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Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition Rolfes Whitney Test Bank

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Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition Rolfes Whitney Test Bank

ISBN:

128587434X

ISBN-13:

9781285874340

 

Description

Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition Rolfes Whitney Test Bank

ISBN:

128587434X

ISBN-13:

9781285874340

 

 

 

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Free Nursing Test Questions:

 

Chapter 13 – The Trace Minerals

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of the trace minerals?
a. A deficiency sign common to many trace minerals is dermatitis
b. The amounts in foods are dependent, in part, on soil composition
c. Deficiencies are more difficult to recognize in children than in adults
d. The amount of all trace minerals in the average person totals approximately 100 grams
e. Deficiencies of trace minerals are virtually unknown, although toxicities are well documented.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   13.1 The Trace Minerals— An Overview

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.1 Summarize key factors unique to the trace minerals.

 

  1. A measure of the rate at which a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body is termed
a. net utilization.
b. bioavailability.
c. biological value.
d. utilization efficiency.
e. biofunctionality.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   13.1 The Trace Minerals— An Overview

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.1 Summarize key factors unique to the trace minerals.

 

  1. What is the oxygen-carrying protein of muscle cells?
a. Transferrin
b. Myoglobin
c. Hemoglobin
d. Cytochrome
e. Oxyglobin.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of iron transport?
a. Albumin is the major iron transport protein in the blood
b. Transferrin in the blood carries iron to the bone marrow
c. Hemochromatosis results from an inability to absorb and transport iron
d. Ferritin functions by transporting iron from the spleen to the bone marrow
e. Chelation is used to increase the bioavailability of iron.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following compounds provides a major storage reservoir for iron?
a. Ferritin
b. Myoglobin
c. Transferrin
d. Hemoglobin
e. Metallothionein

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What percent of the total iron content of a normal diet is heme iron?
a. 1
b. 5
c. 10
d. 15
e. 20

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form?
a. Rice
b. Spinach
c. Chicken
d. Orange juice
e. Watermelon

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following nutrients enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract?
a. Biotin
b. Calcium
c. Vitamin D
d. Vitamin C
e. Vitamin A

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is known to enhance iron absorption?
a. Tea
b. Coffee
c. Foods containing vitamin C
d. Foods containing vitamin E
e. Milk

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Under normal circumstances, what is the average percentage of dietary iron that is absorbed from a mixed diet?
a. 9
b. 18
c. 27
d. 37
e. 45

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What component of tea is responsible for its effect on iron absorption?
a. Tannic acid
b. Lactic acid
c. Citric acid
d. Ascorbic acid
e. Acetic acid

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is a major function of hemosiderin?
a. Enhances absorption of zinc and copper
b. Protects the body against free iron release
c. Transports iron from the intestines to the liver
d. Recycles iron from old red blood cells to the bone marrow
e. Promotes iron excretion to protect against overload

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is hepcidin?
a. A factor in meats that enhances iron absorption
b. An intestinal mucosa protein that assists in iron turnover
c. A substance in legumes that interferes with iron absorption
d. A liver-derived hormone that helps regulate iron absorption and transport
e. A substance produced in the spleen that stores iron

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of iron utilization?
a. Most of the body’s iron is recycled
b. The chief storage site for iron is the intestinal epithelium
c. Iron is absorbed better from supplements than from foods
d. Iron from nonheme food sources is absorbed better than that from heme food sources
e. Vegetarians need 4 times the iron as non-vegetarians.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the average lifespan of red blood cells?
a. Two weeks
b. One month
c. Four months
d. Six months
e. Eight months

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. About how much iron is absorbed from a vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet?
a. One-tenth as much
b. One-half as much
c. The same
d. Twice as much
e. Three times as much

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the chief function of hemosiderin?
a. Stores excess body iron
b. Inhibits hemoglobin synthesis
c. Enhances heme iron absorption
d. Enhances nonheme iron absorption
e. Promotes iron excretion

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is found in the first stage of iron deficiency?
a. Iron stores decline, as assessed by serum ferritin.
b. Hemoglobin levels fall, as assessed by complete blood count.
c. Red blood cell count falls, as assessed by hematocrit count.
d. Hemoglobin synthesis declines, as assessed by erythrocyte protoporphyrin.
e. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin, begins to accumulate.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the major cause of iron deficiency?
a. Blood loss
b. Poor nutrition
c. Hereditary defect
d. Parasitic infections of the GI tract
e. Exposure to environmental toxins

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. How much iron does a person donating a pint of blood lose?
a. 0.5 mg
b. 1.5 mg
c. 2.5 mg
d. 3.5 mg
e. 4.5 mg

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. The erythrocyte protoporphyrin level is used as an indicator of
a. late iron toxicity.
b. early iron toxicity.
c. late iron deficiency.
d. early iron deficiency.
e. adequacy or iron stores.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency?
a. Blood erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels decline as anemia worsens
b. Iron supplements are not as effective at treating anemia as is proper nutrition
c. People with anemia generally become fatigued only when they exert themselves
d. The concave nails of iron-deficiency anemia result from abnormal ferritin levels
e. Red blood cells become hypochromic and enlarged (macrocytic).

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency and behavior?
a. Erythrocyte iron levels fall before mental alertness is affected
b. Moderate iron deficiency promotes constipation
c. Mild iron deficiency impairs energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis
d. Iron deficiency increases risk for infections that promote dysfunctional behavior
e. Severe iron deficiency is associated with paradoxical hyperactivity.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Iron overload is also known as
a. ferrocyanosis.
b. hemoglobinemia.
c. hemochromatosis.
d. metalloferrothionosis.
e. hyperferrotosis.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances?
a. Pica
b. Goiter
c. Tetany
d. Hemosiderosis
e. Metallothionein

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Why are people with iron overload at increased risk for infections?
a. Excess tissue iron destroys vitamin C
b. Iron-rich blood favors growth of bacteria
c. Iron-rich blood impairs the immune system
d. Excess tissue iron interferes with antibiotic function
e. Iron binds with cells that produce T- and NK-cells, decreasing their production.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. The most common cause of iron overload is
a. an injury to the GI tract.
b. a genetic predisposition.
c. excessive use of iron cookware.
d. excessive use of iron supplements.
e. environmental pollution.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What population group is at the highest risk for iron overload?
a. Adult men
b. Adult women
c. Pregnant women
d. Adolescents
e. Infants

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of iron nutrition?
a. Absorption is improved on diets high in phytates
b. Iron deficiency and iron overload share some of the same signs and symptoms
c. The risk for acute iron toxicity is highest among women of childbearing age
d. Iron overload results from a genetic predisposition for excessive synthesis of ferritin
e. Consumption of calcium-rich foods increases absorption.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. On average, women receive only ____ milligrams of iron per day
a. 8 to 9
b. 10 to 11
c. 12 to 13
d. 14 to 15
e. 16 to 17

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following foods provides the greatest amount of iron per serving?
a. Yogurt
b. Skim milk
c. Pinto beans
d. Cheddar cheese
e. Carrots

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following has been shown to improve absorption of iron from iron supplements?
a. Taking then with milk
b. Taking them with orange juice
c. Taking them on an empty stomach rather than with meals
d. Taking them in the form of the ferric salt rather than the ferrous salt
e. Take them with coffee or tea

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a major binding protein for zinc?
a. Ligand
b. Ferritin
c. Hemosiderin
d. Metallothionein
e. Albumin

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the chief transport substance for zinc in the circulation?
a. Albumin
b. Metallothionein
c. Carbonic anhydrase
d. High-density lipoproteins
e. Goitrogen

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following conditions is known to lead to copper deficiency?
a. Excess zinc
b. Excess protein
c. Insufficient iodine
d. Insufficient calcium
e. Cretinism

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for zinc for adults?
a. 20 mg
b. 40 mg
c. 80 mg
d. 120 mg
e. 160 mg

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
a. Nuts and oils
b. Milk and yogurt
c. Fruits
d. Meats and whole-grain cereals
e. Vegetables

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Zinc content is highest in foods that also contain a large amount of
a. fat.
b. fiber.
c. protein.
d. complex carbohydrate.
e. simple carbohydrate.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What formulation of zinc has been found somewhat effective in treating the symptoms of the common cold?
a. Zinc chelator
b. Zinc gluconate
c. Zinc plus ferrous iron
d. Zinc plus copper salt
e. Zinc plus vitamin C

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Goiter is caused primarily by a deficiency of
a. iron.
b. zinc.
c. iodine.
d. selenium.
e. manganese.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine?
a. Iron
b. Copper
c. Iodine
d. Magnesium
e. Manganese

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the primary function of the thyroid hormones?
a. Precursors for hemoglobin synthesis
b. Counteract a deficiency of goitrogens
c. Control the rate of oxygen use by cells
d. Regulate acetylcholine concentrations in the central nervous system
e. Stimulation of the production of antibodies in response to antigens

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. The most common cause of iodine deficiency is
a. insufficient intake of iodine from foods.
b. overconsumption of other trace elements.
c. overconsumption of anti-thyroid substances.
d. pituitary deficiencies of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
e. excess alcohol intake.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a prominent feature of mild iodine deficiency in children?
a. Demineralization
b. Growth retardation
c. Discoloration of teeth
d. Poor performance in school
e. Hyperactivity

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the origin of goitrogens in the diet?
a. Naturally occurring
b. Food industry additives
c. Excessive use of fortified salt
d. Hydrogenation of certain minerals
e. Environmental contamination

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a feature of iodide utilization?
a. It is an integral part of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone.
b. Ingestion of plants of the cabbage family stimulates iodide uptake.
c. A deficiency or a toxicity leads to enlargement of the thyroid gland.
d. The amount in foods is unrelated to the amount of iodine present in the soil.
e. Use of iodized salt has resulted in significant increases in iodine toxicity.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is the richest source of iodine?
a. Corn
b. Seafood
c. Orange juice
d. Cruciferous vegetables
e. Rice

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. During pregnancy, exposure to excessive iodine from foods, prenatal supplements, or medications
a. is associated with subsequent development of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.
b. increases the risk of the development of gestational diabetes.
c. may cause agitation in the mother and fetus.
d. can result in the fetus developing a severe, life-threatening goiter.
e. rarely has a lasting impact on mother or child.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Evaluate                           REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following would most likely result from an excessive intake of iodine?
a. Diarrhea
b. Skin rashes
c. Dehydration
d. Thyroid gland enlargement
e. Pineal stimulation

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following would be the most appropriate food source of iodide for a person who lives inland?
a. Fresh-water fish
b. Iodized table salt
c. Locally grown produce
d. Plants of the cabbage family
e. Soybeans and peanuts

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is an important function of selenium?
a. Helps blood to clot
b. Inhibits the formation of free radicals
c. Stabilizes the alcohol content of beer
d. Acts as a cross-linking agent in collagen
e. Is an important natural food preservative

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Keshan disease risk increases with a deficiency of
a. copper.
b. selenium.
c. manganese.
d. molybdenum.
e. rubidium.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following nutrients has functions similar to those of vitamin E?
a. Iron
b. Selenium
c. Chromium
d. Molybdenum
e. Manganese

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following trace minerals functions primarily in reactions that consume oxygen?
a. Zinc
b. Copper
c. Chromium
d. Molybdenum
e. Cadmium

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for copper?
a. 1 mg/day
b. 2.5 mg/day
c. 7.5 mg/day
d. 10 mg/day
e. 20 mg/day

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson’s disease result from abnormal utilization of
a. iron.
b. zinc.
c. copper.
d. manganese.
e. fluoride.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a feature of copper nutrition?
a. Absorption efficiency is similar to that of iron.
b. It is involved in collagen synthesis and wound healing.
c. Soft water may provide significant amounts in the diet.
d. Deficiency is common in children of Middle East countries.
e. Wilson’s disease is treated with IV copper administration.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper?
a. Chicken
b. Shellfish
c. Beefsteak
d. Hamburger
e. Lamb

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following minerals is a cofactor in the formation of hemoglobin?
a. Iodine
b. Copper
c. Sodium
d. Calcium
e. Selenium

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the primary mechanism associated with the role of fluoride in prevention of dental caries?
a. Fluoride increases calcium absorption, which increases crystal formation of teeth
b. Decay is inhibited due to neutralization of organic acids produced by bacteria on the teeth
c. Decay is reduced due to the inhibitory effects of fluoride on growth of bacteria on the teeth
d. Fluoride becomes incorporated into the crystalline structure of teeth, making them less susceptible to decay
e. Fluoride increases salivation which aids in the removal of bacteria and the foods needed to sustain bacterial growth

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
a. Public water
b. Dark green vegetables
c. Milk and milk products
d. Meats and whole-grain cereals
e. Legumes

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a feature of fluoride in nutrition?
a. Most bottled waters are fluoridated.
b. A severe deficiency is known as fluorosis.
c. Fluorapatite refers to an increase in the desire to eat fluoride-rich foods.
d. A deficiency contributes to the most widespread health problem in the United States.
e. Fluoride supplementation is no longer necessary in much of the U.S.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of
a. iron.
b. proteins.
c. carbohydrates.
d. metallothionein.
e. lipids.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Chromium deficiency is characterized by
a. hypertension.
b. hyperglycemia.
c. enlargement of the liver.
d. enlargement of the thyroid gland.
e. hyperparathyroidism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of the mineral molybdenum?
a. The activity of insulin is enhanced.
b. Deficiency symptoms in people are unknown.
c. Unusually poor food sources are legumes and cereal grains.
d. Toxicity symptoms in human beings include damage to red blood cells.
e. Excess intake can result in reproductive abnormalities.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Which of the following trace minerals is known to be involved in bone development?
a. Tin
b. Cobalt
c. Silicon
d. Barium
e. Boron

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   13.1 The Trace Minerals— An Overview

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.1 Summarize key factors unique to the trace minerals.

 

  1. What term designates foods that contain nonnutrient substances that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition?
a. Health foods
b. Organic foods
c. Functional foods
d. Disease preventative foods
e. Supplemental nutrition

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   H-13 Phytochemicals and Functional Foods

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-13 Define phytochemicals and explain how they might defend against chronic diseases.

 

  1. Lycopene is classified as a(n)
a. lignan.
b. carotenoid.
c. phytoestrogen.
d. enzyme cofactor.
e. teratogen.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   H-13 Phytochemicals and Functional Foods

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-13 Define phytochemicals and explain how they might defend against chronic diseases.

 

  1. Flaxseed is a rich source of
a. lutein.
b. lignans.
c. sulforaphane.
d. organosulfur compounds.
e. phytoestrogens.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   H-13 Phytochemicals and Functional Foods

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-13 Define phytochemicals and explain how they might defend against chronic diseases.

 

  1. The active components in black tea and green tea associated with favorable effects on the cardiovascular system are
a. quercetins.
b. flavonoids.
c. resverotrols.
d. sulforaphones.
e. luteins.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   H-13 Phytochemicals and Functional Foods

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-13 Define phytochemicals and explain how they might defend against chronic diseases.

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. The iron-storage protein ____________________ captures iron from food and stores it in the cells of the small intestine.

 

ANS:  ferritin

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. When the body needs iron, it is released to an iron transport protein called ____________________.

 

ANS:  transferrin

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ____________________ is found only in foods derived from the flesh of animals.

 

ANS:  Heme iron

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. When iron concentrations become abnormally high, the liver produces a storage protein called ____________________ .

 

ANS:  hemosiderin

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ____________________ helps to maintain blood iron within the normal range by limiting absorption from the small intestine and controlling release from the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

 

ANS:  Hepcidin

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. The iron overload disorder known as ____________________ is caused by a genetic failure to prevent unneeded iron in the diet from being absorbed.

 

ANS:  hemochromatosis

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their structures are known as ____________________.

 

ANS:  metalloenzymes

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. The heart disease that is prevalent in regions of China where the soil and foods lack selenium is called ____________________.

 

ANS:  Keshan disease

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. In ____________________, copper accumulates in the liver and brain, creating a life-threatening toxicity.

 

ANS:  Wilson’s disease

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Miners who inhale large quantities of ____________________ dust on the job over prolonged periods show symptoms of a brain disease, along with abnormalities in appearance and behavior.

 

ANS:  manganese

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

MATCHING

 

 

a. Tea k. Chromium
b. Iron l. Fluorosis
c. Pica m. Myoglobin
d. Zinc n. MFP Factor
e. Heme o. Hemoglobin
f. Goiter p. Tannic acid
g. Cobalt q. Fluorapatite
h. Ferritin r. Fortified salt
i. Keshan s. Metallothionein
j. Nonheme t. Hemochromatosis

 

 

  1. Iron storage protein

 

  1. Form of iron found only in animal flesh

 

  1. Form of iron found in both plant and animal foods

 

  1. Oxygen-carrying protein in muscle

 

  1. Iron-containing protein in erythrocytes

 

  1. Enhances absorption of nonheme iron

 

  1. Substance in coffee and tea that reduces iron absorption

 

  1. Toxicity from this mineral is twice as prevalent as deficiency in men

 

  1. Condition characterized by large deposits of iron storage protein in body tissues

 

  1. Craving for non-food substances

 

  1. A deficiency of this element retards growth and arrests sexual maturation

 

  1. Zinc binding protein of the intestine

 

  1. Iodine deficiency disease

 

  1. Major dietary source of iodine

 

  1. Disease associated with severe selenium deficiency

 

  1. Stabilized form of tooth crystal

 

  1. Deficiency leads to hyperglycemia

 

  1. Condition associated with discoloration of tooth enamel

 

  1. Significant dietary source of fluoride

 

  1. Mineral that forms integral part of vitamin B12

 

  1. ANS:  H                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  E                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  J                     DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  M                   DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  O                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  N                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  P                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  T                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  S                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  F                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  R                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  I                     DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  Q                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  K                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  L                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                        REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. ANS:  G                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   13.1 The Trace Minerals— An Overview

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.1 Summarize key factors unique to the trace minerals.

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Choose any three trace elements and discuss their major functions, deficiency symptoms, toxicity symptoms, and food sources.

 

ANS:

Iron

Functions: Part of the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood; part of the protein myoglobin in muscles, which makes oxygen available for muscle contraction; necessary for the utilization of energy as part of the cells’ metabolic machinery

Deficiency: Anemia: weakness, fatigue, headaches; impaired work performance and cognitive function; impaired immunity; pale skin, nail beds, mucous membranes, and palm creases; concave nails; inability to regulate body temperature; pica

Toxicity: GI distress; Iron overload: infections, fatigue, joint pain, skin pigmentation, organ damage

Sources: Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes, dried fruits

 

Zinc

Functions: Part of many enzymes; associated with the hormone insulin; involved in making genetic material and proteins, immune reactions, transport of vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, the making of sperm, and the normal development of the fetus

Deficiency: Growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, impaired immune function, hair loss, eye and skin lesions, loss of appetite

Toxicity: Loss of appetite, impaired immunity, low HDL, copper and iron deficiencies

Sources: Protein-containing foods: red meats, shellfish, whole grains; some fortified cereals

 

Iodine

Functions: A component of two thyroid hormones that help to regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate

Deficiency: Simple goiter, cretinism; Underactive thyroid gland, goiter, mental and physical retardation in infants (cretinism)

Toxicity: Underactive thyroid gland, elevated TSH, goiter

Sources: Iodized salt, seafood, bread, dairy products, plants grown in iodine-rich soil and animals fed those plants

 

Selenium

Functions: Defends against oxidation; regulates thyroid hormone

Deficiency: Predisposition to heart disease characterized by cardiac tissue becoming fibrous (Keshan disease)

Toxicity: Loss and brittleness of hair and nails; skin rash, fatigue, irritability, and nervous system disorders; garlic breath odor

Sources: Seafood, meat, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables (depending on soil content)

 

Copper

Functions: Necessary for the absorption and use of iron in the formation of hemoglobin; part of several enzymes

Deficiency: Anemia, bone abnormalities

Toxicity: Liver damage

Sources: Seafood, nuts, whole grains, seeds, legumes

 

Manganese

Functions: Cofactor for several enzymes; bone formation

Deficiency: Rare

Toxicity: Nervous system disorders

Sources: Nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables, tea

 

Fluoride

Functions: Strengthens teeth; helps to make teeth resistant to decay

Deficiency: Susceptibility to tooth decay

Toxicity: Fluorosis (pitting and discoloration of teeth)

Sources: Drinking water (if fluoride containing or fluoridated), tea, seafood

 

Chromium

Functions: Enhances insulin action and may improve glucose tolerance

Deficiency: Diabetes-like condition

Toxicity: None reported

Sources: Meats (especially liver), whole grains, brewer’s yeast

 

Molybdenum

Functions: Cofactor for several enzymes

Deficiency: Unknown

Toxicity: None reported; reproductive effects in animals

Sources: Legumes, cereals, nuts

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Explain the difference between heme and nonheme iron. How can the efficiency of absorption be increased for both types of iron?

 

ANS:

Iron absorption depends in part on its dietary source. Iron occurs in two forms in foods: as heme iron, which is found only in foods derived from the flesh of animals, such as meats, poultry, and fish and as nonheme iron, which is found in both plant-derived and animal-derived foods. On average, heme iron represents about 10 percent of the iron a person consumes in a day. Even though heme iron accounts for only a small proportion of the intake, it is so well absorbed that it contributes significant iron. About 25 percent of heme iron and 17 percent of nonheme iron is absorbed, depending on dietary factors and the body’s iron stores. In iron deficiency, absorption increases. In iron overload, absorption declines.

 

Heme iron has a high bioavailability and is not influenced by dietary factors. In contrast, several dietary factors influence nonheme iron absorption. Meat, fish, and poultry contain not only the well-absorbed heme iron, but also a peptide (sometimes called the MFP factor) that promotes the absorption of nonheme iron from other foods eaten at the same meal.

 

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) also enhances nonheme iron absorption from foods eaten at the same meal by capturing the iron and keeping it in the reduced ferrous form, ready for absorption. Some acids (such as citric acid) and sugars (such as fructose) also enhance nonheme iron absorption. Some dietary factors bind with nonheme iron, inhibiting absorption. These factors include the phytates in legumes, whole grains, and rice; the vegetable proteins in soybeans, other legumes, and nuts; the calcium in milk; and the polyphenols (such as tannic acid) in tea, coffee, grain products, oregano, and red wine.

 

The many dietary enhancers, inhibitors, and their combined effects make it difficult to estimate iron absorption. Most of these factors exert a strong influence individually, but not when combined with the others in a meal. Furthermore, the impact of the combined effects diminishes when a diet is evaluated over several days. When multiple meals are analyzed together, three factors appear to be most relevant: MFP factor and vitamin C as enhancers and phytates as inhibitors.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Discuss factors that influence the bioavailability of dietary iron.

 

ANS:

Meats, fish, and poultry contribute the most iron per serving; other protein-rich foods such as legumes and eggs are also good sources. Although an indispensable part of the diet, foods in the milk group are notoriously poor in iron. Grain products vary, with whole-grain, enriched, and fortified breads and cereals contributing significantly to iron intakes. Finally, dark greens (such as broccoli) and dried fruits (such as raisins) contribute some iron.

 

The bioavailability of iron is high in meats, fish, and poultry, intermediate in grains and legumes, and low in most vegetables, especially those containing oxalates such as spinach. As mentioned earlier, the amount of iron ultimately absorbed from a meal depends on the combined effects of several enhancing and inhibiting factors. For maximum absorption of nonheme iron, eat meat for the MFP factor and fruits or vegetables for vitamin C. The iron of baked beans, for example, will be enhanced by the MFP factor in a piece of pork served with them. The iron of bread will be enhanced by the vitamin C in a slice of  tomato on a sandwich.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What are the concerns of iron nutrition in vegetarians?

 

ANS:

Overall, about 18 percent of dietary iron is absorbed from mixed diets and only about 10 percent from vegetarian diets. Vegetarian diets do not have the benefit of easy-to-absorb heme iron or the help of the MFP factor in enhancing absorption.

 

Vegetarians need 1.8 times as much iron to make up for the low bioavailability typical of their diets. Good vegetarian sources of iron include soy foods (such as soybeans and tofu), legumes (such as lentils and kidney beans), nuts (such as cashews and almonds), seeds (such as pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds), cereals (such as cream of wheat and oatmeal), dried fruit (such as apricots and raisins), vegetables (such as mushrooms and potatoes), and blackstrap molasses.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What is the prevalence of zinc deficiency? What are the signs and symptoms of zinc deficiency?

 

ANS:

Severe zinc deficiency is not widespread in developed countries, but in the developing world, nearly 2 billion people are zinc deficient. Human zinc deficiency was first reported in the 1960s in children and adolescent boys in Egypt, Iran, and Turkey. Children have especially high zinc needs because they are growing rapidly and synthesizing many zinc-containing proteins, and the native diets among those populations were not meeting these needs. Middle Eastern diets are traditionally low in the richest zinc source, meats. Furthermore, the staple foods in these diets are legumes, unleavened breads, and other whole-grain foods—all high in fiber and phytates, which inhibit zinc absorption.

 

Severe growth retardation and immature sexual development are characteristic of zinc deficiency. In addition, zinc deficiency hinders digestion and absorption, causing diarrhea, which worsens malnutrition not only for zinc, but for other nutrients as well. It also impairs the immune response, making infections likely—among them, pneumonia and GI tract infections, which worsen malnutrition, including zinc malnutrition (a classic downward spiral of events). Chronic zinc deficiency damages the central nervous system and brain and may lead to poor motor development and cognitive performance. Because zinc deficiency directly impairs vitamin A metabolism, vitamin A–deficiency symptoms often appear. Zinc deficiency also disturbs thyroid function and the metabolic rate. It alters taste, causes loss of appetite, and slows wound healing—in fact, its symptoms are so pervasive that generalized malnutrition and sickness are more likely to be the diagnosis than simple zinc deficiency.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What are the benefits of zinc supplementation in developing countries?

 

ANS:

In developed countries, most people obtain enough zinc from the diet without resorting to supplements. In developing countries, zinc supplementation plays a major role in effectively reducing the incidence of disease and death associated with diarrhea and pneumonia.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. What are the effects of iodine deficiency and iodine excess? What population groups show iodine abnormalities?

 

ANS:

The hypothalamus regulates thyroid hormone production by controlling the release of the pituitary’s thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). With iodine deficiency, thyroid hormone production declines, and the body responds by secreting more TSH in a futile attempt to accelerate iodide uptake by the thyroid gland. If a deficiency persists, the cells of the thyroid gland enlarge to trap as much iodide as possible. Sometimes the gland enlarges until it makes a visible lump in the neck, a goiter.

 

Goiter may be the earliest and most obvious sign of iodine deficiency, but the most tragic and prevalent damage occurs in the brain. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. Nearly one-third of the world’s school-age children have iodine deficiency. Children with even a mild iodine deficiency typically have goiters and perform poorly in school. With sustained treatment, however, mental performance in the classroom as well as thyroid function improves.

 

Even in the United States, pregnant women may not get as much iodine as they need. A severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy causes the extreme and irreversible mental and physical retardation known as cretinism. Cretinism affects approximately 6 million people worldwide and can be averted by the early diagnosis and treatment of maternal iodine deficiency. A worldwide effort to provide iodized salt to people living in iodine-deficient areas has been dramatically successful. An estimated 70 percent of all households in developing countries have access to iodized salt. Because iron deficiency is common among people with iodine deficiency and because iron deficiency reduces the effectiveness of iodized salt, dual fortification with both iron and iodine may be most beneficial.

 

Excessive intakes of iodine can interfere with thyroid function and enlarge the gland, just as deficiency can. During pregnancy, exposure to excessive iodine from foods, prenatal supplements, or medications is especially damaging to the developing infant. An infant exposed to toxic amounts of iodine during gestation may develop a goiter so severe as to block the airways and cause suffocation. The UL is 1100 micrograms per day for an adult—several times higher than average or recommended intakes.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Discuss the essential nature of selenium. Where and why are deficiencies observed in the world?

 

ANS:

Selenium is one of the body’s antioxidant nutrients, working primarily as a part of proteins—most notably, the glutathione peroxidase enzymes. Glutathione peroxidase and vitamin E work in tandem. Glutathione peroxidase prevents free-radical formation, thus blocking the chain reaction before it begins; if free radicals do form and a chain reaction starts, vitamin E stops it.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Discuss the role of copper in the disorders Menkes disease and Wilson’s disease.

 

ANS:

Two rare genetic disorders affect copper status in opposite directions. In Menkes disease, the intestinal cells absorb copper, but cannot release it into circulation, causing a life-threatening deficiency. Treatment involves giving copper intravenously. In Wilson’s disease, copper accumulates in the liver and brain, creating a life-threatening toxicity. Wilson’s disease can be controlled by reducing copper intake, using chelating agents such as penicillamine, and taking zinc supplements, which interfere with copper absorption.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Discuss the essential nature of fluoride. What level in the diet is considered optimal? What are the effects of excess fluoride intake and how does toxicity usually occur?

 

ANS:

During the mineralization of bones and teeth, calcium and phosphorus form crystals called hydroxyapatite. Then fluoride replaces the hydroxyl (OH) portions of the hydroxyapatite crystal, forming fluorapatite, which makes the teeth stronger and more resistant to decay. Dental caries ranks as the nation’s most widespread public health problem: an estimated 95 percent of the population have decayed, missing, or filled teeth. These dental problems can quickly lead to a multitude of nutrition problems by interfering with a person’s ability to chew and eat a wide variety of foods. Where fluoride is lacking, dental decay is common.

 

Too much fluoride can damage the teeth, causing fluorosis. For this reason, a UL has been established. In mild cases, the teeth develop small white flecks; in severe cases, the enamel becomes pitted and permanently stained. Fluorosis occurs only during tooth development and cannot be reversed, making its prevention during the first 3 years of life a high priority.  To limit fluoride ingestion, take care not to swallow fluoride-containing dental products such as toothpaste and mouthwash and use fluoride supplements only as prescribed by a physician.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Discuss the essential nature of chromium, and list good food sources of chromium. Why are chromium supplements promoted by the supplements industry?

 

ANS:

Chromium helps maintain glucose homeostasis by enhancing the activity of the hormone insulin. When chromium is lacking, a diabetes-like condition may develop, with elevated blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, insulin response, and glucagon response. Some research suggests that chromium supplements lower blood glucose or improve insulin responses in type 2 diabetes, but findings have not been consistent.

 

Chromium is present in a variety of foods. The best sources are unrefined foods, particularly liver, brewer’s yeast, and whole grains. The more refined foods people eat, the less chromium they ingest.

 

Supplement advertisements have succeeded in convincing consumers that they can lose fat and build muscle by taking chromium picolinate. Whether chromium supplements (either picolinate or plain) reduce body fat or improve muscle strength remains controversial.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Discuss the essential nature of molybdenum, including food sources.

 

ANS:

Molybdenum acts as a working part of several metalloenzymes. Dietary deficiencies of molybdenum are unknown because the amounts needed are minuscule—as little as 0.1 part per million parts of body tissue. Legumes, breads and other grain products, leafy green vegetables, milk, and liver are molybdenum-rich foods. Average daily intakes fall within the suggested range of intakes.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.2 The Trace Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.2 Identify the main roles, deficiency symptoms, and food sources for each of the essential trace minerals (iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum).

 

  1. Discuss the effects of lead exposure on health and human performance.

 

ANS:

Chemically similar to nutrient minerals such as iron, calcium, and zinc (cations with two positive charges), lead displaces them from some of the metabolic sites they normally occupy so they are then unable to perform their roles. For example, lead competes with iron in heme, but it cannot carry oxygen. Similarly, lead competes with calcium in the brain, but it cannot signal messages from nerve cells. Excess lead in the blood also deranges the structure of red blood cell membranes, making them leaky and fragile. Lead interacts with white blood cells, too, impairing their ability to fight infection, and it binds to antibodies, thwarting their effort to resist disease.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   13.3 Contaminant Minerals

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.13.3 Describe how contaminant minerals disrupt body processes and impair nutrition status.

 

  1. What is the meaning and significance of functional foods? Give several examples of potential functional foods and their proposed uses.

 

ANS:

The concept that foods provide health benefits beyond those of the nutrients emerged from numerous epidemiological studies showing the protective effects of plant­based diets on cancer and heart disease. People have been using foods to maintain health and prevent disease for years, but now these foods have been given a name— they are called functional foods.

 

Soy may protect against breast and prostate cancers. Soybeans— as well as other legumes, flaxseeds, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables—are a rich source of an array of phytochemicals, among them the phytoestrogens. Because the chemical structure of phytoestrogens is similar to the hormone estrogen, they can weakly mimic or modulate the effects of estrogen in the body. They also have antioxidant activity that appears to slow the growth of some cancers.

 

Soy foods appear to be most effective when consumed in moderation early and throughout life. ImportantlyRemember,y extracts and phytoestrogen supplements are ill­advised—especially for women with breast cancer and those with high risk factors—as phytoestrogens may promote the growth of estrogen­dependent tumors (such as breast cancer). The American Cancer Society recommends that women with breast cancer should consume only moderate amounts of soy as part of a healthy plant­based diet and should not intentionally ingest high levels of soy or supplements of phytoestrogens.

 

Limited evidence suggests that tomatoes may offer protection against some cancers. Among the phytochemicals thought to be responsible for this effect is lycopene, one of the many carotenoids. Lycopene is the pigment that gives apricots, guava, papaya, pink grape­ fruits, and watermelon their red color—and it is especially abundant in tomato. Because food processing and cooking can improve carotenoid absorption, cooked tomato products, such as spaghetti sauce, provide even more lycopene. Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant that seems to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Importantly, the benefits of lycopene have been seen when people have eaten foods containing lycopene; lycopene supplements may interfere with cancer treatments.

 

Diets based primarily on unprocessed foods appear to support heart health better than those founded on highly refined foods—perhaps because of the abundance of nutrients, fiber, or phytochemicals such as the flavonoids. Flavonoids, a large group of phytochemicals known for their health­promoting qualities, are found in whole grains, legumesRemember,y, vegetables, fruits, herbs, spices, teas, chocolate, nuts, olive oil, and red wines. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants that may help to protect LDL cholesterol against oxidation, minimize inflammation, and reduce blood platelet stickiness, thereby slowing the progression of atherosclerosis and making blood clots less likely. Whereas an abundance of flavonoid­containing foods in the diet may lower the risks of chronic diseases, no claims can be made for flavonoids themselves as the protective factor, particularly when they are extracted from foods and sold as supplements. In fact, purified flavonoids may even be harmful.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   H-13 Phytochemicals and Functional Foods

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-13 Define phytochemicals and explain how they might defend against chronic diseases.

 

  1. Discuss the health benefits and food sources of flavonoids.

 

ANS:

Flavonoids, a large group of phytochemicals known for their health­promoting qualities, are found in whole grains, legumesRemember,y, vegetables, fruits, herbs, spices, teas, chocolate, nuts, olive oil, and red wines. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants that may help to protect LDL cholesterol against oxidation, minimize inflammation, and reduce blood platelet stickiness, thereby slowing the progression of atherosclerosis and making blood clots less likely. Whereas an abundance of flavonoid­containing foods in the diet may lower the risks of chronic diseases, no claims can be made for flavonoids themselves as the protective factor, particularly when they are extracted from foods and sold as supplements. In fact, purified flavonoids may even be harmful.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                       REF:   H-13 Phytochemicals and Functional Foods

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-13 Define phytochemicals and explain how they might defend against chronic diseases.

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