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Williams Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy 13th Edition Nix Test Bank

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Williams Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy 13th Edition Nix Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0003471357
  • ISBN-13:978-0003471359

 

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Williams Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy 13th Edition Nix Test Bank

  • ISBN-10:0003471357
  • ISBN-13:978-0003471359

 

 

 

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Nix: Williams’ Basic Nutrition & Diet Therapy, 13th Edition

 

Test Bank

 

Chapter 7: Vitamins

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. For a compound to be classified as a vitamin, it must
a. be synthesized by the body.
b. be required in large quantities.
c. perform a vital function.
d. be water soluble.

 

 

ANS:   C

For a compound to be defined as a vitamin, it must be a vital, organic, dietary substance that is not a carbohydrate, fat, protein, or mineral and is necessary in only very small amounts to perform a specific metabolic function or prevent an associated deficiency. It also cannot be manufactured by the body in sufficient amounts to sustain life and must be supplemented by the body.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    93                    MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. A vitamin that behaves more like a hormone than a vitamin is vitamin
a. A.
b. D.
c. E.
d. K.

 

 

ANS:   B

Vitamin D is a prohormone made in the skin by sunlight.

 

DIF:    Easy                REF:    96-97              MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The provitamin form of vitamin A that is found in plant pigments is
a. beta-carotene.
b. chlorophyll.
c. beta-xanthophyll.
d. calciferol.

 

 

ANS:   A

Beta-carotene is the provitamin form of vitamin A found in plant pigments. The body converts it to vitamin A, making it a primary source of the vitamin.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    95                    MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. Spinach, carrots, and sweet potatoes are good sources of
a. beta-carotene.
b. vitamin A.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

 

 

ANS:   A

Carotene is a group name of three red and yellow pigments (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carotene) found in dark green and yellow vegetables and some fruits. The body converts beta-carotene to vitamin A.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    96                    MSC:   Application

 

  1. A rich source of vitamin A (retinol) is
a. liver.
b. bread.
c. broccoli.
d. apricots.

 

 

ANS:   A

Liver is a rich source of preformed, natural vitamin A. Other sources include fish liver oils, egg yolk, butter, and cream.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    96                    MSC:   Application

 

  1. An important function of vitamin A is to
a. be incorporated into the bile.
b. help with blood clotting.
c. act as an antioxidant.
d. help form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye.

 

 

ANS:   D

Vitamin A helps form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye. Retinol, the name given to vitamin A, is an essential part of rhodopsin, commonly known as visual purple. This light-sensitive substance enables the eye to adjust to the different amounts of available light.

 

DIF:    Hard                REF:    95                    MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. A deficiency of vitamin A may result in
a. osteoporosis.
b. bile obstruction.
c. breakdown of cell membranes.
d. night blindness.

 

 

ANS:   D

Night blindness results from a deficiency of vitamin A. Vitamin A helps form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye. Retinol, the name given to vitamin A, is an essential part of rhodopsin, commonly known as visual purple. This light-sensitive substance enables the eye to adjust to the different amounts of available light.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    96                    MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. An excellent natural food source of vitamin D is
a. fish liver oils.
b. wheat germ oil.
c. mineral oil.
d. margarine.

 

 

ANS:   A

Fish liver oils are a natural source of vitamin D. All other foods have been fortified with vitamin D. Because milk is a common food and already contains calcium and phosphorus, it is the most practical to fortify with this vitamin.

 

DIF:    Hard                REF:    99                    MSC:   Application

 

  1. The active hormonal form of vitamin D is
a. cholecalciferol.
b. calciferol.
c. calcitriol.
d. calcitonin.

 

 

ANS:   C

The active form of vitamin D is calcitriol. Vitamin D is made in the body with the help of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. The compound made in the skin by sunlight is a prohormone. This irradiated compound, cholecalciferol (calciferol), is in its inactive form. It is then activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

 

DIF:    Hard                REF:    96-97              MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. Two foods that are commonly fortified with vitamin D are
a. cereals and macaroni products.
b. milk and margarine.
c. flour and salt.
d. vegetable oils and shortenings.

 

 

ANS:   B

Fish liver oils are a natural source of vitamin D. All other foods have been fortified with vitamin D. Because milk is a common food and already contains calcium and phosphorus, it is the most practical to fortify with this vitamin. Butter substitutes, such as margarines, are also fortified.

 

DIF:    Hard                REF:    99                    MSC:   Application

 

  1. Synthesis of the active hormonal form of vitamin D is the result of the combined action of the
a. skin, liver, and kidney.
b. pancreas, thyroid, and liver.
c. skin, skeleton, and liver.
d. kidney, skeleton, and liver.

 

 

ANS:   A

Vitamin D is made in the body with the help of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. The compound made in the skin by sunlight is a prohormone. This irradiated compound, cholecalciferol (calciferol), is in its inactive form. It is then activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

 

DIF:    Hard                REF:    96-98              MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The last organ involved in the production of the physiologically active form of vitamin D is the
a. liver.
b. kidney.
c. intestine.
d. skin.

 

 

ANS:   B

Cholecalciferol (inactive form found in skin) is activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    96-98              MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The primary function of vitamin D is to regulate the absorption and metabolism of the minerals
a. sodium and potassium.
b. iron and phosphorus.
c. calcium and phosphorus.
d. sodium and calcium.

 

 

ANS:   C

The primary function of vitamin D is the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. The hormone form calcitriol acts with two other hormones: parathyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone calcitonin. In balance with these two hormones, vitamin D hormone stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    97                    MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. A vitamin D deficiency in growing children that results in the malformation of skeletal tissue, especially the long bones, is referred to as
a. rickets.
b. scurvy.
c. pellagra.
d. beriberi.

 

 

ANS:   A

Rickets is a disease associated with vitamin D deficiency. It is characterized by malformation of skeletal tissue in growing children in which long bones are soft and often bend under the weight of the child.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    98                    MSC:   Application

 

  1. Recommended intakes for vitamin D are difficult to establish because
a. exposure to sunlight varies.
b. it is present in so many foods.
c. the body stores such large amounts.
d. the amount in food varies with the season.

 

 

ANS:   A

Recommended intakes for vitamin D are difficult to establish because of its unique hormonelike nature, difference in exposure to sun (exposure varies from person to person depending on ability to go outside and the climate), and limited food sources.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    97                    MSC:   Application

 

  1. A toxic level of vitamin D is most likely to result in
a. liver damage.
b. hyperpigmentation.
c. blindness.
d. calcification of soft tissues.

 

 

ANS:   D

A toxic level of vitamin D can result in calcification of soft tissues such as kidneys and lungs as well as fragile bones.

 

DIF:    Hard                REF:    98                    MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. A rich source of vitamin E is
a. sunflower oil.
b. spinach.
c. whole-wheat bread.
d. oatmeal.

 

 

ANS:   A

The richest sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils. Other food sources include nuts, fortified cereals, and avocado.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    101                  MSC:   Application

 

  1. The requirement for vitamin E varies by the amount of an individual’s
a. sun exposure.
b. selenium in the diet.
c. animal fats in the diet.
d. polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet.

 

 

ANS:   D

The requirement for vitamin E varies with the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. The Dietary Reference Intake for men and women aged 14 years and older is 15 mg/day.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    99-100            MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. Vitamin E protects membranes because it acts as a(n)
a. barrier.
b. peroxide.
c. antioxidant.
d. clotting factor.

 

 

ANS:   C

Vitamin E protects membranes by acting as nature’s most potent fat-soluble antioxidant. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid membranes are easy for oxygen to break down, and vitamin E can interrupt this oxidation and protect the fatty acids of the cell membrane from damage.

 

DIF:    Easy                REF:    99-100            MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The fat-soluble vitamin responsible for the synthesis of blood-clotting factors by the liver is vitamin
a. A.
b. D.
c. E.
d. K.

 

 

ANS:   D

The basic function of vitamin K is in the blood-clotting process. The most known vitamin K–dependent blood factor is prothrombin.

 

DIF:    Easy                REF:    101                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. A good food source of vitamin K is
a. spinach.
b. sunflower oil.
c. pork.
d. oranges.

 

 

ANS:   A

Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables, which provide 50 to 800 mcg of phylloquinone per 100 g of food. Smaller amounts are found in milk and other dairy, meats, fortified cereals, fruits, and vegetables.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    101                  MSC:   Application

 

  1. In the past, vitamin A content was listed in International Units (IU); it is now listed in
a. milligrams.
b. micrograms.
c. beta-carotene equivalents.
d. retinol equivalents.

 

 

ANS:   D

Vitamin A is listed in retinol equivalents. One IU of vitamin A equals 0.3 mcg retinol or 0.6 mcg beta-carotene.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    95-96              MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The hormones that participate in calcium metabolism are
a. estrogen and oxytocin.
b. cortisone and epinephrine.
c. aldosterone and thyroxine.
d. parathyroid and calcitriol.

 

 

ANS:   D

The primary function of vitamin D is the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. The hormone form calcitriol acts with two other hormones: parathyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone calcitonin. In balance with these two hormones, vitamin D hormone stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    97                    MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. There is a metabolic partnership between vitamin E and
a. zinc.
b. chromium.
c. selenium.
d. iron.

 

 

ANS:   C

Selenium is a trace mineral that works with vitamin E as an antioxidant. A selenium-containing enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, is the second line of defense in preventing oxidative damage to cell membranes. Selenium spares vitamin E by reducing its requirement, the same as vitamin E does for selenium.

 

DIF:    Hard                REF:    100                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. An athlete who increases his or her intake of pasta will also increase his or her need for
a. folic acid.
b. thiamin.
c. pyridoxine.
d. vitamin C.

 

 

ANS:   B

Thiamin acts a coenzyme factor related to the production of energy from glucose and the storage of energy as fat, making energy available to support normal growth.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    105-106          MSC:   Application

 

  1. An alcoholic is most likely to be deficient in
a. biotin.
b. folic acid.
c. thiamin.
d. pyridoxine.

 

 

ANS:   C

Alcohol inhibits the absorption of thiamin. Alcohol-induced thiamin deficiency causes Wernicke’s encephalopathy.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    106                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The three body systems that can be affected by a thiamin deficiency are the _____ systems.
a. nervous, respiratory, and urinary
b. nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal
c. gastrointestinal, respiratory, and endocrine
d. lymphatic, cardiovascular, and endocrine

 

 

ANS:   B

The nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal tract can all be affected by thiamin deficiency. The central nervous system depends on glucose for energy; if thiamin is not present in adequate amounts, sufficient energy cannot be made for the nerves to perform their functions. The heart muscle depends on thiamin as well. Without adequate thiamin, the heart muscle weakens and heart failure results. Thiamin also is necessary for the gastrointestinal tract to function properly. The cells of smooth muscle and secretory glands must have energy to perform their work, and thiamin is a necessary agent for producing that energy.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    106                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The vitamin that is destroyed by light is
a. vitamin C.
b. niacin.
c. riboflavin.
d. biotin.

 

 

ANS:   C

Riboflavin is easily destroyed by light. Milk, a major source of riboflavin, is sold and stored in plastic or cardboard containers.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    105                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The most important source of riboflavin is
a. milk.
b. lean meats.
c. enriched grains.
d. green leafy vegetables.

 

 

ANS:   A

Milk is the major source of riboflavin. Each serving of milk and milk products contains between 0.3 and 0.5 mg of riboflavin.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    107                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The function of all B-complex vitamins is to
a. regulate fluid balance.
b. function as body structures.
c. function as coenzymes.
d. provide calories for energy.

 

 

ANS:   C

The B-complex vitamins function as coenzymes that are necessary agents to break down compounds, yet they are not consumed in the process.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    93-94              MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The disease associated with niacin deficiency is
a. anemia.
b. cheilosis.
c. pellagra.
d. beriberi.

 

 

ANS:   C

Pellagra is a disease caused by the lack of niacin. It is characterized by skin lesions along with gastrointestinal, mucosal, neurologic, and mental symptoms. The four Ds associated with pellagra are dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    108                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The amino acid that can be converted to niacin in the body is
a. leucine.
b. phenylalanine.
c. tryptophan.
d. valine.

 

 

ANS:   C

Some of the niacin the body requires can be made from the essential amino acid tryptophan. The total requirement in the body for niacin is stated in terms of niacin equivalents to account for both sources.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    108                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. A good food source of niacin is
a. a banana.
b. a tomato.
c. beef.
d. oatmeal.

 

 

ANS:   C

Meat is a major source of niacin. The greatest intake of niacin in the United States comes from mixed dishes high in meat, poultry, or fish.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    108                  MSC:   Application

 

  1. The vitamin most closely associated with protein metabolism is
a. thiamin.
b. pyridoxine.
c. folic acid.
d. choline.

 

 

ANS:   B

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) has an essential role in protein metabolism and function in many cell reactions involving amino acids.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    109                  MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which of the following diets can help ensure adequate and balanced vitamin intake?
a. A high-calorie diet composed of mainly fruits and vegetables
b. A high-protein diet concentrating on red meat and fish
c. A varied diet composed of all food groups eaten in controlled portions
d. A varied diet with a higher emphasis on grains and fish supplemented with a commercially prepared vitamin

 

 

ANS:   C

Eating a well-balanced, varied diet can help ensure adequate and balanced intake by supplying needed nutrients from all the food groups in proper portion sizes.

 

DIF:    Easy                REF:    93-95              MSC:   Application

 

  1. The need for pyridoxine varies with the dietary intake of
a. carbohydrates.
b. fats.
c. protein.
d. minerals.

 

 

ANS:   C

The need for pyridoxine varies with the dietary intake of protein. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) has an essential role in protein metabolism and function in many cell reactions involving amino acids

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    109                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The person most at risk for vitamin D deficiency is a
a. 12-year-old girl who plays soccer at the local playground twice a week.
b. 28-year-old mother who breastfeeds her 5-month-old infant and takes a daily stroll in the neighborhood.
c. 62-year-old woman who lives in a cold climate and rarely goes outdoors.
d. 42-year-old man who plays golf once a week.

 

 

ANS:   C

Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin with exposure to sunlight. People who do not go outdoors may be at higher risk for developing a vitamin D deficiency.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    98                    MSC:   Application

 

  1. The best food source of folic acid is
a. grapefruit.
b. chicken.
c. cheese.
d. broccoli.

 

 

ANS:   D

Rich sources of folate are found in chicken and beef liver, green leafy vegetables, yeast, and legumes. Broccoli would be a high source of folate among the choices.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    111                  MSC:   Application

 

  1. A folic acid deficiency induces a form of anemia called _____ anemia.
a. microcytic
b. megaloblastic
c. pernicious
d. aplastic

 

 

ANS:   B

Megaloblastic anemia can be caused by a lack of folate. It is a particular risk during pregnancy because of the increased fetal growth demands. Growing teenagers who do not eat healthily and those who smoke also may be at risk for this type of anemia.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    110                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. The B vitamin predominantly found in foods of animal origin is
a. pantothenic acid.
b. niacin.
c. thiamin.
d. cobalamin.

 

 

ANS:   D

Because cobalamin occurs as a protein complex in foods, its sources are mostly of animal origin.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    112-113          MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. Vitamin C deficiency is associated with
a. scurvy.
b. beriberi.
c. pernicious anemia.
d. megaloblastic anemia.

 

 

ANS:   A

Extreme vitamin C deficiency is associated with scurvy. It is a hemorrhagic disease with diffuse tissue bleeding, painful limbs and joints, thickened bones, and skin discoloration from tissue bleeding. Bones fracture easily, wounds do not heal properly, gums are swollen and bleed, and teeth loosen.

 

DIF:    Easy                REF:    105                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. A 62-year-old woman who smokes 1 pack of cigarettes a day and whose food intake records reveal a minimal intake of vitamin C foods may be at risk for
a. easy bruising and pinpoint hemorrhages.
b. cracked and bleeding lips.
c. fevers and infections.
d. neurologic disorders.

 

 

ANS:   A

Signs of vitamin C deficiency are tissue bleeding, including easy bruising and pinpoint skin hemorrhages. Smokers deplete their supply of vitamin C more rapidly than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoke is a source of environmental free radicals, and vitamin C is needed to break down toxic compounds in cigarette smoke.

 

DIF:    Easy                REF:    104-105          MSC:   Application

 

  1. An example of a meal high in vitamin C is
a. bacon, lettuce, and tomato sandwich and strawberries.
b. hamburger, French fries, and salad.
c. pasta salad, whole-grain roll, and apple.
d. nachos with refried beans and salsa.

 

 

ANS:   A

The best sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, berries, melons, peppers, broccoli, potatoes, and yellow vegetables.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    105                  MSC:   Application

 

  1. Phytochemicals act as
a. vitamins and minerals.
b. cofactors and enzymes.
c. antioxidants and hormones.
d. antibiotics and antifungals.

 

 

ANS:   C

Phytochemicals act as antioxidants and hormones. The beneficial effects of phytochemicals are believed to result from synergistic actions of multiple nutrients as opposed to acting as an isolated compound.

 

DIF:    Hard                REF:    117                  MSC:   Knowledge

 

  1. Foods rich in phytochemicals include
a. mushrooms and algae.
b. fruits and vegetables.
c. yogurt and goat’s milk.
d. soy milk and tofu.

 

 

ANS:   B

Foods rich in phytochemicals include fruits and vegetables. The term phytochemical comes from the Greek word phyton, meaning plant.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    117                  MSC:   Application

 

  1. A young woman who is interesting in becoming pregnant should be counseled on healthy eating choices, especially regarding folate-containing foods, which may help prevent
a. neural tube defects.
b. osteomalacia.
c. pernicious anemia.
d. aplastic anemia.

 

 

ANS:   A

The role of adequate folate in reducing the serious public health problem of neural tube defects during pregnancy has been increasingly studied. Neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, are the most common birth defects involving the brain and spinal cord. Additional folic acid intake can significantly improve the folate status of women.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    111                  MSC:   Application

 

  1. A food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond its basic nutritional value is called a(n)
a. phytochemical.
b. functional food.
c. vitamin.
d. essential fatty acid.

 

 

ANS:   B

Functional foods include any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond its basic nutritional value. Such foods are also called nutraceuticals or designer foods.

 

DIF:    Medium          REF:    120                  MSC:   Knowledge

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