity
    C. central route to persuasion
    D. foot-in-the-door technique

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 408)Central route persuasion _____.
    A. involves the use of non-message factors, such as the source’s credibility and attractiveness
    B. involves engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound, logical argument
    C. involves emotional appeals
    D. involves altruism

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 409)According to _____, people who have first agreed to a small request tend to comply later with a larger request.
    A. the foot-in-the-door technique
    B. the door-in-the-face-technique
    C. the bystander effect
    D. the social facilitation effect

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 409)John is selling magazine subscriptions and chocolates. He asks you whether you are interested in buying some chocolates for $1 and you say yes. When you go to get the money to pay for the chocolates and return to the door, John asks you if you would also like to buy a $25 subscription to a variety of magazines. You feel obligated and agree to buy a magazine subscription. This is an example of _____.
    A. social loafing
    B. the door-in-the-face technique
    C. the foot-in-the-door technique
    D. the bystander effect

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 409)A person on campus walks up to you and asks if you would be willing to wear a ribbon to show support for her cause. Though the ribbon is a bit unattractive, it is small so you agree to wear it. After agreeing to this request, the solicitor then asks you if you would be willing to make a donation of $15. This example best demonstrates the persuasion technique called _____.
    A. the foot-in-the-door technique
    B. the door-in-the-face technique
    C. the norm of reciprocity
    D. central route persuasion

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 409)The advertising committee for a politician is going door to door and asking people to put a big ugly election sign on their lawn. If the people refuse, they ask them if they would consider putting a smaller sign on the lawn. The staff is using _____.
    A. the foot-in-the-door technique
    B. the door-in-the-face technique
    C. the elaboration likelihood model
    D. a negative appeal

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 410)Which of the following key aspects of altruism involves an expression of trust for another person, as well as feelings of obligation and guilt?
    A. Self-esteem
    B. Generosity
    C. Reciprocity
    D. Unity

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 410)Alex regularly gives donations of blood to the Red Cross because he received a life-saving transfusion when he was in a car accident two years ago. His helping behavior is best explained by _____.
    A. the concept of reciprocity
    B. reciprocal determinism
    C. social exchange theory
    D. self-perception theory

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

  1. (p. 411)What is the key social emotion involved with altruism?
    A. Sympathy
    B. Empathy
    C. Self-esteem
    D. Love

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

  1. (p. 412)The bystander effect is most likely to occur _____.
    A. when someone is witnessing an emergency and there are several other people present
    B. when someone is witnessing an emergency and no one else is present
    C. in emergencies involving racial minorities where there are a large number of bystanders present
    D. in memory studies in which bystanders did not remember as much about an emergency as the individual who was the victim

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

 

  1. (p. 412)Diffusion of responsibility is most likely to influence _____.
    A. the attributions we make about others
    B. cognitive dissonance
    C. helping behavior
    D. prejudice

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

  1. (p. 413)Deficits in the functioning of the _____ are associated with aggression.
    A. hippocampus
    B. hypothalamus
    C. parietal lobes
    D. frontal lobes

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

  1. (p. 413)Aggression is associated with low levels of which neurotransmitter?
    A. Dopamine
    B. Serotonin
    C. Norepinephrine
    D. GABA

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

  1. (p. 413)The hormone that is typically implicated in aggressive behavior is _____.
    A. estrogen
    B. testosterone
    C. epinephrine
    D. norepinephrine

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

 

  1. (p. 414-415)Robert, a 9-year-old boy, loves watching wrestling on TV. Last night he imitated several of the aggressive moves he saw on TV by acting them out with his little brother. Which of the following theories best explains William’s behavior?
    A. Observational learning
    B. Frustration aggression theory
    C. Identity crisis
    D. Cognitive dissonance

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

  1. (p. 417)Based on the information presented in your , what is the most likely outcome experienced by children who frequently play violent video games?
    A. They are more likely to engage in aggressive and delinquent behaviors.
    B. They are no different from children and adolescents who don’t play violent video games.
    C. They are less likely to engage in aggressive and delinquent behaviors.
    D. They are more likely to be empathetic to the feelings of others.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 416)Arthur was abusing his wife Amy while arguing with her. The argument led to a scuffle and Arthur slapped Amy and hit her with a stick. Which type of aggression is Arthur’s portraying?
    A. Relational aggression
    B. Subtle aggression
    C. Overt aggression
    D. Covert aggression

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

 

  1. (p. 416)Behavior that is meant to harm the social standing of another person through activities such as gossiping and spreading rumors is known as _____.
    A. relational aggression
    B. institutional aggression
    C. overt aggression
    D. physical aggression

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

  1. (p. 418-419)Approximately what percentage of participants in Solomon Asch’s study conformed to the group’s pressure to select the incorrect line?
    A. All of the participants
    B. None of the participants
    C. About 35 percent of the participants
    D. About 90 percent of the participants

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 419)_____ refers to the influence other people have on us because we want to be right.
    A. Groupthink
    B. Normative social influence
    C. Herd instinct
    D. Informational social influence

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

 

  1. (p. 419)Rosalie was invited to a black-tie dinner at the Ritz Carlton. She’s never been served a 10-course meal before so she’s unfamiliar with the social etiquette regarding silverware selection. Since Rosalie is in a foreign environment, she gets through the night by watching others who appear to know what they are doing. For each course, she follows their selection of silverware. Rosalie is displaying _____.
    A. normative social influence
    B. informational social influence
    C. group polarization
    D. the bystander effect

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 419)_____ is based on a person’s desire to be accepted by the group.
    A. Informational social influence
    B. Normative social influence
    C. Social loafing
    D. Social facilitation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 419)Joyce has the potential to be an honor student but frustrates her teachers because of her actions. Rather than work to succeed, she tends to “dummy down” to act more like the students that she hangs out with. She has at times answered questions incorrectly in class on purpose to be more like her friends. Joyce’s behavior is an example of _____.
    A. informational social influence
    B. ethnocentrism
    C. groupthink
    D. normative social influence

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

 

  1. (p. 422)Approximately _____ of the participants in Milgram’s obedience experiment administered the maximum 450-volt shock to the victim.
    A. one-fourth
    B. one-third
    C. two-thirds
    D. three-fourths

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 423)Results of Milgram’s experiment showed that participants were more likely to fail to comply with the authority figure’s requests when _____.
    A. participants could see everyone else being obedient to authority
    B. the authority figure was perceived to be legitimate
    C. the authority figure was far away as opposed to nearby
    D. the victim was made to seem more human

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 425)The reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group is known as _____.
    A. social contagion
    B. the self-serving bias
    C. the false consensus effect
    D. deindividuation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

 

  1. (p. 425)The Stanford prison experiment provides a dramatic example of how social situations and the roles we take on in life can influence _____.
    A. deindividuation
    B. the self-serving bias
    C. the false consensus effect
    D. social loafing

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 425)The effects of others on our behavior can take the form of _____, imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas.
    A. egoism
    B. altruism
    C. social contagion
    D. social loafing

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 425)You are studying in a quiet but crowded library when you suddenly start coughing. You soon notice others doing the same thing. This is an example of _____.
    A. social loafing
    B. group polarization
    C. social facilitation
    D. social contagion

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

 

  1. (p. 426)According to the social facilitation effect, the presence of others _____.
    A. enhances performance on all types of tasks
    B. diminishes performance on easy or well-learned tasks
    C. diminishes performance on difficult or new tasks
    D. has little to no effect on performance

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 426)Psychologists believe that the social facilitation effect occurs because _____.
    A. the presence of other individual arouses us
    B. we are more relaxed in group situations than when we are alone
    C. we feel more deindividuated when we are alone than when we are in a group
    D. of a genetic predisposition toward heightened performance in group settings

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 426)Ralph just started taking guitar lessons last week. Jimmie has been playing guitar for almost 20 years. According to the concept of social facilitation, performing in front of an audience of strangers and friends tonight is likely to _____ Ralph’s performance and _____ Jimmie’s performance.
    A. decrease/decrease
    B. increase/enhance
    C. decrease/enhance
    D. increase/decrease

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

 

  1. (p. 426)Social loafing refers to the _____.
    A. tendency for people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone
    B. tendency for people to exert more effort when working in groups than when working alone
    C. tendency to spend more time being productive when in the company of one’s peers
    D. social norm that obligates the general public to help those who may not be completely able to help themselves (e.g., children and the elderly)

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 424)Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of _____.
    A. cognitive dissonance
    B. social loafing
    C. the sleeper effect
    D. polarization

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 426)The tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members is known as _____.
    A. risk hedging
    B. social loafing
    C. risky shift
    D. group polarization

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

 

  1. (p. 426)Katie, who is moderately liberal, attends a very liberal college. After four years at this college, Katie is likely to become _____ as a result of _____.
    A. more politically conservative/the fundamental attribution error
    B. more politically conservative/self-perception theory
    C. more liberal/group polarization
    D. more liberal/social loafing

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 427)_____ refers to the impaired decision making that occurs in a team when making the right decision is less important than maintaining harmony in a team.
    A. Group polarization
    B. Minority influence
    C. Risky Shift
    D. Groupthink

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

  1. (p. 427)Which of the following is most likely to reduce the kinds of group biases that exist in face-to-face groups?
    A. Crowd psychology
    B. Herd mentality
    C. Crowdsourcing
    D. Groupthink

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

 

  1. (p. 428)_____ refers to the way individuals define themselves in terms of their group membership.
    A. Social identity
    B. Ethnocentrism
    C. Crowdsourcing
    D. Groupthink

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intergroup Relations

  1. (p. 429)The tendency to favor one’s own cultural group over other groups is called _____.
    A. social identity
    B. ethnocentrism
    C. deindividuation
    D. groupthink

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intergroup Relations

  1. (p. 429)_____ is an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual’s membership in a group while _____ is an unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group.
    A. Ethnocentrism/stereotype threat
    B. Prejudice/discrimination
    C. Discrimination/ethnocentrism
    D. Stereotype threat/prejudice

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intergroup Relations

 

  1. (p. 431)Andrew openly criticizes the Asian Americans in his neighborhood. He says that the presence of these “outsiders” has led to an increase in the crime rate in the U.S. Others in his neighborhood do not agree with him. His openly shared racist attitude is an example of _____.
    A. institutional racism
    B. covert racism
    C. implicit racism
    D. explicit racism

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intergroup Relations

  1. (p. 431)_____ is reflected in a person’s conscious and openly shared attitude, which might be measured using a questionnaire whereas _____ refers to attitudes that exist on a deeper, hidden level, thus they must be measured with a method that does not require awareness.
    A. Implicit racism/explicit racism
    B. Explicit racism/implicit racism
    C. Sexual harassment/ethnocentrism
    D. Ethnocentrism/sexual harassment

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intergroup Relations

  1. (p. 433)Sherif’s Robbers Cave study showed that perceptions of the out-group are affected by _____.
    A. a person’s level of intelligence
    B. observational learning
    C. competitive and cooperative activities
    D. cognitive dissonance

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intergroup Relations

 

  1. (p. 434)Tom has left home and is attending college in a city far away from home where he doesn’t know anybody. According to the principle of proximity, Tom will be most likely to make friends with _____.
    A. Bill, his roommate
    B. John, who lives across campus
    C. Michael, who lives in the same dorm but two floors below Tom
    D. Stuart, who lives in the adjacent room

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 434)The mere exposure effect provides one possible explanation for why _____ increases attraction.
    A. proximity
    B. similarity
    C. physical attractiveness
    D. reciprocity

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 434)The concept of consensual validation _____.
    A. explains why there is no proximity among two individuals
    B. explains why familiarity breeds contempt
    C. explains why people are attracted to others who are similar to them
    D. explains the importance of reciprocity

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

 

  1. (p. 435)Joshua is very emotional about his partner Cindy. He is also possessive and gets jealous when she talks to other men in the neighborhood. He demands closeness from her but does not trust her. Which of the following attachment style is evident from Joshua’s behavior?
    A. Secure
    B. Avoidant
    C. Anxious
    D. Affectionate

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 436)_____ involves strong components of sexuality and infatuation, and is often predominant in the early part of a love relationship.
    A. Romantic love
    B. Affectionate love
    C. The mere exposure effect
    D. Companionate love

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 436)According to Ellen Berscheid’s research, _____ is the most important ingredient of romantic love.
    A. caring
    B. affection
    C. sexual attraction
    D. companionship

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

 

  1. (p. 436)When individuals desire to have another person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person, they are displaying _____.
    A. romantic love
    B. affectionate love
    C. the mere exposure effect
    D. passionate love

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 436)Social psychologists believe that _____ is particularly strong during the early stages of a relationship, and that _____ increases as the relationship grows and matures.
    A. affectionate love/romantic love
    B. romantic love/affectionate love
    C. consensual validation/romantic love
    D. consensual validation/affectionate love

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 436)Research on gender and love shows that men _____.
    A. conceptualize love in terms of friendship, whereas women conceptualize love in terms of passion
    B. fall in love more quickly and easily than women
    C. are less likely than women to break up premarital relationships
    D. believe more in romantic love than affectionate love

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

 

  1. (p. 436)According to _____Remember,cial relationships involve an exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits.
    A. psychological exchange theory
    B. social exchange theory
    C. the concept of social contagion
    D. the elaboration likelihood model

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 437)According to _____, your feelings about a relationship are a function of how fair you feel the relationship is or how much you feel you get out as much as you put in.
    A. social identity theory
    B. social exchange theory
    C. the investment model
    D. the evolutionary approach

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 437)According to social exchange theory, the most important predictor of relationship success is _____.
    A. equity
    B. physical attractiveness
    C. the availability of attractive alternative partners
    D. passionate love

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

 

  1. (p. 437)Equity is a strong predictor of relationship satisfaction _____.
    A. among men, but not among women
    B. among women, but not among men
    C. during both the early and later stages of a relationship
    D. during the early but not later stages of a relationship

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 437)Which theory of attraction suggests that long-term relationships are likely to continue when both partners are committed and invested in the relationship and when there are few attractive tempting alternatives around?
    A. The investment model
    B. Evolutionary theory
    C. The mere exposure effect
    D. Social exchange theory

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

  1. (p. 437)Dave is a handsome and famous celebrity. He has been in a dating relationship with Gabriela, a beautiful and popular actress, for the past two months but he doesn’t feel that strongly committed to their relationship. Recently, Dave has been working on a new movie and several women have expressed their interest in getting to know him better. Dave is now contemplating whether he should stay with Gabriela or explore other tempting alternative relationships. According to the investment model, what will Dave probably do next?
    A. He will probably ask Gabriela to marry him.
    B. He will probably ask Gabriela to move in with him.
    C. He will probably stay with Gabriela for at least another year so that he can give their relationship a second chance.
    D. He will probably break up with Gabriela and give in to the temptation of dating other women.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. (p. 403)According to attribution theory, what three dimensions do individuals evaluate when they are trying to explain the underlying causes of behavior?

Attributions vary along three dimensions. The first dimensions assesses whether the cause is internal or external. Internal attributions include all causes internal to the person, such as his or her traits or abilities. External attributions include all causes external to the person, such as social pressure, aspects of the social situation, money, the weather, or luck. For example, did Beth get an A on the test because she is smart or because the test was easy? The second dimension assesses the stability of the cause. Is the cause relatively enduring and permanent, or is it temporary? Did Aaron blow up at his girlfriend because he is a hostile guy or because he was in a bad mood that day? The third dimension involves assessing whether the cause is controllable or uncontrollable. We perceive that we can control some causes (for instance, by preparing delicious food for a picnic) but not others (if it rains that day).

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

  1. (p. 406-407)Define Festinger’s concept of cognitive dissonance. How can dissonance be reduced?

Cognitive dissonance refers to the psychological discomfort (or dissonance) that is caused by two inconsistent thoughts or a belief that is inconsistent with behavior. According to the theory, we feel uneasy when we cannot justify the difference between what we believe and what we do. In order to resolve the dissonance, the inconsistency has to be resolved. We can reduce cognitive dissonance in one of two ways: change our behavior to fit our attitudes or change our attitudes to fit our behavior. In the classic study above, participants changed their attitudes about the task to match their behavior. Thus, when our attitudes and behavior are at odds, our behavior can influence our attitudes. Effort justification, one type of dissonance reduction, means rationalizing the amount of effort we put into something. Effort justification explains strong feelings of loyalty toward a group based on the effort it takes to gain admission into that group.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Cognition

 

  1. (p. 410)Discuss the distinction between altruism and egoism.

Both egoism and altruism can involve acts of prosocial behavior. The distinction between these two concepts lies in the individual’s motivation for helping. Egoism involves giving to another person to ensure reciprocity; to gain self-esteem; to present oneself as powerful, competent, or caring; or to avoid social and self-censure for failing to live up to society’s expectations. In contrast, true altruism means giving to another person with the ultimate goal of benefiting that person. Thus, altruism is motivated by an unselfish interest in helping another person.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

  1. (p. 412)A politician claims that media violence the sole cause of aggressive behavior among children and teens. He builds his campaign around setting more stringent media regulations and censorship guidelines. Is there substantial evidence for a causal link between violent media exposure and aggression? Is there evidence of a correlation between violent media exposure and aggression? What other factors are involved in the origin of aggressive behavior?

Although some critics have argued against the conclusion that TV violence causes aggression, many scholars insist that TV violence can prompt aggressive or antisocial behavior in children. Of course, television violence is not the only cause of aggression in children or adults. There is no one cause of any social behavior. Aggression, like all other social behaviors, has multiple determinants. The link between TV violence and aggression in children is influenced by children’s aggressive tendencies, by their attitudes toward violence, and by the monitoring of children’s exposure to it. Perhaps the strongest predictor of aggression is witnessing aggression in one’s own family.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

 

 

  1. (p. 419)Discuss the distinction between normative social influence and informational social influence. Under what conditions are we most susceptible to normative social influence? Under what conditions are we most susceptible to informational social influence?

Informational social influence refers to the influence other people have on us because we want to be right. The social group can provide us with information that we did not know, or may help us see things in ways that had not occurred to us. As a result, we may conform because we have come to agree with the group. The tendency to conform based on informational social influence depends especially on two factors: how confident we are in our own independent judgment and how well informed we perceive the group to be. For example, if you know little about computers and three of your acquaintances who are IT geeks tell you not to buy a particular brand of computer, you are likely to conform to their recommendation.
In contrast, normative social influence is the influence others have on us because we want them to like us. Whether the group is an inner-city gang or members of a profession such as medicine or law, if a particular group is important to us, we might adopt a clothing style that people in the group wear or use the same slang words, and we might assume a certain set of attitudes that characterizes the group’s members.

 

Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Behavior

  1. (p. 425)Define the concept of deindividuation. What effects can deindividuation have on our behavior? How do psychologists explain the effects of deindividuation?

Deindividuation occurs when being part of a group reduces personal identity and erodes the sense of personal responsibility. An example of the effects of deindividuation is the wild street celebrations that erupt after a team’s victory in the World Series or Super Bowl.
Deindividuation is apparent not just in the behavior of mobs. The Stanford prison experiment provides a dramatic example of how social situations and the roles we take on in life can influence deindividuation. One explanation for the effects of deindividuation is that groups give us anonymity. When we are part of a group, we may act in an uninhibited way because we believe that no one will be able to identify us.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Social Influence

 

  1. (p. 431)Discuss the distinction between explicit racism and implicit racism. How would a psychologist measure implicit racism?

Explicit racism is a person’s conscious and openly shared attitude, which might be measured using a questionnaire. Implicit racism refers to attitudes that exist on a deeper, hidden level. Implicit attitudes must be measured with a method that does not require awareness. For example, implicit racism is sometimes measured using the Implicit Associations Test, a computerized survey that assesses the ease with which a person can associate a black or white person with good things (for example, flowers) or bad things (for example, misery).

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intergroup Relations

  1. (p. 432)According to social psychology, why do people develop stereotypes and prejudice?

Social psychologists have explored a number of possible reasons. Competition between groups, especially when resources are scarce, can contribute to prejudice. For example, immigrants often compete with established low-income members of a society for jobs—a situation that can lead to persistent conflict between the two groups. Cultural learning is also clearly involved. Children can adopt the prejudicial attitudes of their families and friends before they even meet a person from an out-group. In addition, when people feel bad about themselves, they might bolster their self-esteem by demeaning out-group members. A final factor that might underlie prejudice comes from the limits on our information-processing abilities. As already noted, human beings are limited in their capacity for effortful thought, but they face a complex social environment. To simplify the challenge of understanding others’ behavior, people use categories or stereotypes. Stereotypes can be a powerful force in developing and maintaining prejudicial attitudes.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intergroup Relations

 

  1. (p. 434)Pretend that you just landed a new job as a psychological consultant for an internet dating service. Your new boss has asked you to give a presentation on the social psychological principles of attraction. Discuss the factors that influence interpersonal attraction.

Proximity, or physical closeness, is a strong predictor of attraction. You are more likely to become attracted to an individual you pass in the hall every day than someone you rarely see. One potential mechanism for the role of proximity in attraction is the mere exposure effect. Rather surprisingly, we are not only more likely to be attracted to people whom we have seen before, but also more likely to like someone if we are led to believe we will be meeting that person again. In addition, if we find out that someone whom we do not know yet already likes us, that is a sure sign that we will find ourselves attracted to that person—in other words, we like those who like us. We like to associate with people who are similar to us. Our friends and lovers are much more like us than unlike us. We have similar attitudes, behavior patterns, taste in clothes, intelligence, personality, other friends, values, lifestyle, physical attractiveness, and so on. The concept of consensual validation explains why people are attracted to others who are similar to them. Our own attitudes and behavior are supported when someone else’s attitudes and behavior are similar to ours—their attitudes and behavior validate ours. Another reason that similarity matters is that we tend to shy away from the unknown. Similarity implies that we will enjoy doing things with another person who has similar tastes and attitudes.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

 

  1. (p. 436)Discuss the concepts of romantic love and affectionate love. How do these types of love vary over the course of a relationship?

Romantic love, also called passionate love, is love with strong components of sexuality and infatuation, and it often predominates in the early part of a love relationship. Ellen Berscheid says that it is romantic love we mean when we say that we are “in love” with someone. It is romantic love that she believes we need to understand if we are to learn what love is all about. Berscheid judges sexual desire to be the most important ingredient of romantic love. Love is more than just passion, however. Affectionate love, also called companionate love, is the type of love that occurs when individuals desire to have the other person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person. There is a growing belief that the early stages of love have more romantic ingredients and that as love matures, passion tends to give way to affection.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Close Relationships

 

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