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The Science of Psychology 3rd Edition King Test Bank

 

ISBN-13: 978-0078035401

ISBN-10: 0078035406

 

Description

The Science of Psychology 3rd Edition King Test Bank

 

ISBN-13: 978-0078035401

ISBN-10: 0078035406

 

 

 

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Chapter 11

Gender, Sex, and Sexuality

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. _____ refers to the properties of a person that determine his or her classification as male or female.
    A.Sex
    B. Gender
    C. Sexual orientation
    D. Identity

Sex and Its Biological Components

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Biology of Sex

  1. In the context of sex and its biological components, which of the following statements is true of chromosomes?
    A.Human beings have 26 pairs of chromosomes, with one of each pair being provided by each parent.
    B. All the pairs of human chromosomes differ across the sexes, except for the 23rd pair.
    C. The 23rd pair of the sex chromosomes is responsible for determining a human’s genetic sex.
    D. The sex chromosomes are similar in males but are different in females.

Sex and Its Biological Components

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Biology of Sex

 

  1. _____ are glands that produce sex hormones and generate ova in females and sperm in males.
    A.Gametes
    B. Adrenal glands
    C. Gonads
    D. Thyroid glands

Sex and Its Biological Components

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Biology of Sex

  1. Gina is a thirty-year-old woman. Her gonads were damaged during the course of a serious infection. As a result, Gina’s gonads may no longer produce _____.
    A.androgens
    B. ova
    C. sperm
    D. melatonin

Sex and Its Biological Components

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Biology of Sex

  1. In the context of sex and its biological components, which of the following statements is true of hormones in the human organism?
    A.In menRemember,me of the androgens produced by the testes are converted into estrogens.
    B. In men, androgens are solely produced by the adrenal glands.
    C. The hormones estrogen and progesterone are higher in men than in women.
    D. Hormones are unique to one sex.

Sex and Its Biological Components

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Biology of Sex

 

  1. In the external genitalia of females, the small sensory organ at the top where the labia meet is called the _____.
    A.cervix
    B. mons pubis
    C. vaginal wall
    D. clitoris

Sex and Its Biological Components

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Biology of Sex

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a secondary sex characteristic?
    A.Development of gonads
    B. Growth of facial hair
    C. Development of breasts
    D. Growth of chest hair

Sex and Its Biological Components

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Biology of Sex

  1. _____ refers to the social and psychological aspects of being male or female.
    A.Sexual orientation
    B. Gender
    C. Gender bias
    D. Secondary sex characteristic

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of gender?
    A.Gender refers to the physical properties of a person that determine his or her classification as male or female.
    B. Gender refers to the social and psychological aspects of being female or male.
    C. Biological factors are solely responsible for influencing a person’s gender.
    D. People do not vary in their experience of gender identity.

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender

  1. _____ is an individual’s sense of belonging to the male or female sex.
    A.Gender identity
    B. Gender bias
    C. Sexuality
    D. Sexual orientation

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender

 

  1. Eduardo is a thirty-year-old man of Latin American descent. He likes to take control of situations and is dominant by nature. Eduardo’s friends and family believe that he is very brave and is never one to back down from a challenge. In the context of gender identity, Eduardo’s personality is most likely high on _____.
    A.expressiveness
    B. instrumentality
    C. homosexuality
    D. asexuality

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender

  1. Debbie, a twenty-two-year-old kindergarten teacher, has a gentle and caring disposition. She is sensitive to the needs of her students and patiently nurtures their learning abilities. In the context of gender identity, Debbie is best described as being high on _____ attributes.
    A.instrumental
    B. expressive
    C. androgynous
    D. undifferentiated

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender

 

  1. Ariel is a mild-mannered and sensitive teenager. She is warm and caring and often volunteers at old age homes. Which of the following best describes Ariel’s gender-related attributes?
    A.Ariel is high on instrumentality.
    B. Ariel is high on expressiveness.
    C. Ariel is highly androgynous.
    D. Ariel is highly undifferentiated.

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender

  1. Erica is seen as a strong and assertive woman by all those who know her. Her friends believe that she will never get married, because she lives by herself and has a strong desire for independence. However, her friends do not know that Erica loves children and has a very nurturing attitude toward her nieces and nephews. Which of the following terms best describes Erica’s gender-related attributes?
    A.Instrumental
    B. Expressive
    C. Androgynous
    D. Undifferentiated

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Gender

 

  1. Gerald is neither dominating nor caring. He is not very sensitive and hesitates to assert himself in public. Since Gerald is low on both masculinity and femininity, he is best described as being _____ in the context of gender attributes.
    A.transgendered
    B. instrumental
    C. androgynous
    D. undifferentiated

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender

  1. In the context of gender-related attributes, individuals who are low on both instrumental and expressive qualities are referred to as _____.
    A.undifferentiated
    B. androgynous
    C. instrumental
    D. expressive

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the attributes used to describe a person’s gender identity?
    A.Instrumentality and expressiveness are not systematically related to each otherRemember, every combination of these characteristics is possible.
    B. Individuals who are low on both instrumental and expressive qualities are referred to as androgynous individuals.
    C. Individuals who are not strongly gender-typed tend to have worse psychological adjustment and resilience than those rated as extremely masculine or feminine.
    D. Instrumentality is used to describe attributes that are more feminine, such as being caring and sensitive.

Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender

  1. In the context of sexual development of a fetus, the SRY gene is responsible for the development of _____.
    A.male sexual features
    B. female sexual features
    C. undifferentiated characteristics
    D. confused sexuality

Genes, Sex, and Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the development of sexual characteristics in fetuses?
    A.With regard to sex organs, male fetuses essentially stay the same, whereas female fetuses change from their default status.
    B. Only female fetuses are exposed to the effects of the SRY gene, which causes the development of the female gonads.
    C. The raw materials of the male and female genitals and gonads are fundamentally the same.
    D. High levels of androgen in a female embryo allow for the development of the female body and brain.

Genes, Sex, and Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: High
Topic: Sex Characteristics

  1. A congenital condition in which an individual has genitals that are not clearly male or female is called _____.
    A.hermaphroditism
    B. androgyny
    C. transvestitism
    D. gender dysphoria

Disorders of Sexual Development

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Disorders of Sexual Development

 

  1. When Eric was born, he had atypical genitals that were not exclusively male or female. The doctors spoke to Eric’s parents and advised them to schedule Eric for sex assignment surgery as early as possible. The condition that Eric was born with can be referred to as _____.
    A.transvestitism
    B. gender dysphoria
    C. hermaphroditism
    D. a paraphilic disorder

Disorders of Sexual Development

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Disorders of Sexual Development

  1. Adrian, an infant, was born with ambiguous genitals. After consulting a few doctors, his parents decided to schedule Adrian for sex assignment surgery. They decided to raise Adrian as a girl once his genitals were reconstructed. In the context of sex and gender, which of the following is most likely to be true in this scenario?
    A.Adrian suffers from a condition called gender dysphoria.
    B. Adrian’s parents have also undergone sex assignment surgery.
    C. Adrian’s parents believe that gender identity is entirely determined by biological factors.
    D. Adrian was born with a congenital condition known as disorders of sexual development (DSD).

Disorders of Sexual Development

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Disorders of Sexual Development

 

  1. The term _____ refers to experiencing one’s psychological gender as being different from one’s biological sex.
    A.gender bias
    B. heterosexuality
    C. hermaphroditism
    D. transgender

When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Transgender

  1. Although Dave was born with unambiguously male genitalia, he has always “felt” like a female. Dave is most likely a(n) _____.
    A.female
    B. transgender individual
    C. androgynous individual
    D. hermaphrodite

When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Transgender

 

  1. Joanna was born a girl. However, she never identifies herself as female. She refers to herself as Joe and dresses like a boy. Joanna is angry or irritable if anyone treats her like a girl. She is unable to accept the fact that she is biologically a female. In the context of sex and gender, Joanna is most likely a(n) _____.
    A.hermaphrodite
    B. androgynous individual
    C. male
    D. transgender individual

When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Transgender

  1. Although born with complete female genitalia and characteristics, Kristie always feels uncomfortable as a girl. She does not understand why she has the biological characteristics of a female, when she feels completely like a male. She is conflicted and distressed. In the context of sex and gender, Kristie will most likely be diagnosed with _____.
    A.disorders of sexual desire
    B. disorders of sexual development (DSD)
    C. gender dysphoria
    D. sadomasochism

When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Transgender

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of transgender individuals?
    A.Transgender individuals can only be those who are biologically male but identify themselves as female.
    B. The treatment for transgender individuals involves gradual stages that move from reversible treatments to permanent ones.
    C. The surgical challenges that male-to-female transgender individuals face are more complicated than those for female-to-male transgender individuals.
    D. Among youth who identify as the opposite of their biological sex, the majority will ultimately adopt the gender identity of the opposite sex.

When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Transgender

  1. According to the biological approach, which of the following factors identifies a person as male or female?
    A.Societal expectations
    B. Parenting style
    C. Nurture
    D. Prenatal hormones

Biological Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Biological Approach

 

  1. Dr. Ruth believes that females and males differ from each other because of the differences in their brain structures and functioning. Dr. Ruth is most likely a proponent of the _____.
    A.social role theory of gender development
    B. biological approach to gender development
    C. evolutionary psychology theory of gender development
    D. social cognitive approach to gender development

Biological Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Biological Approach

  1. Dr. Watson is interested in the effects of higher than normal amounts of testosterone on the gender of embryos. Dr. Watson’s interest fits best into the area of the _____.
    A.biological approach to gender development
    B. social role theory of gender development
    C. evolutionary psychology theory of gender development
    D. social cognitive approach to gender development

Biological Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Biological Approach

 

  1. Dr. Hendricks, a psychologist, believes that the differences between the genders can be attributed to the varying levels of estrogen and testosterone in males and females. In the context of the theoretical approaches to gender development, Dr. Hendricks is most likely a proponent of the _____ approach.
    A.biological
    B. evolutionary psychology
    C. social cognitive
    D. psychodynamic

Biological Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Biological Approach

  1. Harry, a four-month-old male infant, tends to show more interest in toy cars than in dolls. Since Harry has not yet had social experiences that might influence gender development, Harry’s behavior conforms best to the:
    A.biological approach to gender development.
    B. psychodynamic approach to gender development.
    C. cognitive approach to gender development.
    D. social role theory of gender development.

Biological Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Biological Approach

 

  1. According to the evolutionary psychology approach to gender development:
    A.organisms with the fittest genes are most likely to survive and reproduce.
    B. the differences between contemporary men and women can be explained by the environmental challenges they face.
    C. competition ruins the chance for species to evolve naturally.
    D. choice has no role to play in the evolution of the human species.

Evolutionary Psychology

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Evolutionary Approach

  1. Male zebra finches have brightly colored feathers and begin to sing at puberty. The females are duller in appearance and lack singing ability. The males use musical mating calls to compete with each other for female attention. Since the females are primarily responsible for reproduction, they have to choose the most suitable males to mate with. This type of selection best illustrates the _____.
    A.biological approach to gender development
    B. social cognitive approach to gender development
    C. social role theory of gender development
    D. evolutionary psychology approach to gender development

Evolutionary Psychology

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Evolutionary Approach

 

  1. In the context of the evolutionary psychology approach to gender development, which of the following statements is true of sexual selection?
    A.Members of the opposite sex compete with each other and members of the same sex exercise choice between themselves.
    B. The sex that invests the most in producing off spring is the one that generally chooses.
    C. Female members of all species have no choice in the selection of whom they will mate with.
    D. The sex that invests the most in producing offspring is the one that generally competes.

Evolutionary Psychology

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Evolutionary Approach

  1. _____ means that the male and female members of a species differ from each other because of differences in competition and choice.
    A.Sexual selection
    B. Sexual stratification
    C. Sexual orientation
    D. Sexual differentiation

Evolutionary Psychology

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Evolutionary Approach

 

  1. In the context of evolutionary psychology, _____ occurs among members of the same sex as they vie for the opportunity to mate with members of the opposite sex.
    A.competition
    B. bonding
    C. compromise
    D. cohesiveness

Evolutionary Psychology

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Evolutionary Approach

  1. In the context of the theoretical approaches to gender development, which of the following is an evolutionary psychologist most likely to agree with?
    A.Men tend to be more selective in choosing sexual partners than women, putting a premium on high quality.
    B. Women are generally fertile from puberty onward and focus on quantity, reproducing as often as possible.
    C. Women have the universal right to choose whom they mate with, in all species.
    D. Men, across cultures, are likely to prefer women who are younger than they are.

Evolutionary Psychology

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Evolutionary Approach

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the reproductive challenges for men and women in the context of the evolutionary psychology approach to gender development?
    A.Women can reproduce only about once per year and have a limited time of fertility.
    B. Women are generally fertile from puberty onward and can reproduce as often as possible.
    C. A preference for older women may be a way for a man to minimize the chances that his betrothed is already pregnant with someone else’s off spring.
    D. Men and women have very distinct evolutionary goals and experience similar challenges in accomplishing those goals.

Evolutionary Psychology

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Evolutionary Approach

  1. The _____ approach to gender development suggests that gender behavior is learned through reward and punishment, observational learning, and modeling.
    A.biological
    B. social cognitive
    C. psychodynamic
    D. evolutionary psychology

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the social cognitive approach to gender development?
    A.According to this approach, gender behavior is learned through reward and punishment, observational learning, and modeling.
    B. According to this approach, biological factors have a much stronger influence on eventual gender identity than social and cultural factors.
    C. According to this approach, the male and female members of a species differ because of differences in competition and choice.
    D. According to this approach, gender development is primarily facilitated by individuals’ repressed feelings.

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

  1. Sally, a three-year-old girl, watches her mother changing her baby brother’s diaper many times a day. One day, while playing with her toys, Sally imitates her mother by attempting to change her doll’s diaper. In this scenario, Sally’s gender-conforming behavior can best be explained through the _____.
    A.psychodynamic approach
    B. evolutionary psychology approach
    C. social cognitive approach
    D. biological approach

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

 

  1. Which of the following scenarios exemplifies gender-nonconforming behavior?
    A.Harry, a three-year-old boy, plays with a set of building blocks.
    B. John, a six-year-old boy, braids the hair on his sister’s doll.
    C. Ashley pretends to bake a cake made of play-dough for her little brother.
    D. Ava pretends to sew dresses for all of her dolls.

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

  1. Jack is a four-year-old boy. In which of the following scenarios is Jack demonstrating gender-conforming behavior?
    A.Jack wears his sister’s frock and hat.
    B. Jack brushes a doll’s hair.
    C. Jack plays with a new train set.
    D. Jack plays with a plastic cooking set.

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

  1. Jimmy, a six-year-old, is watching his parents fight. He observes his father shouting while his mother sits quietly, crying. Which theory of gender development is most likely to predict that Jimmy will imitate his father in his interactions with women?
    A.The psychodynamic approach
    B. The evolutionary psychology approach
    C. The social cognitive approach
    D. The biological approach

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

 

  1. Aaron, a five-year-old, watches his father shave in the mornings. He realizes that only men grow beards and have to shave. Aaron sometimes examines his own face in the mirror and pretends to shave. Aaron’s learning of this gender-related behavior can best be explained by the _____ approach to gender development.
    A.evolutionary psychology
    B. social cognitive
    C. psychodynamic
    D. biological

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

  1. Curt, a five-year-old boy, is intrigued by his mother’s cosmetic collection. One day, he tries on his mother’s lipstick. When Curt’s parents find him with the make-up box, they scold him for behaving like a girl. Curt realizes that it’s shameful to play with make-up. Curt’s understanding of how children of his gender are supposed to behave can be best explained by the _____ approach.
    A.evolutionary psychology
    B. social cognitive
    C. psychodynamic
    D. biological

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

 

  1. Hubert likes to watch his mother paint her toenails. One day, Hubert paints his own toenails and goes to school. His friends, however, make fun of him. Humiliated, Hubert realizes that he must not adopt behaviors related to the opposite sex. As he grows older, he starts to scoff at other males who demonstrate any kind of feminine behavior. In this scenario, Hubert’s development of gender-related attitudes can best be explained by the _____ approach.
    A.biological
    B. psychodynamic
    C. social cognitive
    D. evolutionary psychology

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

  1. Seven-year-old John likes to wear his mother’s apron and pretend to cook. According to the social cognitive approach to gender development, who is likely to be the strictest in rebuking John’s gender-nonconforming behavior?
    A.His parents
    B. His teachers
    C. His grandparents
    D. His peers

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

 

  1. A mental framework for understanding what is considered appropriate behavior for males and females in their culture is called a _____.
    A.gender stereotype
    B. motif
    C. gender schema
    D. theme

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

  1. Karen decides to become a teacher, because she believes that teaching is the perfect career for a woman. The job requires no strenuous physical activity and requires a great deal of patience and understanding; attributes that are typically feminine according to Karen. The views that Karen has about the jobs that are suited to women can best be explained by the _____.
    A.evolutionary psychology approach
    B. biological approach
    C. social role theory
    D. attribution theory

Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Role Theory

 

  1. Harry, a fourteen-year-old, wants to join the army when he is eighteen. He believes that defending the country is a man’s job, because men are brave and physically stronger than women. Harry’s beliefs and expectations about the responsibilities of men can best be explained by the _____.
    A.biological approach
    B. evolutionary psychology approach
    C. social role theory
    D. attribution theory

Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Role Theory

  1. Abigail, a psychologist, is a proponent of the social role theory. Which of the following is she most likely to disagree with?
    A.The activities and occupations that men and women perform give rise to expectations and beliefs about what it means to be male or female.
    B. The physical differences between men and women create and support social structures that produce limitless opportunities for both sexes.
    C. As social structures change, the differences in gender will decrease.
    D. Women are more innately and directly involved in reproduction than men.

Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Role Theory

 

  1. Professor McArthur is conducting a lecture on how gender stereotypes and culture affect differences in gender behavior among men and women. In the context of the theoretical approaches to gender development, Professor McArthur’s lecture fits best into the area of the _____.
    A.biological approach
    B. evolutionary psychology approach
    C. psychodynamic theory
    D. social role theory

Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Role Theory

  1. _____ reflect expectations for how males and females should think, act, and feel.
    A.Gender roles
    B. Sexual predispositions
    C. Gender identities
    D. Sexual scripts

Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Social Role Theory

 

  1. Caroline tells her friends that she helps to take care of her little brother because that is what girls are supposed to do. Caroline’s statement best describes her understanding of her _____.
    A.sexual script
    B. gender role
    C. gender identity
    D. sexual orientation

Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Role Theory

  1. Jeremy claims that any man can become a great leader, because all men are strong, dominant, and rational. Jeremy’s statement is most representative of _____.
    A.his sexual orientation
    B. a gender stereotype
    C. his sexuality
    D. a paraphilia

Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Role Theory

  1. An overly general belief about what women and men are like is known as a _____.
    A.sexual script
    B. sexual orientation
    C. gender schema
    D. gender stereotype

Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Social Role Theory

 

  1. Which of the following questions best reflects the social cognitive approach to gender related behavior?
    A.How do genetic factors influence the development of gender identity?
    B. How do peer groups react to children who behave in gender-atypical ways?
    C. Do sex differences in nonhuman primates show the same patterns as those found in humans?
    D. Do gender differences people see in one culture translate to another?

Evaluating the Theoretical Approaches to Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

  1. Chantel, a research psychologist, bases her research on the question, “Do women have different career ambitions in cultures that have less stereotypical notions about the sexes?” Chantel is most likely conducting research in support of the:
    A.social role theory of gender development.
    B. psychodynamic approach to gender development.
    C. evolutionary theory of gender development.
    D. biological approach to gender development.

Evaluating the Theoretical Approaches to Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Social Role Theory

 

  1. Which of the following is a difference between men and women in the context of emotion, empathy, and helping?
    A.Men are more likely to help than women when doing so does not involve risks to personal safety.
    B. Women are more responsive to negative stimuli and men are more responsive to positive stimuli.
    C. Women report more anger and irritability than men do.
    D. Men report more feelings of sadness and anxiety than women do.

Emotion, Empathy, and Helping

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. _____ is best defined as a person’s feeling of oneness with the emotional state of another person.
    A.Sexuality
    B. Altruism
    C. Empathy
    D. Reactance

Emotion, Empathy, and Helping

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

 

  1. Andrew faces a great deal of difficulty in communicating and interacting with his peers. He prefers to sit by himself and has a very narrow range of interests. His teachers often observe him engaging in tasks involving repetitive actions. In the context of gender differences in empathy and theory of mind, Andrew may be suffering from a(n) _____.
    A.paraphilic disorder
    B. gender identity disorder
    C. disorder of sexual development (DSD)
    D. autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Emotion, Empathy, and Helping

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. The gender-similarities hypothesis in the context of gender differences in cognitive ability suggests that:
    A.males are superior to females.
    B. females are superior to males.
    C. men and women are much more alike than they are different.
    D. more studies are required to explain the irregularities that are evident.

Cognitive Ability

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

 

  1. The research data on the gender differences in cognitive ability has revealed that:
    A.girls, in comparison to boys, perform better on most tasks that require mathematical computations.
    B. girls, in comparison to boys, have superior verbal abilities.
    C. boys, in comparison to girls, struggle on tasks requiring the mental rotation of objects in space.
    D. boys and girls both struggle with visual spatial orientation.

Cognitive Ability

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. _____ is behavior that is intended to harm another person.
    A.Aggression
    B. Masochism
    C. Assertion
    D. Reactance

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. Paul, a ten-year-old, loses his temper and pushes his classmate off a swing. Paul’s behavior best illustrates _____.
    A.assertion
    B. ethnocentrism
    C. relational aggression
    D. overt aggression

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender Differences

 

  1. Anne is angry with her classmate, Jenna, who is one of the most popular cheerleaders in the school. Out of helplessness, she begins to spread rumors about Jenna, which make Jenna unpopular. Which of the following best describes Anne’s behavior?
    A.Overt aggression
    B. Relational aggression
    C. Ethnocentrism
    D. Assertion

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. Eric is waiting at a traffic light for the light to turn green. The man in the car behind him is honking repeatedly, even though the light is still red. Eric gets angry and steps out of his vehicle to yell at the driver of that car. On further provocation from the driver, Eric punches him in a fit of rage. Eric’s behavior exemplifies _____.
    A.overt aggression
    B. ethnocentrism
    C. relational aggression
    D. discrimination

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

 

  1. Which of the following is true of overt aggression?
    A.Males tend to be higher on overt aggression than females.
    B. Overt aggression does not lead to physical injury.
    C. Overt aggression is comparatively more subtle as the aggressive acts are typically committed in secrecy.
    D. Overt aggression requires that the aggressor have a considerable level of social and cognitive skill.

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. Which of the following accurately differentiates between overt aggression and relational aggression?
    A.Relational aggression cannot be painful while over aggression almost always is.
    B. Overt aggression harms an individual through activities like gossiping and spreading rumors while relational aggression harms an individual through the use of physical violence.
    C. Relational aggression requires that the aggressor have a considerable level of social and cognitive skill while overt aggression does not.
    D. In overt aggression, the aggressive acts are committed in secrecy while in relational aggression the aggressive acts are committed without reserve.

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: High
Topic: Gender Differences

 

  1. In the context of the psychology of gender differences, relational aggression _____.
    A.is higher in men than in women
    B. tends to harm the social standing of an individual
    C. requires that the aggressor has well-developed physical skills
    D. often leads to physical injury

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. Kelly and Marcy have been best friends since playschool. Kelly is considered to be beautiful and popular while Marcy is known as a “geek.” When Kelly begins to date a boy Marcy likes, Marcy is filled with hurt and starts to spread a rumor that Kelly is secretly homosexual. In this scenario, Marcy’s behavior best illustrates _____.
    A.ethnocentrism
    B. overt aggression
    C. gender stereotyping
    D. relational aggression

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. According to the social cognitive theory, girls engage in relational aggression because:
    A.they have higher levels of testosterone circulating in their bodies.
    B. their ancestors have always had to compete for male attention.
    C. their behavior has been shaped through the learning process.
    D. they try to adhere to gender stereotypical behavior.

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: High
Topic: Gender Differences

 

  1. The ways in which people experience and express themselves as sexual beings is referred to as _____.
    A.sexism
    B. gender bias
    C. sexuality
    D. gender dysphoria

Sexuality

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexuality

  1. Jerome is a popular senior at his high school. He projects himself as being sexually experienced, confident, and highly desirable. He talks openly about watching pornography and jokes with his friends about his sexual exploits. In this scenario, Jerome’s behaviors are expressions of his _____.
    A.sexual paraphilias
    B. asexuality
    C. sexuality
    D. homosexuality

Sexuality

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Sexuality

 

  1. In the context of sexuality, the evolutionary perspective:
    A.would establish that differences in sexuality can be explained by genetic and hormonal differences between men and women.
    B. would focus on the ways that boys and girls learn about what is considered appropriate sexual behavior for each gender.
    C. would assert that gender differences reflect the differing gender roles, stereotypes, and opportunities that cultures construct for men and women.
    D. would see gender differences as supporting the role of sexual selection in human development.

Sexuality

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexuality

  1. The direction of an individual’s erotic interests refers to the individual’s _____.
    A.gender role
    B. gender identity
    C. sexuality
    D. sexual orientation

Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. Erica, a thirty-year-old woman, has been in a relationship with Cassandra, another woman, for over three years. Erica has always been sexually attracted to members of the same sex and has dated two other women in the past. Erica’s sexual orientation can best be described as _____.
    A.bisexuality
    B. asexuality
    C. heterosexuality
    D. homosexuality

Defining Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. Which of the following scenarios best illustrates homosexuality?
    A.David, a thirty-year-old man, is sexually attracted to other men.
    B. Jill, a twenty-year-old woman, is sexually attracted to both men and women.
    C. Harry, a young man, has a sexual preference for women.
    D. Henry exhibits a lack of sexual interest in both men and women.

Defining Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. Janine is a twenty-eight-year-old woman. She has a strong sexual preference for members of the opposite sex and has had many short-term relationships with men in the past. She has never felt sexually interested in women. In the context of sexual orientation, Janine is most likely _____.
    A.asexual
    B. bisexual
    C. heterosexual
    D. homosexual

Defining Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. Melissa is sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex and not to members of the same sex. Which of the following best describes Melissa’s sexual orientation?
    A.Heterosexuality
    B. Homosexuality
    C. Bisexuality
    D. Asexuality

Defining Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. Harry has been attracted to other boys since he attained puberty. Despite his conservative upbringing and his parent’s concerns, Harry is unable to feel sexually attracted to women. In the context of sexual orientation, Harry is most likely _____.
    A.homosexual
    B. bisexual
    C. heterosexual
    D. asexual

Defining Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. Greta has had romantic relationships with both men and women in the past. Though she has a distinct sexual preference for men, Greta is still open to dating women. Which of the following statements best describes Greta’s sexual orientation?
    A.Greta is heterosexual.
    B. Greta is homosexual.
    C. Greta is bisexual.
    D. Greta is asexual.

Defining Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. _____ refers to a sexual orientation in which the individual is sexually attracted to people of both sexes.
    A.Homosexuality
    B. Bisexuality
    C. Heterosexuality
    D. Asexuality

Defining Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. Which of the following factors best predicts sexual orientation?
    A.Same-sex sexual experiences or experimentation in childhood
    B. Being reared by a homosexual parent
    C. Being reared by a particular parenting strategy
    D. The effect of genes on brain development

Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. Which of the following is an important consideration when thinking critically about sexual orientation?
    A.Explaining sexual orientation means explaining only homosexuality.
    B. Genetics is the single cause that has been identified in sexual orientation.
    C. Within a group that shares the same orientation, there are no variations found.
    D. When conducting research on orientation, representativeness of the sample is an issue.

Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. Research on the role of genes in sexual orientation has revealed that:
    A.men are less likely to inherit same-sex behavior than women.
    B. genes do not play a role in determining sexual orientation.
    C. genes are not as strong an influence on sexual orientation as they are for other characteristics like intelligence.
    D. genes impact psychological characteristics just as directly as they impact physical characteristics.

Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: High
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. Which of the following is a similarity between homosexual men and heterosexual women?
    A.The brains of both homosexual men and heterosexual women have thicker corpus callosa.
    B. The brains of both homosexual men and heterosexual women have a larger right hemisphere in comparison to the left.
    C. The two hemispheres of the brains of homosexual men and heterosexual women are alike.
    D. The two hemispheres of the brains of homosexual men and heterosexual women differ in symmetry and size.

Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. Jessica, a young woman, has a strong sexual preference for other women while Jim, a 30-year-old man, is only interested in dating women. In the context of sexual orientation, what similarities do Jessica and Jim most likely share in terms of brain structure?
    A.They both have brains in which the right hemisphere is larger in comparison to the left hemisphere.
    B. They both have brains in which the right and left hemispheres are symmetrical to each other.
    C. They both have brains with a thick corpus callosum.
    D. They both have brains in which the corpus callosum is partially or completely absent.

Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. Which of the following is true of the social factors involved in sexual orientation?
    A.Boys who engage in gender atypical behavior are more likely to be heterosexual.
    B. Boys who are gender typical in their behavior never turn out to be gay.
    C. Social responses to gender-nonconforming girls are more negative than responses to gender-nonconforming boys.
    D. Social responses to gender-nonconforming boys may influence the boys’ emerging identities.

Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: High
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. In the context of the social factors involved in sexual orientation, the vast majority of “tomboys” turn out to be _____.
    A.bisexual
    B. homosexual
    C. heterosexual
    D. asexual

Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. In the context of gay and lesbian functioning, gay men and lesbian women are likely to differ from heterosexuals in terms of _____.
    A.the gender typicality of their activities
    B. their attitudes and behaviors
    C. their psychological adjustment
    D. their health and mental constitution

Gay and Lesbian Functioning

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: High
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. Which of the following is a strong predictor of psychological and physical health for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals?
    A.Being open to converting to heterosexuality
    B. Being open about their sexual orientation
    C. Being “in the closet” about their sexual orientation
    D. Being willing to stay in unsatisfying relationships

Gay and Lesbian Functioning

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. With regard to gay and lesbian relationships, research in psychology has found that:
    A.gay couples are better able to manage conflicts compared to heterosexual couples.
    B. gay couples are less likely to end their relationships compared to heterosexual married couples.
    C. gay couples are less likely to be satisfied with their relationships than heterosexual couples.
    D. gay couples are more likely to have children compared to heterosexual couples.

Gay and Lesbian Functioning

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Homosexuality

  1. According to research, which of the following is true of gay and lesbian families?
    A.Children reared by gay men and lesbian women tend to be as well-adjusted as those from heterosexual households.
    B. Children reared by gay men and lesbian women are less likely to be accepted by their peers than those raised in heterosexual households.
    C. Gay and lesbian couples are more likely than heterosexual couples to raise children.
    D. Gay and lesbian couples can neither provide a stable family structure nor ensure the well-being of their children.

Gay and Lesbian Functioning

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Homosexuality

 

  1. Which of the following is an acceptable definition of sexual behavior?
    A.Sexual behavior refers to activities that are involved in reproduction.
    B. Sexual behavior refers to activities that lead to arousal and a sexual response.
    C. Sexual behavior refers to activities that are pleasurable to a specific individual.
    D. All of these.

Sexual Behaviors

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Behavior

  1. Who is considered to be the father of sexology?
    A.William Masters
    B. Michael Seto
    C. Alfred Kinsey
    D. Robert Michael

Sexual Practices

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Behavior

  1. Which of the following was a limitation of Alfred Kinsey’s early research work on sexual behavior?
    A.The falseness of the information provided by the subjects
    B. The unavailability of male subjects
    C. The lack of representativeness of the sample
    D. All of these

Sexual Practices

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following was identified by William Masters and Virginia Johnson?
    A.The circular model
    B. The scale of human sexuality
    C. The incentive-motivation theory
    D. The human sexual response pattern

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

  1. Jack kisses his girlfriend, Sarah, for the first time. The muscle tension she feels in her genital area is characteristic of the _____ phase of the human sexual response pattern.
    A.orgasm
    B. plateau
    C. excitement
    D. resolution

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

  1. The _____ phase of the human sexual response pattern identified by Masters and Johnson begins the process of erotic responsiveness.
    A.refractory
    B. plateau
    C. orgasm
    D. excitement

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

 

  1. Which of the following phases precedes the plateau phase of the human sexual response pattern identified by Masters and Johnson?
    A.The resolution phase
    B. The orgasm phase
    C. The excitement phase
    D. The refractory phase

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

  1. The _____ phase of the human sexual response pattern involves the continuation and heightening of sexual arousal.
    A.orgasm
    B. plateau
    C. excitement
    D. refractory

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

 

  1. Beth and her boyfriend, Bernie, have been kissing on the couch for ten minutes. Bernie has a completely erect penis, and his breathing and pulse rate have increased. Bernie’s physical responses are most characteristic of the _____ phase of the human sexual response pattern identified by Masters and Johnson.
    A.plateau
    B. orgasm
    C. refractory
    D. resolution

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

  1. While Helen and her husband are making love, Helen experiences a sudden explosive discharge of accumulated neuromuscular tension. The intensely pleasurable sensation lasts for only a few seconds and then subsides. Which of the following phases of the human sexual response pattern has Helen just experienced?
    A.The orgasm
    B. The plateau phase
    C. The resolution
    D. The refractory period

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

 

  1. Which of the following neurotransmitters is released during the orgasm phase of the human sexual response pattern?
    A.Oxytocin
    B. Serotonin
    C. Acetylcholine
    D. Dopamine

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

  1. Which of the following is true of the orgasm phase of the human sexual response pattern identified by Masters and Johnson?
    A.Males may be stimulated to orgasm again without delay on entering the resolution phase.
    B. The orgasm phase precedes the plateau phase of the human sexual response pattern.
    C. An orgasm is accompanied by the release of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
    D. The orgasm phase lasts for only about 3 to 15 seconds.

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

  1. Which of the following phases of the human sexual response pattern identified by Masters and Johnson immediately precedes the resolution phase?
    A.The plateau phase
    B. The orgasm phase
    C. The excitement phase
    D. The refractory phase

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the resolution phase of the human sexual response pattern identified by Masters and Johnson?
    A.This phase is characterized by blood vessels beginning to swell and muscles tightening.
    B. This phase is characterized by an increase in breathing, pulse rate, and blood pressure.
    C. This phase is characterized by an explosive discharge of neuromuscular tension.
    D. This phase is characterized by the blood vessels returning to their normal state.

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

  1. The most significant difference between males and females in the human sexual response pattern identified by Masters and Johnson occurs at the _____.
    A.excitement phase
    B. plateau phase
    C. orgasm phase
    D. resolution phase

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

  1. Which stage of sexual response did Kaplan add to the sexual response stages identified by Masters and Johnson?
    A.Excitement
    B. Resolution
    C. Desire
    D. Orgasm

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

 

  1. Patterns of expectancies for how people should behave sexually are called _____.
    A.sexual scripts
    B. gender schemas
    C. gender roles
    D. sexual themes

Cognition and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Behavior

  1. Jack and his new girlfriend, Samantha, are having sexual intercourse with each other for the first time. Even though Jack’s focus is on achieving orgasm, he spends time on foreplay and increasing Samantha’s pleasure, because he knows that this will increase her sexual satisfaction and make her appreciate him more. Jack’s idea of what is expected of him sexually is known as a _____.
    A.paraphilia
    B. sexual script
    C. fetish
    D. gender schema

Cognition and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Sexual Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the role of cognition and other factors in sexual behavior?
    A.Men and women have different sexual scripts.
    B. For men, sex may be more an expression of intimacy.
    C. For women, orgasm is a crucial aspect of sex.
    D. Sexuality is not influenced by sexual scripts.

Cognition and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Behavior

  1. Which of the following is a goal of people concerned with sex education?
    A.To delay sexual activity in young people
    B. To reduce teen pregnancy
    C. To reduce sexually transmitted infections
    D. All of these

Cognition and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sex Education

  1. The abstinence-only approach to sex education mainly:
    A.involves the safe use of condoms to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.
    B. involves the safe use of oral contraceptives to avoid pregnancy.
    C. emphasizes that any sexual behavior outside of marriage is harmful to individuals of any age.
    D. emphasizes that sex should only be avoided until the age of 18.

Cognition and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sex Education

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the different approaches to sex education?
    A.The main focus of abstinence-only sex education is to educate students about sexual behavior and encourage them to use birth control while engaging in sex.
    B. Comprehensive sex education programs do not encourage students to delay sexual activity and practice abstinence.
    C. Abstinence-only educational programs focus on emphasizing that any sexual behavior outside of marriage is harmful to individuals of any age.
    D. Instructors of comprehensive sex education programs can present contraceptives and condoms only in terms of their failure rates.

Cognition and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sex Education

  1. An object or activity that arouses sexual interest and desire is called a _____.
    A.fetish
    B. paraphilia
    C. script
    D. contraceptive

Fetishes

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Fetishes

 

  1. Which of the following is true of fetishes?
    A.Fetishes are physical objects that tend to diminish sexual interest and desire.
    B. People who engage in fetishes have abnormal mental constitutions.
    C. People who engage in fetishes always experience personal distress.
    D. Fetishes include erotic materials, clothing, and other physical objects.

Fetishes

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Fetishes

  1. A person who derives sexual pleasure from wearing clothes of the opposite sex has a _____.
    A.transvestic fetish
    B. voyeuristic disorder
    C. frotteuristic disorder
    D. sadistic fetish

Fetishes

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Fetishes

  1. Amanda is a heterosexual woman who gets sexually aroused by leather. In this scenario, leather represents Amanda’s _____.
    A.fetish
    B. paraphilia
    C. script
    D. schema

Fetishes

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Fetishes

 

  1. _____ refer to psychological disorders that feature sexual desires or behaviors that may result in another person’s psychological distress, injury, or death.
    A.Gender identity disorders
    B. Paraphilic disorders
    C. Psychosomatic disorders
    D. Disorders of sexual development

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. A sexual behavior may be termed a paraphilic disorder if _____.
    A.it involves engaging in sexual activities with a person who can give legal consent
    B. it involves the sexual stimulation of oneself or one’s partner
    C. it is a harmless variation of a sexual practice and not considered abnormal
    D. involves another persons’ psychological distress, injury, or death

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. Which of the following paraphilic disorders involves exposing one’s genitals to a stranger?
    A.Pedophilic disorder
    B. Exhibitionistic disorder
    C. Sexual sadism disorder
    D. Frotteuristic disorder

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

 

  1. Ryan finds it sexually arousing to undress in public and display his genitals to unsuspecting strangers. In the past, Ryan was charged a fine for running naked across a football stadium. Ryan is most likely to be diagnosed with _____ disorder.
    A.transvestic
    B. exhibitionistic
    C. pedophilic
    D. frotteuristic

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. Layla is a nineteen-year-old heterosexual female who gets turned on by body piercings and tattoos. She currently has 12 tattoos and 13 piercings on her body—all done at home, either by herself or by a sexual partner. She claims that her chances of experiencing sexual satisfaction are significantly increased if she is pierced or tattooed during sex. Layla is most likely to be diagnosed with _____.
    A.fetishistic disorder
    B. voyeuristic disorder
    C. frotteuristic disorder
    D. transvestic disorder

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Paraphilias

 

  1. Which of the following refers to a paraphilic disorder that involves the use of nonliving objects for sexual pleasure?
    A.Fetishistic disorder
    B. Voyeuristic disorder
    C. Pedophilic disorder
    D. Exhibitionistic disorder

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. Jack likes to press and rub himself against strangers in crowded trains without their consent. This behavior sexually arouses Jack and distresses his victims. Which of the following paraphilic disorders is Jack most likely suffering from?
    A.Transvestic disorder
    B. Sexual masochism disorder
    C. Voyeuristic disorder
    D. Frotteuristic disorder

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

 

  1. Garrett, a twenty-year-old male, was recently convicted for forcing prepubescent girls and boys to engage in sexual activities with him in his home. Which of the following best describes Garrett’s paraphilic disorder?
    A.Pedophilic disorder
    B. Hermaphroditism
    C. Gender identity disorder
    D. Transvestitism

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. Erica is a heterosexual adult who likes to engage in sexual practices involving bondage, humiliation, and physical violence with adult males. She experiences sexual pleasure when she is beaten or made to suffer in other ways. Erica most likely suffers from _____.
    A.gender identity disorder
    B. sexual masochism disorder
    C. pedophilic disorder
    D. frotteuristic disorder

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

 

  1. Which of the following scenarios best illustrates sexual sadism disorder?
    A.Joe derives sexual pleasure from physically abusing his partners.
    B. Hannah enjoys watching strangers engage in sexual activities.
    C. Ben derives sexual pleasure from wearing women’s clothing.
    D. Harry likes to rub against individuals without their consent in crowded buses.

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. Jacob is a heterosexual male who can only achieve sexual orgasm while watching his partner cry out in pain after physically abusing her. Jacob is most likely to be diagnosed with _____ disorder.
    A.transvestic
    B. sexual masochism
    C. frotteuristic
    D. sexual sadism

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Paraphilias

 

  1. Jack, a heterosexual male, is distressed because he is unable to get sexually aroused, unless he dresses in his girlfriend’s clothes. This is affecting his relationship with her, and he is aware that it will affect most of his future relationships. In the context of paraphilia’s, Jack is most likely suffering from _____ disorder.
    A.transvestic
    B. pedophilic
    C. frotteuristic
    D. exhibitionistic

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. Brian has developed an abnormal sexual interest in watching his neighbors having sex. He uses binoculars and hidden cameras to observe them during their moments of intimacy, without their knowledge. Which of the following best describes Brian’s abnormal behavior?
    A.Transvestic disorder
    B. Exhibitionistic disorder
    C. Voyeuristic disorder
    D. Fetishistic disorder

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

 

  1. Which of the following paraphilic disorders involves the observation of unsuspecting individuals, usually strangers, who are naked or in the process of disrobing or engaging in sexual activity?
    A.Frotteuristic disorder
    B. Fetishistic disorder
    C. Exhibitionistic disorder
    D. Voyeuristic disorder

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. According to research, the emergence of some paraphilic disorders can be best explained by the principles of _____.
    A.operant conditioning
    B. implicit learning
    C. classical conditioning
    D. observational learning

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

 

  1. _____ disorder refers to a disorder in which an adult or an older adolescent sexually fantasizes about or engages in sexual behavior with individuals who have not reached puberty.
    A.Sexual desire
    B. Gender identity
    C. Pedophilic
    D. Erectile dysfunction

Pedophilic Disorder

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. Which of the following statements is true of pedophilic disorder?
    A.Pedophilic disorder is related to thinking that sexual impulses are controllable.
    B. Pedophilic disorder is more common in women than men.
    C. Pedophilic disorder is associated with good social skills and high IQ.
    D. Pedophilic disorder is associated with a history of head injuries in childhood.

Pedophilic Disorder

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. John is a pedophile with a sexual preference for children who are below eight years of age. Which of the following is most likely true about John?
    A.He has an above-average IQ.
    B. He has low self-esteem.
    C. He believes that sexual impulses can be controlled.
    D. He has good social skills.

Pedophilic Disorder

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an effective method of preventing pedophilic activities?
    A.The use of drugs to increase the levels of testosterone
    B. The surgical removal of the testes
    C. Teaching children to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate touch
    D. Empowering children to share their feelings with a trusted adult

Pedophilic Disorder

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. The sexual disorder in men involving the experience of orgasm before the person wishes it is called _____.
    A.premature ejaculation
    B. erectile dysfunction
    C. voyeuristic disorder
    D. subjective sexual arousal disorder

Disorders of Sexual Desire and Sexual Response

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Disorders

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the disorders of sexual desire and sexual response in men?
    A.Lack of sexual desire in men stems from high levels of androgen.
    B. Erectile dysfunction is more likely to occur with age.
    C. Premature ejaculation is the most common sexual complaint among men above the age of 40.
    D. Lack of sexual interest in men is not the cause of any disorders of sexual desire and response.

Disorders of Sexual Desire and Sexual Response

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Disorders

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the disorders of sexual desire and sexual response in women?
    A.All the disorders of sexual response that women suffer from are related to their experience of orgasm.
    B. The disorders of sexual response in women cannot be treated with androgens.
    C. All occurrences of problems of arousal and orgasm in females should be considered as disorders.
    D. The disorders of sexual response in women may be treated through psychotherapy.

Disorders of Sexual Desire and Sexual Response

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Disorders

 

  1. Which of the following sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is bacterial in origin?
    A.Genital herpes
    B. HIV
    C. Gonorrhea
    D. Scabies

Sexual Behavior and Physical Health

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Health

  1. _____ is an example of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is caused by a virus.
    A.Gonorrhea
    B. Syphilis
    C. Genital herpes
    D. Chlamydia

Sexual Behavior and Physical Health

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Health

  1. No single sexually transmitted infection (STI) has had a greater impact on sexual behavior in the past decades than _____.
    A.syphilis
    B. HIV
    C. gonorrhea
    D. genital herpes

Sexual Behavior and Physical Health

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Health

 

  1. Which of the following sexual practices involves the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI)?
    A.French kissing
    B. Cuddling
    C. Mutual masturbation
    D. Oral sex

Sexual Behavior and Physical Health

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Health

  1. Which of the following sexual practices involves no risk of a sexually transmitted infection (STI)?
    A.Kissing
    B. Anal sex
    C. Vaginal intercourse
    D. Oral sex

Sexual Behavior and Physical Health

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Health

 

  1. According to research conducted on sexual behavior and psychological well-being, _____.
    A.engaging in sex as a form of intimacy with another person is related to practicing more risky sex
    B. individuals who engage in sex to cope with negative feelings are more likely to have stable long-term relationships
    C. engaging in sexual activities to avoid bad feelings is related to enhanced well-being
    D. partnered sexual activity is a strong predictor of satisfaction in relationships

Sexual Behavior and Psychological Well-Being

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Health

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. Define the terms “sex” and “gender” and explain how they differ.

Sex refers to the properties of a person that determine his or her classification as male or female and is primarily based on the biological characteristics of an individual. Gender, on the other hand, refers to the social and psychological aspects of being male or female and is primarily based on an individual’s own personal view of themselves. Gender goes beyond biological sex to include an individual’s personal understanding of the meaning of being male or female.

Feedback: Sex and Its Biological Components
Feedback: Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Biology of Sex
Topic: Gender

 

  1. Brendan is an outgoing and assertive twenty-five-year-old. His friends describe him as courageous and independent. Whenever they need it, they look to him for inspiration and are happy to let him dominate. In the context of gender-related attributes, how would one describe Brendan?

Brendan can best be described as instrumental in nature and displaying characteristics associated with masculinity. Masculinity means “being like a man,” and femininity means “being like a woman.” Psychologists have studied these gender-related characteristics using the terms instrumentality (for more masculine traits) and expressiveness (for more feminine traits) to represent these broad dimensions. Instrumental attributes include being assertive, brave, independent, and dominant. Expressive traits include being nurturing, warm, gentle, and sensitive to others.

Feedback: Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender

  1. Differentiate between disorders of sexual development (DSD) and gender identity disorder.

Disorders of sexual development (DSD) refer to congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. They were formerly called intersex conditions or hermaphroditism.
Gender identity disorder, on the other hand, is a diagnosis applied to individuals who experience their psychological genders as different from their biological sexes. Such individuals are referred to as transgender and can be biological males who identify as female, or biological females who identify as male.

Feedback: Disorders of Sexual Development
Feedback: When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Disorders of Sexual Development
Topic: Transgender

 

  1. Jessica is a fifteen-year-old girl who has always felt and acted like a boy. She hates dressing in girl’s clothes and loves to play with cars. She always engages in masculine sports and has only male friends. In spite of her parents’ concern with her behavior, Jessica insists on acting like a boy. She has even forced her parents to refer to her as a boy and call her Jeff. In the context of gender, identify and give a brief account of the phenomenon related to Jessica’s behavior.

Jessica is most likely a transgender individual. Transgender refers to experiencing one’s psychological gender as different from one’s biological sex. Gender identity disorder was a diagnosis applied to such individuals. Now, individuals who experience distress over their biological sex may be diagnosed with gender dysphoria, the term the American Psychiatric Association (APA) uses.

Feedback: When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: High
Topic: Transgender

 

  1. Give a brief account of sexual selection in human beings with reference to the evolutionary psychology approach to gender development.

Sexual selection means that the male and female members of a species differ from each other because of differences in competition and choice.
Competition occurs among members of the same sex as they vie for the opportunity to mate with members of the opposite sex. Members of that opposite sex in turn exercise choice, selecting the lucky one with whom they will mate. Generally, the sex that invests the most in producing off spring is the one that chooses, and the other sex is the one that competes. Applying these ideas to humans, evolutionary psychologists believe that differences between women and men are evidence that sexual selection has occurred in the human species. Women are the sex that gives birth, and as such they ought to do the choosing. Men, on the other hand, show characteristics that are thought to be well suited for competing. For example, men are physically larger and stronger than women. Evolutionary psychologists explain human males’ physical size as an adaptation that helps men to compete against one another for female mates. Sexual selection is more complicated in human beings than in other species. Specifically, because human infants are so helpless, it makes sense from a survival standpoint for men to invest in their off springRemember, sometimes men get to be the choosers and women are the competitors vying for those men who are likely to invest in their children.

Feedback: Evolutionary Psychology

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Evolutionary Approach

  1. Briefly describe how the social cognitive approaches view gender development.

Social cognitive approaches to gender development focus on how children learn about gender and how they come to occupy a particular gender identity. These approaches emphasize both the way that children internalize information about gender and the way the environment reinforces gender-related behavior. From this perspective, gender behavior is learned through reward and punishment, observational learning, and modeling.

Feedback: Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

 

  1. What is one prediction from social role theory of gender development?

One prediction from social role theory is that as social structures change, gender differences should decrease, and this prediction has been borne out. For example, in cultures in which women have greater access to economic opportunities, education, and careers, women are less likely to prefer men with resources as suggested by the evolutionary perspective.

Feedback: Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Role Theory

  1. In the context of the psychology of gender differences, what is the significance of the gender similarities hypothesis?

The gender similarities hypothesis refers to Hyde’s proposition that men and women (and boys and girls) are much more similar than they are different.

Feedback: Cognitive Ability

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender Differences

 

  1. Discuss the differences between the aggressive behavior of males and females.

Males are more likely to engage in overt aggression and females are more likely to engage in relational aggression. Overt aggression refers to physically or verbally harming another person directly. Males, due to their larger physical statures, are more likely to use overt aggression. Relational aggression is aggression that harms a person indirectly, usually affecting his or her social standing. Females are more likely to use relational aggression due to their smaller physical statures. As a result, they are less likely to receive actual physical injuries.

Feedback: Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. Differentiate between heterosexuality and bisexuality in the context of sexual orientation.

Heterosexuality refers to a sexual orientation in which an individual is generally sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex. Bisexuality, on the other hand, refers to a sexual orientation in which an individual is sexually attracted to people of both sexes.

Feedback: Defining Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. Discuss any three important issues that people should consider when thinking critically about sexual orientation.

Student answers will vary. Scientists approach the puzzle of sexual orientation with an openness to the different potential answers empirical data might suggest. There are various issues to consider while thinking critically about sexual orientation:

Unlikelihood of a single cause: For any psychological characteristic, it is unlikely that a single cause can be identified, and sexual orientation is no exception. As psychologists consider the accumulated data on this topic, they must keep in mind that it is very probable that many factors work together to foster sexual orientation and that factors that have not even been considered will likely emerge in the future.

· Within-group variation: There is a great deal of variation within any group of people who share the same sexual orientation. All heterosexual men are sexually attracted to women, but that attraction may be the only thing that any two heterosexual men have in common. Similarly, all gay men share a sexual attraction to men, but any two gay men may have little else in common.
· Research challenges: Comparing individuals from different sexual orientations presents research design challenges. One such challenge is representativeness, for in some studies the heterosexual and homosexual participants are recruited in very different ways. Gay and lesbian participants are sometimes recruited only from gay pride events, for example, and so they may not be representative of all homosexual and bisexual individuals. Similarly, small sample size can be an issue because of the difficulty involved in recruiting gay participants.
· The meaning of cross-sex similarities: In presenting research on the origins of sexual orientation, the popular media often emphasize similarities between gay men and heterosexual women and between lesbian women and heterosexual men. Regardless of their sexual orientation, gay men are men, and lesbian women are women.
· Explaining sexual orientation does not mean explaining only homosexuality: Finally, and perhaps most importantly, any good theory of sexual orientation should explain how anyone becomes sexually oriented toward individuals of a particular sex. Scientists want to explain the sexual orientations of men and women who are attracted to men or women or both.

Feedback: Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. Give a brief account of the four phases of the human sexual response pattern.

Masters and Johnson’s model of the human sexual response consists of four phases—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

· The excitement phase begins the process of erotic responsiveness; it lasts from several minutes to several hours, depending on the nature of the sex play involved. Engorgement of blood vessels and increased blood flow in genital areas, along with muscle tension, characterize the excitement phase. The most obvious signs of response in this phase are lubrication of the vagina and partial erection of the penis.
· The second phase of the human sexual response, the plateau phase, is a continuation and heightening of the arousal begun in the excitement phase. The increases in breathing, pulse rate, and blood pressure that occurred during the excitement phase become more intense, penile erection and vaginal lubrication are more complete, and orgasm is closer.
· The third phase of the human sexual response cycle is orgasm. An orgasm lasts for only about 3 to 15 seconds. Orgasm involves an explosive discharge of neuromuscular tension and an intensely pleasurable feeling. With orgasm comes the release of the neurotransmitter oxytocin which plays a role in social bonding.
· Following orgasm, the individual enters the resolution phase, in which blood vessels return to their normal state. A sex difference in this phase is that females may be stimulated to orgasm again without delay, whereas males enter a refractory period during which they cannot have another orgasm.

Feedback: The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

 

  1. Discuss the two common approaches to sex education.

The abstinence-only program emphasizes that any sexual behavior outside of marriage is harmful, and contraceptive use is discussed in terms of failure rates. Comprehensive sex education involves providing students with comprehensive knowledge about sexual behavior, birth control, and the use of condoms in protecting against sexually transmitted diseases.

Feedback: Cognition and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sex Education

  1. What is sexual masochism disorder?

Sexual masochism disorder is an example of a paraphilic disorder. An individual diagnosed with sexual masochism disorder derives sexual excitement from being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer.

Feedback: Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

  1. What is a voyeuristic disorder? Provide an example.

Student answers will vary. A voyeuristic disorder consists of observing unsuspecting individuals, usually strangers, who are naked, in the process of disrobing, or engaging in sexual activity. For example, Sylvie, likes to close his curtains at night and use binoculars to watch his neighbors having sex.

Feedback: Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Gonads are glands that produce sperm in males.
    TRUE

Sex and Its Biological Components

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Biology of Sex

  1. Sex refers to the social and psychological aspects of being female or male.
    FALSE

Sex and its Biological Components

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Biology of Sex

  1. The raw materials of male and female genitals and gonads are fundamentally the same.
    TRUE

Genes, Sex, and Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Biology of Sex

 

  1. Breast development in women is triggered by the SRY gene.
    FALSE

Genes, Sex, and Gender

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender

  1. Jacob, a seven-year-old boy, is playing with his new collection of toy cars. Jacob is demonstrating gender-nonconforming behavior.
    FALSE

Social Cognitive Approaches

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Cognitive Approach

  1. One prediction from social role theory is that as social structures change, gender differences should increase.
    FALSE

Social Role Theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Social Role Theory

 

  1. Gender differences in emotion are much more tied to social context than to biological sex.
    TRUE

Emotion, Empathy, and Helping

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. According to meta-analyses in the area of the abilities of men and women, it was found that the cognitive abilities of males and females differ significantly.
    FALSE

Cognitive Ability

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. Overt aggression refers to behavior that is meant to harm the social standing of another person through activities such as gossiping and spreading rumors.
    FALSE

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Gender Differences

 

  1. Gossiping is a form of relational aggression.
    TRUE

Aggression

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Gender Differences

  1. Sexual orientation refers to a person’s direction of erotic interests.
    TRUE

Sexual Orientation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. Homosexuality is not present in all cultures.
    FALSE

Occurrence of the Different Sexual Orientations

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Orientation

 

  1. Researchers typically find no differences among lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and heterosexuals in a wide range of attitudes and behaviors, as well as in psychological adjustment.
    TRUE

Gay and Lesbian Functioning

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. For gays, lesbians, and bisexuals, being open about their sexual orientation is a strong predictor of psychological and physical health.
    TRUE

Gay and Lesbian Functioning

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Orientation

  1. The neurotransmitter oxytocin, which is released during the orgasm phase of the human sexual response pattern, plays a role in social bonding.
    TRUE

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

 

  1. A sex difference in the resolution phase of the human sexual response pattern is that males may be stimulated to orgasm again without delay, whereas females enter a refractory period during which they cannot have another orgasm.
    FALSE

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Response Pattern

  1. In the context of sexual behavior and practices, research strongly indicates that abstinence-only programs outstrip the comprehensive approach to sex education in delaying sexual activity and preventing teen pregnancy.
    FALSE

Cognition and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Behavior

  1. Exhibitionism is best described as a fetish.
    FALSE

Paraphilic Disorders

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Paraphilias

 

  1. Sensual activities such as kissing, French kissing, cuddling, massage, and mutual masturbation involve a higher risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
    FALSE

Sexual Behavior and Physical Health

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Topic: Sexual Health

  1. The use of condoms during sexual intercourse helps to prevent the contraction of sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea.
    TRUE

Sexual Behavior and Physical Health

 

APA Learning Outcome: 2.2
Bloom’s Level: Remember
Difficulty: Low
Topic: Sexual Health

 

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