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Vanders Human Physiology 13th Edition Widmaier Raff Strang Test Bank

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Vanders Human Physiology 13th Edition Widmaier Raff Strang Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073378305

ISBN-10: 0073378305

 

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Vanders Human Physiology 13th Edition Widmaier Raff Strang Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0073378305

ISBN-10: 0073378305

 

 

 

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Chapter 13 Test Bank

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system?
    A. net uptake of carbon dioxide from the air and removal of oxygen from the blood
    B. regulation of blood H+ concentration
    C. trapping of blood clots
    D. phonation
    E. defense against microbes

 

  1. Which is TRUE about the pleural sac?
    A. It is continuous with the atmosphere and protects the lungs from infection.
    B. It is a closed sac surrounding each lung that contains only a tiny volume of lubricating fluid.
    C. It is a closed sac surrounding each lung and contains a large volume of surfactant.
    D. It is a closed, air-filled space surrounding both lungs that has a negative pressure compared to atmospheric pressure.
    E. It is bounded by pleural membranes that are very thin, which allows for abundant gas exchange.

 

  1. Which structure is NOT part of the “anatomical dead space?”
    A.  bronchiole
    B.  trachea
    C.  bronchus
    D.  respiratory bronchiole
    E.  terminal bronchiole

 

  1. What is one function of the type II alveolar cells?
    A.  production of surfactant
    B.  secretion of mucus
    C.  phagocytizing bacteria and other foreign particles
    D.  make up the majority of the epithelial wall of the alveoli
    E.  lining the pleural space

 

  1. Which of the following is most responsible for keeping the lung surface and the thoracic wall from separating?
    A.  the presence of surfactant
    B.  the negative pressure in the alveolar space
    C.  the force exerted  by  the external intercostal muscles
    D.  the surface tension of the intrapleural fluid
    E.  alveolar pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure

 

  1. During an unforced exhalation/expiration, which would NOT be true?
    A.  alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure
    B.  intrapleural pressure is greater than alveolar pressure
    C.  intrapleural pressure becomes less negative
    D.  the diaphragm relaxes
    E.  lung volume decreases

 

  1. Which of these causes inhalation/inspiration?
    A.  increase in the curvature (upward movement) of the diaphragm
    B.  movement of the ribs closer together due to contraction of the internal intercostal muscles
    C.  flattening (downward movement) of the diaphragm
    D.  contraction of the abdominal muscles
    E.  alveolar pressure increasing above atmospheric pressure

 

  1. Which is normally TRUE about the intrapleural pressure?
    A. It is lower than alveolar pressure.
    B. It is between +5 and +10 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure at functional residual capacity.
    C. It alternates between being less than, and greater than, atmospheric pressure.
    D. During a passive exhale, it increases to a value above atmospheric pressure.
    E.

It is always the same as atmospheric pressure during a passive exhale.

 

 

  1. The volume of air flowing into the alveoli during inhalation/inspiration is increased when there is an increase in which of these?
    A.  airway resistance
    B.  the pressure gradient from the atmosphere to the alveoli
    C.  the pressure in the intrapleural space
    D.  the curvature of the diaphragm
    E.  the volume of air in the intrapleural space

 

  1. Under normal circumstances, which of the following would result from an increase in transpulmonary pressure?
    A.  inhalation/inspiration
    B.  exhalation/expiration
    C.  a collapsed lung
    D.  pneumothorax
    E.  emphysema

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding pulmonary surfactant is TRUE?
    A.  It is secreted by type I alveolar cells.
    B.  It increases the compliance of the lungs.
    C.  It increases airway resistance.
    D.  It is secreted into the intrapleural space.
    E.  It can only interact with other lipid molecules.

 

  1. Under what conditions is lung compliance increased?
    A.  respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn
    B.  prolonged shallow breathing
    C.  cystic fibrosis
    D.  emphysema
    E.  asthma

 

  1. Which of the following drugs, administered as an aerosol spray, would be most likely to help an infant with respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn?
    A.  pulmonary surfactant
    B.  a beta-adrenergic agonist
    C.  a muscarinic agonist
    D.  histamine
    E.  a beta-adrenergic antagonist

 

  1. Which of the following is a cause of asthma?
    A. loss of alveoli
    B. inflammation of the bronchioles
    C. elevation of intrapleural pressure to equal atmospheric pressure
    D. environmental chemicals that stimulate beta-2 adrenergic receptors
    E.

lack of pulmonary surfactant

 

 

  1. Which of the following drugs, administered as an aerosol spray, would be most likely to help a victim of an asthmatic attack?
    A.  pulmonary surfactant
    B.  a beta-2 adrenergic agonist
    C.  a muscarinic agonist
    D.  histamine
    E.  a beta-2 adrenergic antagonist

 

  1. During a physical examination, Joe learns that his resting tidal volume is 550 ml; his average resting respiratory rate is 15 breaths per minute; his total lung capacity is 6000 ml; and his anatomic dead space is 150 ml. Joe’s resting alveolar ventilation is
    A.  72.0 L/min
    B.  6.0 L/min
    C.  4.2 L/min
    D.  1.8 L/min
    E.  0.5 L/min

 

  1. When lying down, a subject’s respiratory rate is 12 breaths per minute, his anatomical dead space is 150 ml, and his minute ventilation is 7 L/min.  Which of these is closest to his alveolar ventilation in liters per minute?
    A.  6.0
    B.  5.2
    C.  4.2
    D.  3.0
    E.  0.583

 

  1. A respiratory physiologist has measured ventilation parameters for each of three subjects: Tidal volume (TV); Respiratory rate (RR), and Anatomic dead space volume (ADSV).
    Which of the following statements accurately compares the alveolar ventilation in the three men?
    A.  Tom’s is the largest; Dick’s and Harry’s are the same.
    B.  Tom’s is the smallest; Dick’s and Harry’s are the same.
    C.  Tom’s is greater than Dick’s, which is greater than Harry’s.
    D.  Dick’s is greater than Harry’s, which is greater than Tom’s.
    E.  Harry’s is greater than Dick’s, which is greater than Tom’s.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the response of arteriolar smooth muscle to changing oxygen partial pressures is
    TRUE?
    A. Both systemic and pulmonary arterioles respond to a decrease in PO2 by constricting.
    B. Both systemic and pulmonary arterioles respond to a decrease in PO2 by dilating.
    C. Systemic arterioles respond to a decrease in PO2 by dilating but pulmonary arterioles constrict in response to decreased PO2.
    D. Systemic arterioles respond to a decrease in PO2 by constricting but pulmonary arterioles dilate in response to decreased PO2.
    E. Changes in PO2 do not affect arteriolar smooth muscle in the pulmonary system.

 

  1. Which is TRUE regarding how gasses dissolve in liquids?
    A. The concentration of a particular gas in a liquid equilibrates to match the concentration of that gas in the air to which the liquid is exposed.
    B. Different gasses have the same solubility in liquids.
    C. The partial pressure of a gas in a liquid is equal to the amount freely diffusing in the liquid plus the amount bound
    to large molecules within the liquid.

    D. The partial pressure of a particular gas in a liquid equilibrates to match the partial pressure of that gas in the air to which the liquid is exposed.
    E. As the partial pressure of a particular gas in an air sample increases, the concentration of that gas in a liquid exposed to that air sample decreases.

 

  1. Regarding the partial pressures of O2 and CO2, which of the following statements is NOT true in a normal person at rest?
    A.  Atmospheric PO2 is greater than alveolar PO2.
    B.  The PCO2 in air is less than alveolar PCO2.
    C.  The PO2 in systemic arteries is typically greater than the alveolar PO2.
    D.  PCO2 in the systemic veins is greater than systemic arterial PCO2.
    E.  PCO2 in the pulmonary arteries is greater than pulmonary venous PCO2.

 

  1. Regarding the relationships between the rates of oxygen consumption/carbon dioxide production and alveolar ventilation, which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.  Increased ventilation without a similar increase in metabolism is called hypoventilation.
    B.  In hypoventilation, alveolar PCO2 decreases below resting levels.
    C.  In hyperventilation, alveolar PCO2 can decrease to zero.
    D.  A decrease in metabolism without a similar decrease in alveolar ventilation would result in hyperventilation.
    E.  An increase in ventilation with a matching increase in metabolism is called hyperventilation.

 

  1. Which of these results from hyperventilation?
    A.  increased alveolar PCO2 and decreased alveolar PO2
    B.  an increase in both alveolar PCO2 and PO2
    C.   decreased alveolar PCO2 and increased alveolar PO2
    D.  a decrease in both alveolar PCO2 and PO2
    E.  the same alveolar PCO2 as under normal conditions

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true regarding ventilation-perfusion inequality?
    A.  No inequality exists in normal lungs.
    B.  It may result from increased alveolar dead space.
    C.  It is increased from normal in patients with emphysema.
    D.  It is caused by too little or too much blood flow relative to ventilation.
    E.  It is caused by too little or too much ventilation relative to blood flow.

 

  1. In which form is most of the oxygen carried in arterial blood?
    A.  bound to hemoglobin
    B.  dissolved in the plasma
    C.  dissolved in the cytosol of erythrocytes
    D.  converted to HCO3
    E.  bound to myoglobin

 

  1. If all other factors remain the same, which of these results in an increase in the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin?
    A. increased plasma [H+]
    B. increased plasma temperature
    C. increased plasma [2,3 diphosphoglycerate]
    D. increased plasma PO2
    E. increased plasma [carbon monoxide]

 

  1. Which of these is demonstrated by the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?
    A.  The greater the PO2of the blood, the greater the dissociation of O2 from hemoglobin.
    B.  At normal resting systemic arterial PO2 , hemoglobin is almost 100% saturated with oxygen.
    C.  At normal resting systemic venous PO2 , only about 75% of the hemoglobin is in the form of deoxyhemoglobin.
    D.  More additional oxygen binds to hemoglobin when going from a PO2 of 60 to 100 mmHg, than is added when going from a PO2 of 40 to 60 mmHg.
    E.  As PO2 increases, the saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen increases linearly.

 

  1. Curve B below represents the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve for normal body temperature, arterial hydrogen ion concentration, and DPG concentration.
    A.  Curve A may represent the dissociation at higher than normal arterial H+ concentration.
    B.  Curve C may represent the dissociation at lower than normal body temperature.
    C.  Curve A may represent the dissociation at very low 2,3 diphosphoglycerate levels.
    D.  Curve C may represent the dissociation at lower than normal arterial H+ concentration.
    E.  Curve A may represent the dissociation at higher than normal body temperature.

 

  1. Which of the following would cause a decrease in the binding affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen?
    A.  increased pH of the blood
    B.  increased temperature of the blood
    C.  decreased DPG levels in erythrocytes
    D.  the presence of carbon monoxide
    E.  decreased concentration of H+ in the blood

 

  1. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes a reaction that combines which of the following?
    A.  H2O and O2
    B.  H2O and CO2
    C.  H2O and CO
    D.  H+ and HCO3-
    E.  CO2 and O2

 

  1. After CO2 is produced by tissues, in what form is most of that carbon transported to the lungs for removal from the body?
    A.  as dissolved CO2
    B.  bound to hemoglobin
    C.  as H2CO3
    D.  as dissolved HCO3
    E.  as carbonic anhydrase

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the transport of CO2 in blood is FALSE?
    A.  Some of the CO2 in blood is dissolved in plasma.
    B.  Some of the CO2 in blood is dissolved in the cytosol of erythrocytes.
    C.  Some of the CO2 in blood is bound to hemoglobin.
    D.  Most of the CO2 in blood is converted to another molecule.
    E.  Some of the CO2 in blood is converted to chloride.

 

  1. Which is a result of hyperventilation?
    A.  respiratory alkalosis
    B.  respiratory acidosis
    C.  increased blood PCO2
    D.  metabolic acidosis
    E.  metabolic alkalosis

 

  1. Which occurs as a result of hypoventilation?
    A.  the pH of the blood increases
    B.  levels of blood O2 increase
    C.  levels of blood H+ ions increase
    D.  alveolar CO2 decreases to near atmospheric levels
    E.  alveolar oxygen increases toward atmospheric levels

 

  1. Which of these correctly describes the chloride shift?
    A. In the lungs, chloride enters red blood cells in exchange for bicarbonate ions.
    B. In the tissues, chloride exits red blood cells in exchange for carbonic acid.
    C. In the tissues, chloride enters red blood cells in exchange for bicarbonate ions.
    D. In the lungs, chloride enters red blood cells in exchange for CO2.
    E. In the tissues, chloride enters red blood cells in exchange for CO2.

 

  1. Which is a proposed benefit of hemoglobin’s ability to bind and transport nitric oxide?
    A.  It allows hemoglobin to resist the effects of small pH changes as a buffer molecule.
    B.  By circulating into peripheral vessels, it will trigger vasodilation to improve local blood flow.
    C.  As it circulates it promotes smooth muscle of arteries and arterioles to contract, to increase blood pressure as needed.
    D.  It acts as an enzyme cofactor necessary to maintaining a “clean and smooth” endothelial lining within blood vessels.
    E.  It provides a carrier upon which additional electrolytes can be transported to deficient tissues in the body.

 

  1. What brain center has neurons that fire mainly during inspiration and have input to the spinal motor neurons that activate the diaphragm and inspiratory intercostal muscles?
    A.  the ventral respiratory group of the medulla oblongata
    B.  the pre-Botzinger complex
    C.  the dorsal respiratory group of the medulla oblongata
    D.  the pneumotaxic center of the pons
    E.  the apneustic center of the pons

 

  1. Action potentials in neurons in the inspiratory center of the medulla result in action potentials in the ________ nerves to the diaphragm, which in turn cause ________ of the muscle, resulting in a/an ________ in the volume of the thoracic cage.
    A.  motor; contraction; decrease
    B.  parasympathetic; contraction; decrease
    C.  sympathetic; contraction; increase
    D.  motor; contraction; increase
    E.  sympathetic; relaxation; increase

 

  1. Which of the following are chemoreceptors?
    A.  hair cells in the cochlea
    B.  receptors in the aortic and carotid bodies
    C.  baroreceptors in the aortic and carotid arch
    D.  receptors that mediate the Hering-Breuer reflex

 

  1. Which of the following is most responsible for detecting an increase in systemic arterial H+ concentration?
    A.  the medulla of the brainstem
    B.  the peripheral chemoreceptors
    C.  the central chemoreceptors
    D.  the diaphragm
    E.  the dorsal respiratory group

 

  1. What is the primary regulator of the magnitude of alveolar ventilation under normal circumstances?
    A.  the H+ concentration in the brain extracellular fluid, which is monitored by central chemoreceptors
    B.  The PO2 of the arterial blood, which is monitored by central chemoreceptors
    C.  The PO2 of the arterial blood, which is monitored by peripheral chemoreceptors
    D.  the H+ concentration in the arterial blood, which is monitored by central chemoreceptors
    E.  stretch receptors in the lung

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding control of respiration is correct?
    A.  A slight decrease in arterial PO2 is a stronger stimulus for increased ventilation than is a comparable decrease in arterial PCO2.
    B.  The most important signal for regulating ventilation is the H+ concentration of arterial blood.
    C.  Increased concentrations of lactic acid stimulate ventilation primarily by acting on peripheral chemoreceptors.
    D.  An increase in the HCO3 concentration in blood stimulates ventilation.
    E.  At high altitude, a decrease in PCO2 of the blood stimulates an increase in ventilation.

 

  1. Which of these would tend to increase ventilation?
    A.  lower than normal blood PCO2
    B.  higher than normal blood pH
    C.  breathing carbon monoxide
    D.  iron-deficiency anemia
    E.  breathing air with increased PCO2

 

  1. If the nerves from the carotid and aortic bodies are cut, which of these would occur?
    A.  A decrease in arterial PO2 will no longer increase ventilation.
    B.  An increase in arterial PCO2 will no longer increase ventilation.
    C.  An increase in arterial lactic acid will inhibit ventilation.
    D.  An increase in arterial PCO2 will inhibit ventilation.
    E.  A decrease in arterial PO2 will inhibit ventilation.

 

  1. Which of these does NOT increase during heavy exercise?
    A.  minute ventilation
    B.  arterial PCO2
    C.  oxygen delivery to muscles
    D.  oxygen extraction from the blood by muscles
    E.  body heat production

 

  1. Following strenuous exercise, blood levels of lactic acid are ________ compared to pre-exercise levels. This change in acid concentration causes a reflex ________ in ventilation by activating ________.
    A.  decreased; decrease; peripheral chemoreceptors
    B.  decreased; decrease; central chemoreceptors
    C.  increased; increase; baroreceptors in the aortic arch
    D.  increased; increase; central chemoreceptors
    E.  increased; increase; peripheral chemoreceptors

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding hypoxia is correct?
    A.  Exposure to high altitude is a form of hypoxic hypoxia.
    B.  “Anemic hypoxia” refers to the condition of lower than normal arterial PO2.
    C.  Carbon monoxide poisoning is an example of hypoxic hypoxia.
    D.  Carbon monoxide poisoning is an example of ischemic hypoxia.
    E.  Cyanide poisoning is an example of hypoxic hypoxia.

 

  1. Which of the following conditions would result in a systemic arterial PO2 lower than is typical of a healthy person at sea level?
    A.  traveling to high altitude
    B.  breathing 100% oxygen
    C.  having iron-deficiency anemia
    D.  breathing regular air in a hyperbaric chamber (higher that normal atmospheric pressure)

    E.  maintaining alveolar ventilation constant while decreasing metabolic rate

 

  1. Which is characteristic of a person chronically suffering from hypoxic hypoxia?
    A.  higher-than-normal alveolar PO2
    B.  higher-than-normal hematocrit
    C.  higher-than-normal arterial PO2
    D.  lower-than-normal lactic acid production
    E.  lower-than-normal blood flow through tissues

 

  1. Which correctly describes the cause of the increase in alveolar ventilation that occurs when a person ascends to high altitude?
    A.  The decrease in PCO2 of inspired air decreases alveolar PCO2, stimulating the peripheral chemoreceptors.
    B.  The decrease in PCO2 of inspired air decreases alveolar PCO2, stimulating the central chemoreceptors.
    C.  The decrease in PO2 of inspired air decreases alveolar and arterial PO2, stimulating the peripheral chemoreceptors.
    D.  The decrease in total atmospheric pressure causes a greater negative pressure in the intrapleural space, resulting in deeper and more frequent breathing.
    E.  The decrease in the total barometric pressure at high altitude causes hypocapnea, which stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors.

 

  1. The diaphragm is a large sheet of smooth muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen.
    True    False

 

  1. If the parietal pleura is cut during surgery, the lung on the side of the cut will expand and the chest wall will be compressed.
    True    False

 

  1. The process of ventilation includes both the transport of gases by bulk flow and the diffusion of gases into and out of the blood.
    True    False

 

  1. According to Boyle’s law, the pressure exerted by a constant number of gas molecules in a container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container. Therefore, increasing the volume of the container will cause a decrease in its pressure.
    True    False

 

  1. During inhalation/inspiration, the total alveolar volume decreases.
    True    False

 

  1. During inhalation/inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and the alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure; during exhalation/expiration, the diaphragm relaxes and the alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.
    True    False

 

  1. In a normal person at rest, the part of the respiratory cycle in which no air is flowing through the airways and the respiratory muscles are relaxed is at the end of inhalation/inspiration, prior to exhalation/expiration.
    True    False

 

  1. Exhalation/expiration of air from the lungs requires contraction of the exhalatory/expiratory intercostal muscles.
    True    False

 

  1. Infants born prematurely frequently develop respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn because they have too few alveoli to exchange O2 and CO2 efficiently.
    True    False

 

  1. The diameter of the airways in normal lungs is generally great enough that little resistance is offered to airflow.
    True    False

 

  1. Emphysema is a disease characterized by low lung compliance, obstructed airways, and ventilation-perfusion inequality.
    True    False

 

  1. A clinical sign of obstructive lung disease would be a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio.
    True    False

 

  1. The total dead space in the lungs includes anatomic dead space and any portion of the alveoli that has little or no blood supply.
    True    False

 

  1. Doubling the frequency of breathing will cause a greater increase in alveolar ventilation than will doubling the depth of inspiration.
    True    False

 

  1. At sea level  PO2 is about 760 mm Hg.
    True    False

 

  1. In the systemic circulation, the PO2of arterial blood exceeds the PO2 of venous blood, while the reverse is true for the pulmonary circulation.
    True    False

 

  1. Decreased alveolar  PO2causes reflex vasodilation of the pulmonary arterioles.
    True    False

 

  1. Most of the O2 carried in the blood is dissolved in plasma.
    True    False

 

  1. When blood flows into the systemic capillaries, the PO2of the erythrocytes is greater than the  PO2 of the plasma, causing a shift from oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin.
    True    False

 

  1. If lung disease results in an arterial  PO2of 80 mm Hg, the total amount of oxygen carried by the blood is 20% below normal.
    True    False

 

  1. Mixed venous blood in a resting individual still contains more than double the amount of oxygen extracted by the tissues as the blood passed through them.
    True    False

 

  1. The affinity of hemoglobin for O2 is decreased in rapidly metabolizing tissues.
    True    False

 

  1. Of the CO2 returning from the tissues in venous blood, more is dissolved in plasma as CO2than is bound to hemoglobin.
    True    False

 

  1. Deoxyhemoglobin binds bicarbonate ion better than oxyhemoglobin does.
    True    False

 

  1. Normally, all the H+ ions generated from CO2 in tissue capillaries recombine with bicarbonate in pulmonary capillaries and are removed from the body as CO2.
    True    False

 

  1. The majority of hydrogen ions generated in the formation of carbonic acid in the tissues are carried as freely dissolved H+ in the venous blood.
    True    False

 

  1. When a person hyperventilates, there are lower than normal levels of  PCO2and hydrogen ion in arterial blood, a condition called respiratory alkalosis.
    True    False

 

  1. The rhythmic contractions and relaxations of the inspiratory muscles are dependent upon spontaneous depolarizations of the diaphragm.
    True    False

 

  1. The neurons responsible for the cyclic nature of respiratory muscle function are located in the brain stem.
    True    False

 

  1. The medullary inspiratory neurons receive inhibitory neural input from the pons and also from pulmonary stretch receptors.
    True    False

 

  1. A decrease in arterial PO2stimulates increased ventilation by causing increased firing of action potentials in the afferent neurons from the carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors.
    True    False

 

  1. A slight fall in arterial  PCO2is a much stronger stimulus for increasing ventilation than a comparable fall in arterial  PO2.
    True    False

 

  1. The most important signal for regulating normal ventilation is hydrogen ions in the blood generated by lactic acid production.
    True    False

 

  1. Increased plasma concentration of lactic acid stimulates increased ventilation primarily by means of central chemoreceptors.
    True    False

 

  1. During moderate exercise, arterial  PCO2and H+ concentration increase and arterial  PO2 decreases, and these are the main stimuli causing increased ventilation.
    True    False

 

  1. One cause of hypoxic hypoxia in disease is diffusion impairment of O2 resulting from decreased alveolar surface area.
    True    False

 

  1. Exposure to high altitude is a form of ischemic hypoxia.
    True    False

 

  1. A small amount of carbon monoxide in the air would not significantly alter the  PO2of inspired air nor the PO2 of the arterial blood.
    True    False

 

  1. The key difference between fetal hemoglobin and adult hemoglobin is that fetal hemoglobin has a lower affinity for oxygen, because the levels of oxygen in placental blood is 2 to 3 times higher than other systemic arteries.
    True    False

 

  1. The control of respiration by centers in the brainstem can be over-ridden by higher brain centers when speaking, breath-holding, undergoing emotional reactions, and experiencing pain.
    True    False

 

  1. Nonrespiratory functions of the lungs include acting as “filters” for removing certain chemicals and blood clots.
    True    False

 

 

 

Chapter 13 Test Bank Key

  1. Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system?
    A.net uptake of carbon dioxide from the air and removal of oxygen from the blood
    B. regulation of blood H+ concentration
    C. trapping of blood clots
    D. phonation
    E. defense against microbes

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.09
Section: 13.09
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which is TRUE about the pleural sac?
    A.It is continuous with the atmosphere and protects the lungs from infection.
    B. It is a closed sac surrounding each lung that contains only a tiny volume of lubricating fluid.
    C. It is a closed sac surrounding each lung and contains a large volume of surfactant.
    D. It is a closed, air-filled space surrounding both lungs that has a negative pressure compared to atmospheric pressure.
    E. It is bounded by pleural membranes that are very thin, which allows for abundant gas exchange.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.01
Section: 13.01
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which structure is NOT part of the “anatomical dead space?”
    A. bronchiole
    B.  trachea
    C.  bronchus
    D.  respiratory bronchiole
    E.  terminal bronchiole

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. What is one function of the type II alveolar cells?
    A. production of surfactant
    B.  secretion of mucus
    C.  phagocytizing bacteria and other foreign particles
    D.  make up the majority of the epithelial wall of the alveoli
    E.  lining the pleural space

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.01
Section: 13.01
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following is most responsible for keeping the lung surface and the thoracic wall from separating?
    A. the presence of surfactant
    B.  the negative pressure in the alveolar space
    C.  the force exerted  by  the external intercostal muscles
    D.  the surface tension of the intrapleural fluid
    E.  alveolar pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.01
Section: 13.01
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During an unforced exhalation/expiration, which would NOT be true?
    A. alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure
    B.  intrapleural pressure is greater than alveolar pressure
    C.  intrapleural pressure becomes less negative
    D.  the diaphragm relaxes
    E.  lung volume decreases

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of these causes inhalation/inspiration?
    A. increase in the curvature (upward movement) of the diaphragm
    B.  movement of the ribs closer together due to contraction of the internal intercostal muscles
    C.  flattening (downward movement) of the diaphragm
    D.  contraction of the abdominal muscles
    E.  alveolar pressure increasing above atmospheric pressure

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which is normally TRUE about the intrapleural pressure?
    A.It is lower than alveolar pressure.
    B. It is between +5 and +10 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure at functional residual capacity.
    C. It alternates between being less than, and greater than, atmospheric pressure.
    D. During a passive exhale, it increases to a value above atmospheric pressure.
    E.

It is always the same as atmospheric pressure during a passive exhale.

 

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The volume of air flowing into the alveoli during inhalation/inspiration is increased when there is an increase in which of these?
    A. airway resistance
    B.  the pressure gradient from the atmosphere to the alveoli
    C.  the pressure in the intrapleural space
    D.  the curvature of the diaphragm
    E.  the volume of air in the intrapleural space

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Under normal circumstances, which of the following would result from an increase in transpulmonary pressure?
    A. inhalation/inspiration
    B.  exhalation/expiration
    C.  a collapsed lung
    D.  pneumothorax
    E.  emphysema

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding pulmonary surfactant is TRUE?
    A. It is secreted by type I alveolar cells.
    B.  It increases the compliance of the lungs.
    C.  It increases airway resistance.
    D.  It is secreted into the intrapleural space.
    E.  It can only interact with other lipid molecules.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Under what conditions is lung compliance increased?
    A. respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn
    B.  prolonged shallow breathing
    C.  cystic fibrosis
    D.  emphysema
    E.  asthma

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Learning Outcome: 13.08
Section: 13.02
Section: 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following drugs, administered as an aerosol spray, would be most likely to help an infant with respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn?
    A. pulmonary surfactant
    B.  a beta-adrenergic agonist
    C.  a muscarinic agonist
    D.  histamine
    E.  a beta-adrenergic antagonist

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following is a cause of asthma?
    A.loss of alveoli
    B. inflammation of the bronchioles
    C. elevation of intrapleural pressure to equal atmospheric pressure
    D. environmental chemicals that stimulate beta-2 adrenergic receptors
    E.

lack of pulmonary surfactant

 

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following drugs, administered as an aerosol spray, would be most likely to help a victim of an asthmatic attack?
    A. pulmonary surfactant
    B.  a beta-2 adrenergic agonist
    C.  a muscarinic agonist
    D.  histamine
    E.  a beta-2 adrenergic antagonist

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During a physical examination, Joe learns that his resting tidal volume is 550 ml; his average resting respiratory rate is 15 breaths per minute; his total lung capacity is 6000 ml; and his anatomic dead space is 150 ml. Joe’s resting alveolar ventilation is
    A. 72.0 L/min
    B.  6.0 L/min
    C.  4.2 L/min
    D.  1.8 L/min
    E.  0.5 L/min

 

Bloom’s: Level 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. When lying down, a subject’s respiratory rate is 12 breaths per minute, his anatomical dead space is 150 ml, and his minute ventilation is 7 L/min.  Which of these is closest to his alveolar ventilation in liters per minute?
    A. 6.0
    B.  5.2
    C.  4.2
    D.  3.0
    E.  0.583

 

Bloom’s: Level 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. A respiratory physiologist has measured ventilation parameters for each of three subjects: Tidal volume (TV); Respiratory rate (RR), and Anatomic dead space volume (ADSV).
    Which of the following statements accurately compares the alveolar ventilation in the three men?
    A.  Tom’s is the largest; Dick’s and Harry’s are the same.
    B.  Tom’s is the smallest; Dick’s and Harry’s are the same.
    C.  Tom’s is greater than Dick’s, which is greater than Harry’s.
    D.  Dick’s is greater than Harry’s, which is greater than Tom’s.
    E.  Harry’s is greater than Dick’s, which is greater than Tom’s.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about the response of arteriolar smooth muscle to changing oxygen partial pressures is
    TRUE?
    A. Both systemic and pulmonary arterioles respond to a decrease in PO2 by constricting.
    B. Both systemic and pulmonary arterioles respond to a decrease in PO2 by dilating.
    C. Systemic arterioles respond to a decrease in PO2 by dilating but pulmonary arterioles constrict in response to decreased PO2.
    D. Systemic arterioles respond to a decrease in PO2 by constricting but pulmonary arterioles dilate in response to decreased PO2.
    E. Changes in PO2 do not affect arteriolar smooth muscle in the pulmonary system.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.03
Section: 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which is TRUE regarding how gasses dissolve in liquids?
    A.The concentration of a particular gas in a liquid equilibrates to match the concentration of that gas in the air to which the liquid is exposed.
    B. Different gasses have the same solubility in liquids.
    C. The partial pressure of a gas in a liquid is equal to the amount freely diffusing in the liquid plus the amount bound
    to large molecules within the liquid.

    D. The partial pressure of a particular gas in a liquid equilibrates to match the partial pressure of that gas in the air to which the liquid is exposed.
    E. As the partial pressure of a particular gas in an air sample increases, the concentration of that gas in a liquid exposed to that air sample decreases.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.03
Section: 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Regarding the partial pressures of O2 and CO2, which of the following statements is NOT true in a normal person at rest?
    A. Atmospheric PO2 is greater than alveolar PO2.
    B.  The PCO2 in air is less than alveolar PCO2.
    C.  The PO2 in systemic arteries is typically greater than the alveolar PO2.
    D.  PCO2 in the systemic veins is greater than systemic arterial PCO2.
    E.  PCO2 in the pulmonary arteries is greater than pulmonary venous PCO2.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.03
Section: 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Regarding the relationships between the rates of oxygen consumption/carbon dioxide production and alveolar ventilation, which of these statements is TRUE?
    A. Increased ventilation without a similar increase in metabolism is called hypoventilation.
    B.  In hypoventilation, alveolar PCO2 decreases below resting levels.
    C.  In hyperventilation, alveolar PCO2 can decrease to zero.
    D.  A decrease in metabolism without a similar decrease in alveolar ventilation would result in hyperventilation.
    E.  An increase in ventilation with a matching increase in metabolism is called hyperventilation.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.03
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.03
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of these results from hyperventilation?
    A. increased alveolar PCO2 and decreased alveolar PO2
    B.  an increase in both alveolar PCO2 and PO2
    C.   decreased alveolar PCO2 and increased alveolar PO2
    D.  a decrease in both alveolar PCO2 and PO2
    E.  the same alveolar PCO2 as under normal conditions

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true regarding ventilation-perfusion inequality?
    A. No inequality exists in normal lungs.
    B.  It may result from increased alveolar dead space.
    C.  It is increased from normal in patients with emphysema.
    D.  It is caused by too little or too much blood flow relative to ventilation.
    E.  It is caused by too little or too much ventilation relative to blood flow.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.08
Section: 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. In which form is most of the oxygen carried in arterial blood?
    A. bound to hemoglobin
    B.  dissolved in the plasma
    C.  dissolved in the cytosol of erythrocytes
    D.  converted to HCO3
    E.  bound to myoglobin

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. If all other factors remain the same, which of these results in an increase in the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin?
    A.increased plasma [H+]
    B. increased plasma temperature
    C. increased plasma [2,3 diphosphoglycerate]
    D. increased plasma PO2
    E. increased plasma [carbon monoxide]

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of these is demonstrated by the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?
    A. The greater the PO2 of the blood, the greater the dissociation of O2 from hemoglobin.
    B.  At normal resting systemic arterial PO2 , hemoglobin is almost 100% saturated with oxygen.
    C.  At normal resting systemic venous PO2 , only about 75% of the hemoglobin is in the form of deoxyhemoglobin.
    D.  More additional oxygen binds to hemoglobin when going from a PO2 of 60 to 100 mmHg, than is added when going from a PO2 of 40 to 60 mmHg.
    E.  As PO2 increases, the saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen increases linearly.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Curve B below represents the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve for normal body temperature, arterial hydrogen ion concentration, and DPG concentration.
    A.  Curve A may represent the dissociation at higher than normal arterial H+ concentration.
    B.  Curve C may represent the dissociation at lower than normal body temperature.
    C.  Curve A may represent the dissociation at very low 2,3 diphosphoglycerate levels.
    D.  Curve C may represent the dissociation at lower than normal arterial H+ concentration.
    E.  Curve A may represent the dissociation at higher than normal body temperature.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following would cause a decrease in the binding affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen?
    A. increased pH of the blood
    B.  increased temperature of the blood
    C.  decreased DPG levels in erythrocytes
    D.  the presence of carbon monoxide
    E.  decreased concentration of H+ in the blood

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes a reaction that combines which of the following?
    A. H2O and O2
    B.  H2O and CO2
    C.  H2O and CO
    D.  H+ and HCO3-
    E.  CO2 and O2

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.05
Section: 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. After CO2 is produced by tissues, in what form is most of that carbon transported to the lungs for removal from the body?
    A. as dissolved CO2
    B.  bound to hemoglobin
    C.  as H2CO3
    D.  as dissolved HCO3
    E.  as carbonic anhydrase

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.05
Section: 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the transport of CO2 in blood is FALSE?
    A. Some of the CO2 in blood is dissolved in plasma.
    B.  Some of the CO2 in blood is dissolved in the cytosol of erythrocytes.
    C.  Some of the CO2 in blood is bound to hemoglobin.
    D.  Most of the CO2 in blood is converted to another molecule.
    E.  Some of the CO2 in blood is converted to chloride.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.05
Section: 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which is a result of hyperventilation?
    A. respiratory alkalosis
    B.  respiratory acidosis
    C.  increased blood PCO2
    D.  metabolic acidosis
    E.  metabolic alkalosis

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.06
Section: 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which occurs as a result of hypoventilation?
    A. the pH of the blood increases
    B.  levels of blood O2 increase
    C.  levels of blood H+ ions increase
    D.  alveolar CO2 decreases to near atmospheric levels
    E.  alveolar oxygen increases toward atmospheric levels

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.06
Section: 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of these correctly describes the chloride shift?
    A.In the lungs, chloride enters red blood cells in exchange for bicarbonate ions.
    B. In the tissues, chloride exits red blood cells in exchange for carbonic acid.
    C. In the tissues, chloride enters red blood cells in exchange for bicarbonate ions.
    D. In the lungs, chloride enters red blood cells in exchange for CO2.
    E. In the tissues, chloride enters red blood cells in exchange for CO2.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.05
Section: 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which is a proposed benefit of hemoglobin’s ability to bind and transport nitric oxide?
    A. It allows hemoglobin to resist the effects of small pH changes as a buffer molecule.
    B.  By circulating into peripheral vessels, it will trigger vasodilation to improve local blood flow.
    C.  As it circulates it promotes smooth muscle of arteries and arterioles to contract, to increase blood pressure as needed.
    D.  It acts as an enzyme cofactor necessary to maintaining a “clean and smooth” endothelial lining within blood vessels.
    E.  It provides a carrier upon which additional electrolytes can be transported to deficient tissues in the body.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.06
Section: 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. What brain center has neurons that fire mainly during inspiration and have input to the spinal motor neurons that activate the diaphragm and inspiratory intercostal muscles?
    A. the ventral respiratory group of the medulla oblongata
    B.  the pre-Botzinger complex
    C.  the dorsal respiratory group of the medulla oblongata
    D.  the pneumotaxic center of the pons
    E.  the apneustic center of the pons

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Action potentials in neurons in the inspiratory center of the medulla result in action potentials in the ________ nerves to the diaphragm, which in turn cause ________ of the muscle, resulting in a/an ________ in the volume of the thoracic cage.
    A. motor; contraction; decrease
    B.  parasympathetic; contraction; decrease
    C.  sympathetic; contraction; increase
    D.  motor; contraction; increase
    E.  sympathetic; relaxation; increase

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following are chemoreceptors?
    A. hair cells in the cochlea
    B.  receptors in the aortic and carotid bodies
    C.  baroreceptors in the aortic and carotid arch
    D.  receptors that mediate the Hering-Breuer reflex

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following is most responsible for detecting an increase in systemic arterial H+ concentration?
    A. the medulla of the brainstem
    B.  the peripheral chemoreceptors
    C.  the central chemoreceptors
    D.  the diaphragm
    E.  the dorsal respiratory group

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. What is the primary regulator of the magnitude of alveolar ventilation under normal circumstances?
    A. the H+ concentration in the brain extracellular fluid, which is monitored by central chemoreceptors
    B.  The PO2 of the arterial blood, which is monitored by central chemoreceptors
    C.  The PO2 of the arterial blood, which is monitored by peripheral chemoreceptors
    D.  the H+ concentration in the arterial blood, which is monitored by central chemoreceptors
    E.  stretch receptors in the lung

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding control of respiration is correct?
    A. A slight decrease in arterial PO2 is a stronger stimulus for increased ventilation than is a comparable decrease in arterial PCO2.
    B.  The most important signal for regulating ventilation is the H+ concentration of arterial blood.
    C.  Increased concentrations of lactic acid stimulate ventilation primarily by acting on peripheral chemoreceptors.
    D.  An increase in the HCO3 concentration in blood stimulates ventilation.
    E.  At high altitude, a decrease in PCO2 of the blood stimulates an increase in ventilation.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of these would tend to increase ventilation?
    A. lower than normal blood PCO2
    B.  higher than normal blood pH
    C.  breathing carbon monoxide
    D.  iron-deficiency anemia
    E.  breathing air with increased PCO2

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. If the nerves from the carotid and aortic bodies are cut, which of these would occur?
    A. A decrease in arterial PO2 will no longer increase ventilation.
    B.  An increase in arterial PCO2 will no longer increase ventilation.
    C.  An increase in arterial lactic acid will inhibit ventilation.
    D.  An increase in arterial PCO2 will inhibit ventilation.
    E.  A decrease in arterial PO2 will inhibit ventilation.

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Learning Outcome: 13.08
Section: 13.07
Section: 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of these does NOT increase during heavy exercise?
    A. minute ventilation
    B.  arterial PCO2
    C.  oxygen delivery to muscles
    D.  oxygen extraction from the blood by muscles
    E.  body heat production

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.03
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.03
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Following strenuous exercise, blood levels of lactic acid are ________ compared to pre-exercise levels. This change in acid concentration causes a reflex ________ in ventilation by activating ________.
    A. decreased; decrease; peripheral chemoreceptors
    B.  decreased; decrease; central chemoreceptors
    C.  increased; increase; baroreceptors in the aortic arch
    D.  increased; increase; central chemoreceptors
    E.  increased; increase; peripheral chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding hypoxia is correct?
    A. Exposure to high altitude is a form of hypoxic hypoxia.
    B.  “Anemic hypoxia” refers to the condition of lower than normal arterial PO2.
    C.  Carbon monoxide poisoning is an example of hypoxic hypoxia.
    D.  Carbon monoxide poisoning is an example of ischemic hypoxia.
    E.  Cyanide poisoning is an example of hypoxic hypoxia.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.08
Section: 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which of the following conditions would result in a systemic arterial PO2 lower than is typical of a healthy person at sea level?
    A. traveling to high altitude
    B.  breathing 100% oxygen
    C.  having iron-deficiency anemia
    D.  breathing regular air in a hyperbaric chamber (higher that normal atmospheric pressure)

    E.  maintaining alveolar ventilation constant while decreasing metabolic rate

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.08
Section: 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which is characteristic of a person chronically suffering from hypoxic hypoxia?
    A. higher-than-normal alveolar PO2
    B.  higher-than-normal hematocrit
    C.  higher-than-normal arterial PO2
    D.  lower-than-normal lactic acid production
    E.  lower-than-normal blood flow through tissues

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.08
Section: 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Which correctly describes the cause of the increase in alveolar ventilation that occurs when a person ascends to high altitude?
    A. The decrease in PCO2 of inspired air decreases alveolar PCO2, stimulating the peripheral chemoreceptors.
    B.  The decrease in PCO2 of inspired air decreases alveolar PCO2, stimulating the central chemoreceptors.
    C.  The decrease in PO2 of inspired air decreases alveolar and arterial PO2, stimulating the peripheral chemoreceptors.
    D.  The decrease in total atmospheric pressure causes a greater negative pressure in the intrapleural space, resulting in deeper and more frequent breathing.
    E.  The decrease in the total barometric pressure at high altitude causes hypocapnea, which stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors.

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Learning Outcome: 13.08
Section: 13.07
Section: 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The diaphragm is a large sheet of smooth muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.01
Section: 13.01
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. If the parietal pleura is cut during surgery, the lung on the side of the cut will expand and the chest wall will be compressed.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The process of ventilation includes both the transport of gases by bulk flow and the diffusion of gases into and out of the blood.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. According to Boyle’s law, the pressure exerted by a constant number of gas molecules in a container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container. Therefore, increasing the volume of the container will cause a decrease in its pressure.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During inhalation/inspiration, the total alveolar volume decreases.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During inhalation/inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and the alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure; during exhalation/expiration, the diaphragm relaxes and the alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. In a normal person at rest, the part of the respiratory cycle in which no air is flowing through the airways and the respiratory muscles are relaxed is at the end of inhalation/inspiration, prior to exhalation/expiration.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Exhalation/expiration of air from the lungs requires contraction of the exhalatory/expiratory intercostal muscles.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Infants born prematurely frequently develop respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn because they have too few alveoli to exchange O2 and CO2 efficiently.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The diameter of the airways in normal lungs is generally great enough that little resistance is offered to airflow.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Emphysema is a disease characterized by low lung compliance, obstructed airways, and ventilation-perfusion inequality.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.08
Section: 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. A clinical sign of obstructive lung disease would be a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The total dead space in the lungs includes anatomic dead space and any portion of the alveoli that has little or no blood supply.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Doubling the frequency of breathing will cause a greater increase in alveolar ventilation than will doubling the depth of inspiration.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.02
Section: 13.02
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. At sea level  PO2 is about 760 mm Hg.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.03
Section: 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. In the systemic circulation, the PO2of arterial blood exceeds the PO2 of venous blood, while the reverse is true for the pulmonary circulation.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.03
Section: 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Decreased alveolar  PO2causes reflex vasodilation of the pulmonary arterioles.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.03
Section: 13.03
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Most of the O2 carried in the blood is dissolved in plasma.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. When blood flows into the systemic capillaries, the PO2of the erythrocytes is greater than the  PO2 of the plasma, causing a shift from oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. If lung disease results in an arterial  PO2of 80 mm Hg, the total amount of oxygen carried by the blood is 20% below normal.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Mixed venous blood in a resting individual still contains more than double the amount of oxygen extracted by the tissues as the blood passed through them.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The affinity of hemoglobin for O2 is decreased in rapidly metabolizing tissues.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Of the CO2 returning from the tissues in venous blood, more is dissolved in plasma as CO2than is bound to hemoglobin.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.05
Section: 13.05
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Deoxyhemoglobin binds bicarbonate ion better than oxyhemoglobin does.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.05
Learning Outcome: 13.06
Section: 13.05
Section: 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Normally, all the H+ ions generated from CO2 in tissue capillaries recombine with bicarbonate in pulmonary capillaries and are removed from the body as CO2.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.05
Learning Outcome: 13.06
Section: 13.05
Section: 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The majority of hydrogen ions generated in the formation of carbonic acid in the tissues are carried as freely dissolved H+ in the venous blood.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.06
Section: 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. When a person hyperventilates, there are lower than normal levels of  PCO2and hydrogen ion in arterial blood, a condition called respiratory alkalosis.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.06
Section: 13.06
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The rhythmic contractions and relaxations of the inspiratory muscles are dependent upon spontaneous depolarizations of the diaphragm.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The neurons responsible for the cyclic nature of respiratory muscle function are located in the brain stem.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The medullary inspiratory neurons receive inhibitory neural input from the pons and also from pulmonary stretch receptors.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. A decrease in arterial PO2stimulates increased ventilation by causing increased firing of action potentials in the afferent neurons from the carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. A slight fall in arterial  PCO2is a much stronger stimulus for increasing ventilation than a comparable fall in arterial  PO2.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The most important signal for regulating normal ventilation is hydrogen ions in the blood generated by lactic acid production.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Increased plasma concentration of lactic acid stimulates increased ventilation primarily by means of central chemoreceptors.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. During moderate exercise, arterial  PCO2and H+ concentration increase and arterial  PO2 decreases, and these are the main stimuli causing increased ventilation.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. One cause of hypoxic hypoxia in disease is diffusion impairment of O2 resulting from decreased alveolar surface area.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.08
Section: 13.08
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Exposure to high altitude is a form of ischemic hypoxia.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. A small amount of carbon monoxide in the air would not significantly alter the  PO2of inspired air nor the PO2 of the arterial blood.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The key difference between fetal hemoglobin and adult hemoglobin is that fetal hemoglobin has a lower affinity for oxygen, because the levels of oxygen in placental blood is 2 to 3 times higher than other systemic arteries.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.04
Section: 13.04
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. The control of respiration by centers in the brainstem can be over-ridden by higher brain centers when speaking, breath-holding, undergoing emotional reactions, and experiencing pain.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 13.07
Section: 13.07
Topic: Respiratory System
 

  1. Nonrespiratory functions of the lungs include acting as “filters” for removing certain chemicals and blood clots.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 13.09
Section: 13.09
Topic: Respiratory System
 

 

 

Chapter 13 Test Bank Summary

Category # of Questions
Bloom’s: Level 1. Remember 62
Bloom’s: Level 2. Understand 26
Bloom’s: Level 3. Apply 3
Learning Outcome: 13.01 4
Learning Outcome: 13.02 26
Learning Outcome: 13.03 8
Learning Outcome: 13.04 11
Learning Outcome: 13.05 7
Learning Outcome: 13.06 7
Learning Outcome: 13.07 24
Learning Outcome: 13.08 9
Learning Outcome: 13.09 2
Section: 13.01 4
Section: 13.02 26
Section: 13.03 8
Section: 13.04 11
Section: 13.05 7
Section: 13.06 7
Section: 13.07 24
Section: 13.08 9
Section: 13.09 2
Topic: Respiratory System 91

 

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