Transformations Women Gender Psychology 2nd Edition Crawford Test Bank

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Transformations Women Gender Psychology 2nd Edition Crawford Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073532158

ISBN-10: 0073532150




Transformations Women Gender Psychology 2nd Edition Crawford Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073532158

ISBN-10: 0073532150





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Chapter 09




Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 263)Researchers have analyzed the “motherhood mystique.” Which of the following is part of that mystique?
    A. Motherhood means ultimate fulfillment as a woman.
    B. Women must learn to be good mothers because it is not instinctive.
    C. The best mothers are those who have stimulating outside interests.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 263)Which of the following is one of the “myths of the motherhood mystique?”?
    A. Motherhood is only fulfilling for women who thought they could not have children.
    B. Women are instinctively good at caregiving and should be responsible for children.
    C. Women can lead happy lives even if they are not mothers.
    D. Motherhood is best combined with other roles.


  1. (p. 263)The idea that the mother role is defined in terms of infinite patience, nurturing, and self-sacrifice is part of the
    A. Freudian fantasy of motherhood.
    B. mothering mandate.
    C. motherhood mystique.
    D. mothering myth.


  1. (p. 264)The motherhood mystique persists because it
    A. takes men out of the running for top-level jobs.
    B. has important functions for men.
    C. is used to justify women’s higher status and pay at work.
    D. All the above are correct.



  1. (p. 264)In contrast to more traditional times and cultures, in modern US culture,
    A. children are more a financial liability than asset.
    B. a high birthrate is necessary to insure some children survive to adulthood.
    C. children are more likely to be expected to support parents financially in their old age.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 264)When men cannot depend on women for child care, they
    A. develop the same skills and behaviors as women in a mothering role.
    B. tend to be completely lost and unable to care for the children.
    C. are reprogrammed by nature to have a nurturing instinct.
    D. must find another woman to help them care properly for children.


  1. (p. 264)Criticisms of the “maternal instinct” as an explanation for childbearing include
    A. recognizing powerful socialization forces directed at instilling this “instinct” in girls.
    B. the existence of abortion as a feature of human societies throughout history.
    C. the existence of infanticide as a feature of human societies throughout history.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 265)Pervasive pressure for women to have children is called the motherhood
    A. ultimatum.
    B. mandate.
    C. precept.
    D. mystique.


  1. (p. 265)As part of the motherhood mandate, the only child is stereotyped as being
    A. well-adjustedRemember,cially adept, and self-possessed.
    B. selfless, nurturing, and friendly.
    C. unlikable, self-centered, and unhappy.
    D. happy, good-natured, and witty.



  1. (p. 267)When women give up trying to conceive after years of fertility treatments, they feel
    A. exhausted and grief-stricken.
    B. tired but glad they had tried everything.
    C. relieved that they did not have to put forth the energy necessary to raise children.
    D. a joy they associated with freedom.


  1. (p. 267)The feminist concept of reproductive freedom includes
    A. the belief having children is an individual choice.
    B. the right to comprehensive and unbiased sex education.
    C. access to safe and legal abortion.
    D. all of the above.


  1. (p. 267)The term reproductive freedom refers to
    A. the right to comprehensive sex education.
    B. access to safe and reliable contraception.
    C. access to safe and legal abortion.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 268)Which of the following is true concerning prescription contraceptives?
    A. Most (over 90%) insurance companies pay for contraceptives.
    B. Few insurance companies pay for the contraceptives.
    C. Most insurance companies pay for contraceptives; but, women have to be insured.
    D. The financial burden for contraceptives falls upon those who take them.


  1. (p. 269)Despite Roe v. Wade, certain restrictions apply concerning a woman’s choices regarding ending unwanted pregnancies. These restrictions include
    A. Medicaid money may be used to pay for abortions only if the mother’s life is in danger.
    B. Some states have passed laws requiring the consent of a woman’s partner or husband.
    C. Some states have passed laws requiring parental consent for young women.
    D. All the above are correct.



  1. (p. 269)The Supreme Court recently gave more power to individual states to set abortion regulations. Many states have responded by
    A. relaxing laws regulating abortion.
    B. making it less difficult for minors but more difficult for older women to get abortions.
    C. making abortion laws more restrictive.
    D. sending court cases involving abortion back to the federal level.


  1. (p. 269)The Hyde Amendment prohibits use of federal money to pay for abortions, resulting in many poor women
    A. carrying unwanted fetuses to term.
    B. delaying abortions, and taking the risks associated with later abortions.
    C. getting illegal abortions.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 270)Which statement about abortion’s effects on women is true?
    A. Abortion causes serious psychological damage for most women
    B. The main psychological reaction to the abortion is depression.
    C. No major negative psychological impacts result from abortion.
    D. b and c


  1. (p. 271)In general, the development of new technology in the biology of reproduction results in
    A. new ethical and moral questions for women.
    B. progress and increased choice for women.
    C. a decrease in controversy surrounding medical manipulations of women’s bodies.
    D. new problems for fathers.


  1. (p. 272)Kelly has decided to undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF). Studies suggest she is likely to have
    A. had a close relationship with her mother.
    B. a variety of reasons to pursue IVF.
    C. been pressured into the procedure by her husband.
    D. a and b



  1. (p. 273)According to Crawford, becoming a mother is a major life transition because it
    A. is a kind of biological destiny for women.
    B. involves changes in work, lifestyle, and relationships with significant others.
    C. is pathological not to feel positive about motherhood.
    D. involves changes in the physical self but not the psychological identity of women.


  1. (p. 274)Studies of who does the work of child care show
    A. a woman’s husband/partner is generally the source of least help.
    B. fathers spend five to ten hours a day of primary care, on average.
    C. many men offer to assist in child care, but do not follow through.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 275)Many women experience ___________ sexual desire while pregnant; yet pregnant women typically engage in sexual activities ____________ often
    A. increased; less
    B. increased; more
    C. decreased; less
    D. decreased; more


  1. (p. 275)Research shows during a routine pregnancy, a woman may safely have intercourse
    A. until the fifth month.
    B. until the sixth month.
    C. until four weeks before the due date.
    D. until a week before the due date.


  1. (p. 274)During pregnancy, the amount of norepinephrine in a woman’s body _____________ and the amount of stress-associated hormones ____________.
    A. increases; increases
    B. increases; decreases
    C. decreases; increases
    D. decreases; decreases



  1. (p. 274)The neurotransmitter ______________________, which is associated with depression in non-pregnant people, drops during pregnancy.
    A. progesterone
    B. norepinephrine
    C. epinephrine
    D. estrogen


  1. (p. 276)Pregnant women often feel very ambivalent about the dramatic bodily changes during pregnancy, feeling
    A. out of control.
    B. free from cultural demands for thinness.
    C. alienated from their bodies.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 277)Pregnancy often elicits __________________ because pregnant women are seen as _______________.
    A. resentment; wanting special treatment
    B. embarrassment; extremely sexual
    C. friendliness; happy with their lives
    D. benevolent sexism; fragile and dependent


  1. (p. 278)As they become mothers, women
    A. have no problem assimilating their new identity as mother into their previous identities.
    B. may struggle with their new identity as a mother and loss of their old identities.
    C. prefer substituting the identity of mother for previous identities.
    D. prefer to deny that they have the new identity of mother.


  1. (p. 279)In the many countries outside the US, the dominant philosophy toward birth is
    A. childbirth is natural and women need only minimal intervention and support.
    B. sociobiological.
    C. medico-cultural, women need close observation and care in a hospital.
    D. medical.



  1. (p. 279)In the US, babies are “delivered” by physicians, not “birthed” by women, reflecting the “______________” model of childbirth.
    A. medical
    B. androcentric
    C. sociocultural
    D. doctor-oriented


  1. (p. 280)A routine feature of the U.S.’s medical model of childbirth is
    A. being surrounded by family members.
    B. being drugged.
    C. staying in the same room late in labor.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 281)Using anesthetics during childbirth is now known to be
    A. helpful in sparing the mother unnecessary pain.
    B. dangerous because they can prolong labor.
    C. psychologically restrictive because they reduce the mother’s awareness.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 280)Why do US women in hospital births lie on their backs?
    A. to quicken labor.
    B. to decrease the risk of vaginal tearing.
    C. for physician convenience.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 281)Caesarean births in the US
    A. are associated with lower infant mortality.
    B. have risen to about a third of all births, possibly because of profitability to physicians.
    C. are down from about half the births to about 15% of the births.
    D. have remained steady at about half of U. S. births.



  1. (p. 281)Results of birthing with Lamaze or similar techniques do NOT include
    A. shorter labor.
    B. fewer complications.
    C. the amount of pain reported in “medical” births.
    D. less use of anesthetics.


  1. (p. 281)The Lamaze Method involves
    A. breathing techniques.
    B. muscle relaxation.
    C. a trusted “coach.”
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 282)Sherrilyn and Pat plan to use the Lamaze technique during the birthing. During practice Sherrilyn will be taught how to relax so while giving birth she
    A. can conserve energy.
    B. will not use drugs for pain.
    C. can reduce contractions.
    D. b and c


  1. (p. 280)In most cultures, women give birth
    A. in a squatting or semiseated position.
    B. lying on their backs.
    C. lying on their stomachs.
    D. lying with their heads significantly lower than their feet.


  1. (p. 280)Problems with giving birth while lying on one’s back include
    A. increased pressure on the spine and slows labor.
    B. working against gravity, making birth more difficult for the woman.
    C. increased risk of vaginal tearing.
    D. All the above are correct.



  1. (p. 283)The experience of postnatal mood disorders has been shown to be due to a
    A. decrease in estrogen.
    B. decrease in progesterone.
    C. decrease in estrogen and progesterone.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 283)An argument against a strictly biological explanation of postnatal mood disorders is
    A. there is little relationship between hormone levels and mood.
    B. postnatal hormone changes are minimal.
    C. hormones do not give rise to bodily sensations.
    D. None of the above is correct; the biological explanation is valid.


  1. (p. 283)Postnatal depression ____________ in countries such as India, China, Mexico, and Kenya
    A. is virtually unknown.
    B. occurs slightly less than in the U.S.
    C. occurs much more than in the U.S.
    D. occurs slightly more than in the U.S.


  1. (p. 284)Which has been largely overlooked in explanations of postpregnancy mood disorders?
    A. The social situation of the mother.
    B. Sleep deprivation.
    C. Dissatisfaction with body size and shape.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 285)Adolescent motherhood has consequences for individuals and society including
    A. interrupted education.
    B. lowered job opportunities.
    C. costs of public assistance.
    D. All the above are correct.



  1. (p. 287)Women-headed households are over-represented among the poor for what reason?
    A. The tendency for the woman more than men to lack education or skills.
    B. More single mothers than single men live in areas in which there are few jobs.
    C. Women are expected both to work outside the home and to take care of their children.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 287)Households headed by women are
    A. much more likely to be poor.
    B. decreasing in number in the U.S.
    C. recognized as important family units by our society.
    D. phenomena of the inner city only.


  1. (p. 288)Differences between typical African-American/Black vs. White American mothers include
    A. black women are more likely to equate motherhood with depending on a man.
    B. black women are continuing to be impacted by residuals of the US slave system.
    C. white women are more likely to divorce.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 287)African-American women cope single parenting by
    A. forming extended households.
    B. using informal adoption.
    C. relying on family members for child care.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 289)Hardships faced by lesbians with children face do NOT include
    A. the reaction of others.
    B. economic strains.
    C. lack of supportive communities.
    D. isolation.



  1. (p. 289)Research comparing lesbian and heterosexual mothers suggests
    A. lesbian mothers place more value on children’s independence and self-sufficiency.
    B. lesbian mothers see themselves as being more open and candid in general.
    C. heterosexual mothers viewed girls and boys as more similar to each other.
    D. parenting styles are more similar than different.


  1. (p. 291)Which is NOT a factor mothers tend to have in common?
    A. Motherhood entails changes in identity and life circumstances.
    B. Motherhood involves intense love and satisfaction.
    C. Motherhood involves a constantly changing relationship.
    D. There are no limits to love and care.


  1. (p. 293)The organization MOTHERS wants mothers to have
    A. holidays on which people other than the mothers watch the children.
    B. assurance that men will be given parent training through the hospitals at which women give birth.
    C. less blame when things go wrong with their children.
    D. economic and social recognition as primary caregivers.


  1. (p. 294)_____ were blamed for 72 different kinds of psychological problems
    A. mothers
    B. fathers
    C. lack of supervision
    D. over protectiveness


  1. (p. 295)Father involvement in parenting leads to
    A. better cognitive and emotional development in children.
    B. lower marital satisfaction.
    C. increased stress for mothers.
    D. lower self-esteem and satisfaction with fathers’ role as a parent for fathers.



  1. (p. 266)Women who choose not to have children do due to
    A. financial considerations and concerns about overpopulation.
    B. a desire to pursue education and career opportunities.
    C. the belief that they are not personally suited to raising and caring for children.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 269)The safe, effective nonsurgical abortion procedure called mifepristone (formerly RU-486) has only recently become available in the United States because
    A. it has been shown to cause dangerous side effects in about 10% of women.
    B. antiabortion groups prevented legalization because they were afraid the procedure would be so private it would bee less vulnerable to political pressure.
    C. it has been shown to cause heavy and sustained bleeding in some women after use.
    D. a and c


  1. (p. 269)Mifepristone (formerly RU-486) works by
    A. destroying eggs that have left the ovaries.
    B. sloughing off the uterine lining.
    C. creating an acidic environment in the uterus so a fertilized egg cannot remain viable.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 269)Plan B, the “morning-after pill” is not available without a prescription because
    A. a Federal agency thought it would encourage women to have unprotected sex.
    B. it can cause side effects that should be monitored by a physician.
    C. Roe vs. Wade did not cover oral medications that can be used in abortions.
    D. it is not always effective, and a woman may need another dose.



Short Answer Questions



  1. Summarize research evidence on:

    a. reasons why women choose to have children.
    b. reasons for remaining childless.
    c. changing patterns of childbearing (smaller families, etc.).

Answer will vary


  1. Define and describe birth control methods; psychological consequences of abortion; attitudes about abortion; Caesarean birth; and postpartum depression (including hormonal and social influences).

Answer will vary


  1. Discuss the consequences to women and infants of viewing childbirth as a medical event.

Answer will vary


  1. Describe ways in which the government and anti-abortion advocates continue to make abortions difficult to obtain in the United States.

Answer will vary


  1. Selective abortion allows termination of “defective” fetuses. Discuss the ethical issues surrounding terminating pregnancy when a woman is carrying a Down syndrome fetus or a child with a sex chromosomal variation.

Answer will vary



  1. What are the myths about women who choose never to have children? What has research found about such women?

Answer will vary


  1. What is meant by the term “reproductive freedom?”

Answer will vary


  1. What is in vitro fertilization? What ethical questions does this technology raise?

Answer will vary


  1. How do attitudes toward pregnant women and mothers vary by class and sexual orientation?

Answer will vary


  1. What are the pros and cons of using anesthetics during labor?

Answer will vary


  1. Describe the Lamaze method and what its effects seem to be for mothers and fathers.

Answer will vary



  1. Describe the factors that may contribute to the occurrence of postpartum depression.

Answer will vary


  1. The meanings and consequences of adolescent childbearing depend on its cultural context. Discuss this statement more fully.

Answer will vary


  1. What are additional strains on lesbian couples who have children? How are children affected by having lesbian parents?

Answer will vary


  1. What are a few of the commonalities of all mothers?

Answer will vary


  1. It has been said that mother-blaming is like pollution—so pervasive that it often goes unnoticed. Explain this statement more fully using examples.

Answer will vary


  1. Why is fathering a feminist issue?

Answer will vary



  1. What myths are included in the “Motherhood Mystique?”

Answer will vary



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